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V . - 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Diy,.i(e ■ 


Digitized by 





EDWARD BALPOUB,'-!;, B. ^. S- E., 





1873 . 

Copyrigbt. rooali- 

^ Digitized by VjOOy It 


^ . -■ . J 

Digitized by Google 

IVDIAN, a term empJojred to desigoate 
pliDts, and aidiiiila pecaliar to India as, 
INDIAN AILANTU8. Ailanthm oicelsa . 


mniAN AFGHAKS. Sets Afghanistan. 
INDIAN ALMOND, Tenninaaa catsppa. 
— Zittn. 

INDIAN ALOE, Aloe Indioa.— IbyZe. 

INDIAN APPLB TREK. Fenmia elephan- 
tiiB. — Corp. 

INDIAN ABCmPKLAGO, the eastern 
archipelago or Xalayiinesia. See Arobipelago : 
India. JndoDeeia. 


INDIAN BEKRT. Cooeulus Indioos. 

INDIAN BIRTUWOBT. Aristoloohia In- 

INDIAN BLACKWOOD, Dalbergia »p. 


INDIAN BORAGE. Ch'hota kalpa, Bind. 

INDIAN BUCKBEAN. Menyanthea Indioa. 
Sjra. of TiUarsiaIadica.~F«n(. 

INDIAN BUTT£B-T&EE.Bassiabutynu)ea. 

INDIAN OADABA, Cadaba lDdioA^£dii». 

INDIAN CALICOES. See Calicut; ;^OuttoD 

IjTDIAN figs. Ficua iodica.— Xwrn. 
Indies. — Rox6* 


arabica — WiRd, 

INDUN OUTTA TBEE. Emo. Isonandn 
aeominata.— Xitnl. 

INDIAN UEUF. Gannd»Is wtiva. Sea 


Houbara Maeqaeenii Gray. 

INDIAN-INK. a bhusk pi^mant iised for 
water- ootour paintinit. See China ink. 


Edible bird-nests. 

Edible bird nests. 

INDIAN ISIS. See Ukshmi. 
INDIANITE. This mineral ocean in gr& 
nubr masses. It bsa a hardness 5*5 to 5-5. 
R scnilches glasa. The colour is white or grey- 

; ; specific 
by the bloW'pipA 
and g^a^pises tn acids. It oocora associated 

•«k . B'"«>. * uo wiuur IB wuiM or grey- 

im ; ft^tre'shiirfng • traosloceut ; specific sra- 
•,'ity ; It is infustbla by the blow-pipe 
„ -*0d gtJatioises in acids. It oocora associate! 

INDIAN CATTCASUS. See Koh. : ' «met, felspar, fibrolite, and bomWtado. 

INDIAN CEDER. See Cedar ; Deodar. 
INDIAN^GE LOSIA. Celosia Aaiatlca.; : ' ' 
INDIAN CHE3NUT. Paviaindica.— )2.;v/« 


INDIAN CLOYEfi. See GloTer. 
INDIAN COPAL TREE. Taterialndica 

INDIAN CORAL TREE. Erythrina Indioa. 

INDIAN CORK TREE. Bignonia suberosa. 
INDIAN CORN. Zaa maya. See Uaize. Gli- 

INDIAN CRESS. Naaturtinm. Sea Tropno- 

INDIAN CROCODILE. See Crocodilide. 

INDIAN DUGONG, Halioon dugoiwr. 

IN DIANE. It. Chintz. 

INDIAN ELM. Ulmosintegrifi^us.— iZ(u<&. 

INDIAN ELEMI. Bee Colopheaia. 

INDIAN EMPIRE. British India it extepds 
ont 1,150, sqove milea from 8^ to SO"* JV^ 
aad from 68° to 9r X See British lodia^ 

INDIAK VJSVM ESW, Aatheinia pyn. 
thm-jT. Kwuh, ' 

^^^mOi'jLU ;±CK.-TBJSE. Artooarpus-intflgri- 

• -rNiDlAN JALAP. Ipomoea turpetbnm. 

INDIAN-KINO. Dried juice of ^uteafnm- 


INDIAN LABURNUM, Gatda Urtula.— 


INDIAN LILAa Aadirtefata Ihdica— ^ 


INDlANHADDER,Iu]i.nedyot«> umbel. 
lataZow.— A. See pyea MttDjit. 

INDIAN MAHOGANY. Osdnia toiia. 

— Box&. 

INDIAN MALLOW. Abutilon Indienm^ 
Don. Country Mallow. See Ohay. 

INDIAN MA TA. See Rama. 


INDIAN MULBERRY, Moriada ottrifolia^ 
— jSmw. 

INDUN MYRRH., in Sonpe a eommer- 
oial namft to a substance annnised to be pro- 
duced from a species of Amyria. It ia snppos- 
ed to be the googol of the bazars. 

INDUN NAVY.— The first name wss that 
ot Bombay Marine^^i^Jt^eyjreiajB^^yed in 


nn>UK ocmks. 

Buppresaiog piracy and Blarery and in eondaot- 
ing all political questioDB in the Persian Gulf, 
Bed Sea, and African coaati. 

Steam Sbip'sja 18<56. 

Aaaayc 200 


Ajilaha .__ 

Assyria (River S. Boat) „. 


Comet (Kiref "S; Boat) 
Chenaub (do) 
Conquerer (do) 
PerooK ..• .... 
Lady Canning 
Indus (River S. Boat) 
JUIum (do) 
Napier (do) 

Kimrod ... 

Ponjab 200, 700 

Planet (Biver S. Boat) ... 52; 60 
Dalhousie ... ... 

Prince Arthur ... 
Pleiad • 

Satellite (BlTer 3. Boat) 
Snake m. ... 

Victoria ,,. «u« -tfow 

Zenobia 200 .23,0 

Coromandei l^'^'^^Q 

hit H, Havelock 



Bit H. Lavrence, 


Lady Falkland 

Mootnee (Wooden Flat) ... 
Euphrates (Iron do) ,., 
Sutledge (Inn Flat) 
Beeaa (Iron do) 
Kavee (Iron do) .. 
Nitocris (Iron do) .. 
Ethersey (wooden do) 
Kotree (Iron do) .. 
Keddywany(Wooden do).. 
Tatta (Iron do) ^. 
Curaetjee (Wooden do) ., 

Sailing Veaads. | 











Mahi • •! 







Marie ... ,«, 







Oeort^iana ... ... ... 



Charlotte, «. 







Augusta ... ^ 



Sailing Vessds. 


1 Tons. 



Acbar (Beoeiviiig Ship) 




Beemah (Paltamai) 

• *« 



Gliro M. ^ 


Conatanoe ... 












The Indian Navy was abolished in 1862. 
In consequence of the refusal of the AdmiraUy 
to receive Indian officers into the Boyal Navy, 
a Bomb'<y marine vas {prmed for the transport 
of troops and stores, and other civil duties, OD 
the same footing aa the Bengal marine and hot 
under martial law. Captains of seven yeara* 
standing and all officers who had completed 
30 years' service according to the old, or 26 
years in India ondn the new. forlongh rela- 
tions, retired upon a penaion of £450, retain- 
ing their right to auoceed to the Senior List 
Pension of £800' in their turn, or upon a pre- 
sent pensiou of £550. giving up their right to 
the higher annuity. Captains of leas standing 
£iOO, with the riftht to succeed to the higher 
sponsion or £450^ waving that right. (3oin- 
dflftde^s whose appointments dated prior to 
:t^31, £450, after 1831, £400, all officers 
tiriis retiring to have the honofanr rank 
m{ Captain in the Indian Navy. The 24 
ienior Lieutenants retired with the rank of 
Commander, and received £300 per annum. 
The next 24 Lieutenants £250 ; and the re- 
maining 20 Lieutenants £200. The 1 2 Senior 
Mates £150 eaeh; All Uates who have been 
thiree years on the List, £ISS ; these cheers to 
rank as Lientenants. AU other Mates, £100 
each. Each Midshipman £10. The six Senior 
Pursers retired on £800 ; the next six on 
£250 ; and the remaining II on £200. Eadt 
Captain's Clerk received a pension of £60. 

INDIAN NETTLE TREE, Celtis orien- 
talis ; Sponia orientalis, Voigt. 

INDIAN OCEAN— The Gulf Stream of 
the Eastern Seas, issues from the Bay of Ben- 
gal, passes through the Straitaof Malacca, and 
sweeps to the north along the Asiatic coast 
modifying the climate. It is called* by the 
Japanese Kuxo-Siwo and debouebea to the 
Philippine islands, and thence raahea into the 
great Fadfic desoibing ap are of a great eircAs 
as far aa the Alentian lales, on ivhion it leaTes 
strange woods. The waters of this eastwn puU 
Stream are of an indigo tint. Hie Sargasso weed, 
occupies the centre of the stream. One of the 
liMge corrents^li^i^jc o^S"* 



in the Indian Oeeen, ii the well knoirn Untam- 
Inqae carrent, called at the Cape of Good 
Hope the Lagullas current. Anotbei makes its 
wij through the Straits of Halacca, and beiug 
joioed by other warm streams from the Java 
and Chios Seas, flows oat ioto the PaclBo like 
another Gnlf Stream, between the FhUippines 
and the ^ores of Asia. Thence it attempts 
the great circle route for the Aleutian Islands 
tempering elimates and losing itself in the sea 
on its route towards the N. W. Coast of 
America. There is a counter current of oold 
water between it and the China shore. 

INDIAN PAPSa BIBCU, Betnia bhqj- 
pntra. — WmU, £<^U^ B. Jacquemoutii. 

INDIAN FBLLTTOBT, Anthemis pyre- 
thrum.— i7. KhmU. 

asiatiea.— Zrtim. 

INDIAN FOBOUPINB, Uyslrix ieuoura. 
— 8yke». 

INDIAN BOOT. Atolepias earraaaTiea.— 

INDIAN FBVNET, Titex trifoliB— £«m». 

INDIAN PYHACANTHA, Cratiegua ere- 
nutats. — Roxb, 

INDIA BUBBEB, or Caontohoac, the 
eoBiBon name of a iregetablis compound which 
is found in all plants with a milk^ Juice. 
The familiea of pbnts which furnish this 
milky juice in the greatest abundanee are— 
Moracefe> Euphorbiaoea, Artooarpaeese, Apo- 
cfttaeete, Ciohoracete, Pspaveraceie, Campanu- 
lacrsB, add Lobeliacen. India rubber has 
long been known to the natiTea of the East 
Indies and South America- It was not, bow- 
ew, till the expedition of the French Aeade- 
midaas to South America in 1^35 that its 
properties and nature were made known in 
Aorope by a memoir upon it by M. de la 
Condamine. And subsequent notices of it 
were sent to the French Academy in 1751 by 
H. Fresoan, and in 1768 by U. Macquer. 
The ^anU employed for proouriug ludia-Rub- 
am Tery numerous, but the tree which, 
in Goitinrnt^ India, supplies most is the 
Keua elastica, a tree exceedingly abundant in- 
Assam. All the spedes of Ficus yield Oaout- 
diouc to a greattr or less extent in their 
juices, and even the Common Fig (Ficus 
Carica) of Europe contains it. Species of 
Fieus produce the Caoutchouc brought from 
Jara ; and F. radnl*, F. elliptica, and F. 
prinoidos are amongst those mentioned as af- 
fording a portion of that brought from Ame- 
liea. Next to the Moraceie the order Enphor- 
biaceze yields the largest quantity of Caont- 
cftottc. The SfAonia elastica, a plant found 
in GajvOai Bnsil, and extending orer a large 
diitriet of OBntral America, yields the best 
kinds of India-Btibber that on bnmght into 

the markets of Europe and Amerioa* The 
oaotttchoQC whidi is brought from the islands 
of the Indian Archipelago, is from the Urceola 
elastics, a climbing plant of very rapid growth 
and gigantic dimensions* A single plant is 
said to yield, by tapping, from 90 to 60 lbs. 
annually. It is also obtained from the juices 
of CalTophora utilis and Oameraria latifolia, 
plants of South America ; Vahea gummifera. 
of fiiladagascar ; and Willughbia edulii, in the 
East Indies. Caoutchouc, whilst it is in the 
tissues of the plant. Is eridently in a fluid 
condition ; but, after ita a^antion from the 
other fluid parts, it forms a solid mass similar 
in its external obaraoters to vegetable albumen. 
In this state it ia dense and hard, but may be 
separated and rolled out so as to form a 
resembling leather. The greater part of .the 
Caoutchouc of commerce is obtained in the 
form of shapeleaa masses, collected at the foot 
of the tree which has been incised or cut for 
the purpose of extracting the juice from it, or 
solidified in a trench made in the earth, and 
coagulated in thia tude mould in rolaminoua 
masses, which often resemble the trunk of a 
large tree. A part of it, however, possesses 
other forms which the rude art o/ the oatires 
attempt to communicate to it. They model 
with plaatio clay figures animals, imitaiioua 
of the human foot, and peaivduped bodies ; 
and repeatedly dipping ^ese moulds in the 
thickened caoutchonc, tbay remove the mouU 
through an opening end thus obtain hollow 
flasks, figures Of animalsi rough slippers, &c. 
The Bait Indies supplied the original specimens 
seen in Europe, and have ever since been a 
source <^ supply to the British markets. It 
comes principally from Java, but is often 
glutmous, and is less esteemed in commerce 
than that furniahed by the equatorial regions of 
America. India Bubber from ' Para, on the 
Amazon, in 1857, waa in value £139.000^ 
The imports Into England in 1850 were 
on the average SfiO tma. value £89,500. 
Caoutchouc employed to rub out pencilmarks, 
made on paper. When distilled, it yields 
oils which have a composition similar to oil 
of turpentine — In north west India, an India 
Bubber tree, probably the Ficus elastica, grows 
to some seventy to ninety feet high. Immense 
forests of it are found on the west side of the 
Burampooter, extending along the Ifeeree and 
Abor mountaias. It is a stately tree— it is 
said some are lOO feet high. The rubber from 
this tree has not answered for exporting from 
India. The expense of making is a mere trifle ; 
but, whether it ts owing to the tree having 
been aocnstdmed to a ooldor climate^ or from 
some ohemical property in the rubbcor, it can- 
not bear the heat of a passage to Europe. It 

in cold oluute^ it il equal (o othenDObezs.— 


Bonj/tu^e America, page i^S. Beportt of the 
Great Exhibition of 1861, Frincipla of 
Sdentijio Botany ; Gregory. Hand-book of 
Organic Ohemetry in Eng. Cyc. — 2V(w*. 
S,oyoil At. 8oc. RoyU^ Froduetive Betource* 
of India, page 76. Tomii3uo9, pp. 297-999- 
See Caoutchouc. 

album and Sandoricumindioam.— Oov.. 

INDIAN SAKSAPAftUiLA, Hraiidfluaiu 
IndieiU' — Rhode. 

INDIAN SC[TAMINa£. See Kounpteru. 


INDIAN SHOT. Canna Tndica.— iw«. 

INDIAN SILVER FlU., Pintu nmthiana, 
Wall, Abies Smithiana. Booker. 

INDIAN tAMARISK. Tanurix Indica. 

INDIAN TEA. Baadk alba. Xtw. 

INDIAN TOBACCO. Lobelia inffata. 

INDIAN TR££ SPURGB. Eiiphoibia tini- 
eallL— Xtfut. 

INDIAN TITBNSOL, Crozophora plicala. 
Ju8t. also, Hdtotropium Indicum Syn. of 
Haridium iDdicom.—iSeAiirt 

INDIAN VALERIAN. Valeria Jatamanri. 

INDIAN WILD BOAB. See Boar^ Hog : 
Uammalia ; Sa>. 

INDIAN WOLF. Cania lopui.— £»«. 

INDIAN WORM-WOOD, ArtBmisialDdica. 

INDIAN YELLOW, a dje procared from 
the urine of the cow, after eating decayed and 
yeUow mango leavea ; other autboriiie* refer 
it to camera dang. Analysis ahows it to be 
compoaed chiefly of purreio aad, combined 
with magnesia. Its name, in some parte of 
the East, is Purree. — SimmomePt JHft, 

INDICATORINJS, a sub-family of birds 
of the Eamily FiMdsa, which may be thus shown, 
Fanu PicidflB. 

StA-fam. CaropephilenEe, 6 gen. 16 sp. vis. 
1 Campephilna, S Hemicercus, 4 Hemilophue, 
3 Chrysocolflptes, 2 Brachypterus, and Tiga. 

Sub-fa». Gecininee. 4 gen. 19 sp. viz., 12 
QeoDnf, 1 Oadnealaa, 3 MQiglyptes, 8 Hi- 

Stib'fm^ TUflXOBf % pa- 15 ip;, viz., 1 

^%b/am. TSoemiiinn, t gen. 3 ap. viz., 

j^jff Tanoine, 1 gen. I sp, viz., I 

Sit&-fiun* Indicaloriase, % gen. 1 8p..Yiz.j 1 

Indicator xantbonotu$. See, Birda^ 
INDICOLlTR, A viirifty of Tourmaline. 
1NDIC0FLKUSTF,3, ^ naipe of CovQU. 
Ij^^^(jij6. Fft.ChJiaU. 

INDIGO, DwT. Eng. Tb- Ger. 

Indaoo It. 

"SiUi (dye) Malat. 

NU, Ail Gut HWD. Pra 

Malc-ay^ Bubk. 

Cfaamno-la, Oooh-Chis. 

Tamm (plant.) 
Anil Poet. Sp. 

GiiU OOB. Xznidik Bus. 

LU ,.-....HiND. KUi, 9am- Tah. TSL. 

The plants which ftfford Indiira dye are 
grown bhiefiy in the E«Bt and West Indies, 
in the middle regions of America, in Africa, 
and in Europe, and are mosUy species of the 
genera IndifEofera. TsBtiB^Tephroaia and Nertnm. 
Indigofera tiiictoria furnisheB the chief indigo 
of commeroe, produced in Bengnl, Malabar, 
Madagascar, the Isle of France, and &t. 
Domingo, The Indigofera disperma, a plant 
cultivated in the Eiist Indies and America, 
grow* higher tb»n the preceding, is woody, and 
fumishea a superior dyMtufr. The GualainaUi 
Indigo cornea fprn tbia species. Indigof^a 
anil grows in the same countries, and also in 
the West Indies. The Indigofera sigeotea, 
which flourishes in Africa yields , little indigo, 
but it ia of sn exoallent quality. ^ According 
to Mr. Kmmonds, I. psendotinctoria, cultivat- 
ed in the East Indies, famishes the best ot 
all. I. glauoa is the ^ptian and AiwUan 
species. There are also the I. ^nerea. I. erects 
(a native of Guinea), I. hirsute, 1. glabra, 
and several others, common to the East, 
Indigo of an ezcdient quality has been ob- 
tained in the Eaat from Gymnema tingens or 
Asclepiaa tingens, a twining plant. The 
Cicer arieLinum or grnna plant ia also a aonrce. 
Species of Huellia furnish the well known 
Room dye of Asaam and the Chinese obtain a 
blue dye from the Rnetlia indigotica, another 
species of this g^nus, as also from the Isatis 
indigotica of Mr. Fortune. The Wrightia 
tinctoria, of the East Indies, an evergreen, with 
white blosBoms, afforda aom« indigo, aa do 
the Isatis linotoria, or Wead, in Europe, and 
the PolygOBum tioctonqm, with rad flowery 
a native of China. Baptists tineboria furnishes 
a blue dye, and is the wild inc^goof ^e United 
Sta£es. Plants of other genera are also eni# 
ployed for obtaining Indigo— ^s Maradenia 
tinotoris, Galega tinctoria, but especially the 
former. Dr. Bancroft (voL i, p. 190) also ad- 
duces Spilantbea tinctoria. Scabiosa auccisa, 
cheiranthus fenestralis ajso a species of Big- 
nonia and a Tabemaemontana, on, the African 
coast, with Aio^pha fruticoea and Saphora 
tioctOTia, as all yielding a blue dye, or 
coarse aorta of indifto. Indigo is at preaent 
grown for oommennal purposea largely in 
Bengal, and the other provinces of that IPren- 
dency, from the 20th to the 30tb deg. of north 
latitude ; in (he provinces of Tinneveliy, Cnd- 
dapah and the two Araots of the Madras Pre- 
Isidency; in. Java, in the hirgest of the Philip- 
pine islands, in Gantemain, Caraocas, Central 
America and Brg^il^ou i^^Of^^wltivatcd 



ut some of the West IndU islsnds, especisUf 
Sl BoMogo, but not in large quaotiiies. 
In^go grows wild io serenl parts of Fatestine, 
bat attention seems not to bave been given to 
its cultiratton or collection* On the eattent 
and western co^ts of AfrieSf it ia indigenous ; 
at Sierra Leone, Natd, and otber plM«s it is 
foand abandant. — Bengal is, however, the 
flhief mart Tor indigo, and the quantity produc- 
ed in other plaoes is eonqparaiivdy loeonsider- 
abk : — When America beeame Icnown to Dnro- 
peaoB, its indigo became to them a principal 
object of cultivation, and against their skill 
the native of Itindostan bad nothing to oppose, 
bat the cheapness of bis idmple process of 
manafaetore. The profit and extent of the 
trade early induced Europeans to euttivate the 
plant io fUadostan ; but the superior article 
nanufactured by the French and Spaniards \a 
the West Indies, would long have held the pro> 
dsce of India in subordination, if the anarchy 
and wars incideBt to the French £ev(rfutiwi, 
espeoially when they reached St. Domingo, had 
not almost annibUated the trade from the West, 
and oooseqaeatly proportionally fostered tliat 
in the East. The indigo produoa of St. 
Domingo wu nearly as large as that of all the 
other Weal India iuands together. From the 
time that the negron revolted in that ifland, 
the eoltivatioa of indigo increased in Hin- 
doatan. Since the year 1833, in Bengal, the 
cultivation of the Indigo plant and manufBcture 
of Indigo have greatly fslkn off, for Indigo 

?UnUng, is now hunted out of the Lower 
'rovinees, though once the pet scheme of 
Bevenue Boards and Governors General in 
CooBcal. In the troubles which followed 
the famine of 1769, the cultivation had 
deelined ; during the years which followed 
1786, Lcgrd Corowallis, and with hiin Sir John 
Shore, re<«st8blished it under extraordinary 
prinl^es. Minute accounts of how the 
plant should be grown and the drug beaten 
ont, written by high officials, appeared in 
the public prints ; the Company's servants 
won pmaitted, — nay, encouraged,— to remit 
their savijigs m Indigo mvestments, in spite of 
the ctoakii^ ot an alarmist who foretold the 
Ulure of sueh efforts by reason of the manufac- 
ton having been aocceasftilly introduced into 
the Bmcils, which were nearer the European 
market. For a time, indeed, tite Government 
was shy of actnaUy engaging in the eultivation 
and eontented itself with winking hard at its 
offieem who were wilting to venture on their 
own aeemint. But the revival of the Indigo 
Planting, whieh took place in the ten years 
salMequent to 1786, was eondncted* under 
the Mtpicea «f Government, though at the 
rnk of ita Commercial Besidents* Fw long 
it coatinned to be the most profitable 
part of theae officcxs' private trade, and 

more than one great Calcutta House owes 
its origin lo their operatioiia. The VHlleys of 
the Damoodah and of the Adjie, and indeed all 
Burdwan, are dotted with factories bt-Ionging 
to an ancient firm, whose Indigo atill bears the 
initials of Mr. Cheap, Commercinl Besident at 
Soooamookey. As independent merchatita gra- 
dually found entrance into the country, the 
secrets of Indigo planting bcfann' better 
knonn, and the old Beaidcnts found what thn 
had long been accustomed to consider their * 
private preserve, intruded upon by sirangen. 
The first kind of cultivation whieh they yielded 
seems to have been sugar-cane, but in defence 
of their monopoly aa Indifto Pknlers the; 
made a determined stand. The few who under- 
stood the signs of the times compromised 
matters by taking a private capitalist into 
partnership, but the migority could hit upon no 
better plan for preserviufi their righla than 
harrassing their rivals. But individual jea> 
louies and penal enactments were alikepowertess 
to stop the advanciofE rush of British enterpriee, 
and io 1818 the restrictive system finally broke 
down. £Dglishn>ea oould not bny lands in 
Qengal in t&ir own names, but thc^ could trade, 
whne they pleased, and it waa wsy enough to 
own land in the name of another. The private 
trade of the Commercial Besidents, like the 
more magnificent operations of their masters, 
oolUipaed and Indigo Planting entered on the 
second stage of its history. 

Indigo is peculiarly Indian in its origin and 
takes its name fram India. It was known to, 
and in constant use, amongst the Greeks and 
BomaoB ;and is mentioned especially by Arrinn 
in bis Periplus as i^lported by way of Eg^ pl 
from the connti^ iri the vicinity of the Indus* 
It was known to the ancients as a product of 
the countipr.. " Indicum," says Pliny, " comes 
from Indm^ and is obtained from a sUme 
adhering to reeds, it is black wh^ rubbed but 
a fine mixture of purple and blue whrn dis- 
solved. He adda, '* that the genuine Indicua 
may be known by the vapour it emits on being 
heated,'* and that it " emits a smell like the 
sea, whence some have supposed it to be ob- 
tained from rocks. So bo<xi as the Cape route 
was discovered, the Tenetians, the Fortugueee, 
the Dutch, and subsequently the English im- 
ported indigo amongst otherarticles of the dye 
and dfy-aaliery trade. Before the introduction 
of indigo, woad was used for dyeing bliiP, and 
tfie cultivatora of this plant io Enftland and 
on the Continent endeavoured to prevent the 
use of indigo, which, by a decree of the Ger- 
man Diet in 1577, was declared to be "a per- 
nicious, deceitful, eating, and eonosive dye." 
Early in the seventeenth century it became 
of increasing consumption among the dyers ; 
so much so mdeed as to interfere scrioudy with 
the trade in wo94\ Mv^^, 1°. JppJ^PPv.^'^ 



aathoritiea of tbat age of any commercial in- 
novation, or of any encroBchment upon vested 
righta, that, in the year 16(14, the use of this 
artiele, whiijh was called *' the DeTirs dye/' 
was, by imperial proclamation strictly forbid- 
den within the Anstrian dominions, and the 
people of Nurembei^ oompelled the dyers of 
their city to take osth each year, that they 
woold employ np indigo in tfa^r work- Des- 
pite imperial edicts and Norembergers* oaths, 
'tliis dye continued to find faTour generally 
tbroujiihout Borope ; and indifferent as was the 
article pMduced iu those days, the trade be- 
came one of considerable value until the dose 
of the seventeenth century, when the Eastern 
Indigo WAS driven from the Guropeaii markets 
by the active competition of the West Indian 
planters and th« colonists of America. Sub- 
seqnentlyi however, when the States dedared 
their independence, and the cultnreof the West 
ludian plant was neglected for other artidu, 
the English fi, I. Company resumed their 
dealings in it, and by giving all the encou> 
ragement in their power, not only to NiiUre but 
to European planters, they succeeded, after 
a number of years, in establishing Vhe manu- 
fucture of indigo on such a firm fooling, that 
the Bengal article at last ranked the highest 
in public estimation, having fairly drireu all 
competition from the field. It is highly pro- 
blematical, however, if the manufacture of 
indigo in British India would have arrived at 
its present state of prosperity but for ihe spirit 
evinced by the Directors of the Bast India 
Company, who, in the teeth of losing markets, 
eonttnued to make extensive purchases of the 
arti(^ from the European planters, ■ shippini; 
thai iaveatment to a eertdn loss, until, after 
a series of yeart, the agriculture of the plant, 
and the chemistry of the manufacture, beoune 
so thoroughly invisstigated, and received so 
many improvements, as to plaw the trade 
beyond the necessity for any further fostering. 
The first, or London East India Company, 
carried on a very profitable trade in this dye 
for upwards of a century • purchasing it from 
the native makers at about a shilling the pound 
and selling it at five times that price. Be- 
tween the years 1664 and 1694 their imports of 
the article into Great Britain did not exceed 
60,000 lbs. annually. In those days the scene 
of thft native manufacture of indigo of the finest 
quality was at Agra. Lahore contributed a 
good article, as did the Golconda country. The 
inferior sorts came from Surat, Berhampoor, 
Indore, Oudh, and Bengal. At ihe present 
time the finest indigo is manufactured in the 
Bengal presidency, where it has been found that 
both soil and season are highly favourable for 
the culture and development of the plant. A 
oonaiderable quantity, about 4,000 chests, is 
produced in ud about the yiduitjr of Madras, 

some of which is of superior qualily; Towerdfl 
the close of the last century, about 1786, the 
shipments of indigo to Great Britain amounted 
to 34S,000 lbs. the quantity for 1795 shipped 
was 3.644,710 lbs. ; for 1799, at 4, 571,420 
lbs. ; for 1810, at 6,5S0,874 lbs, ; and for 
1848.9, at 9,9SO,000 lbs., of which three- 
fourths Were sent to Great Britain. During the 
nine years which preceded the opening of the 
trade with India in 1814, the annual averse 
produoe of indigo in Bengal, for exportation, 
jras nearly 5,600,000 Iba. But the exports 
during the sixteen years ending with 1819-80, 
were above 7,400,000lbs. a year. The oonsump- 
tion in the United Kingdom has averaged, dur- 
ing tlie ten years ending 1858,about S,500.OO0 
lbs. a year. In 1889-40 the export of indigo 
from Biadras amounted to 1,888,808 lbs. A 
smaH quantity is also exported from the 
French settlement of Fondicherry. In 1837 
the export from Manilla amounted to about 
2S0.000 lbs. The export from Batavia in 1841 
amounted to 9JS,69S lbs. and the produe- 
tbn in 1843 was double that amount. Tfae 
annual exports of indigo, from all parta of 
Asia and the Indian Ardiipelago, were takeo 
by M'CuIloob. io 1840, to be 13.440,0U0 lbs. 
The imports are about S0,000 chests of 
Bengal, and 8,000 from Madras annually, of 
which 9,000 or 10,000 are used for home 
consumption, and the rest re-exported. The 
total crop of indigo in the Bengal Presidency 
ranged, between 18S6 and 1855, at from 
lOO.OUO to 17S,000 factory maunds ; the 
highest crop was in 1845. The factory maund 
of indigo in India is about 78 lbs. In the 
delta of Uie Ganges, where the best and largest 
quantity of indigo is produced, the plant lasts 
only for a ^gls seasoB, bang destroyed by 
the periodical inuodalien, but the diy central 
and western ||irovinces, one or two ratoon 
crops are obtamed. 

But though Qreat Britain largely imports 
Indii;o, it only retains a smalt part <rf it 



























SO, 878 
St, 109 


17, G» 

(br Hoow 



Stock Slrt 





good MB- 


Per lb, 


If. M. 



' The Taliie of the indigo imported into Orett 
Britain ranges from 2 shillings to seven shil- 
lings the pound. The exports (rom India 
are chiefly to Great Britain, Americsi /Prance 
and other Earopean countries, and the expnis 
have been as ander ; 



1- S 

2- 3 

3- 4 

6- 7 

7- 8 

8- 9 



5- 3 

3- 4 


6- 6 


7- S 

8- 9 










The culture of indigo is very precarious, 
Boi only in so far as respects t^e growth of 
the |dattt from year to year, but.alio as regards 
tiie quantity and qn^ity of the drug which 
the same anwunt of plant will afford in 
the saine season. Tbe fixed capital required 
in tbe maniifactare consists simply of a few 
v^.of oommoii masonry for steeping the 
plaat, and precipitating the coloring matter ; 
a boiliag ud drying honse, and a dwelling for 
the plantar. Thus a factory of . ten pairs of 
nt% capable of produciug, atan average,! S,fiOO 
lbs. of udigo, worth on the spot ^,600, will 
Bot ooataboiKe £l»500 sterling. Tbe bnild- 
ingsand maafaiaery necessary to produce an 
eqoal Taloe in sugar and rum, would -jwobably 
coat abont £4,000. The indigo of Bengal is 
dirided into two cksses, oallet^ in oomnjercial 
langnage, Bengal and Ondh ; the first ^ing 
th/b prodnoe of the southern provinces of Beogsl 
mmd Behar, aUd tbe Inst that of tbe northern 
pforiaees, and of Benares. The first class is 
in point of quality mnoh superior to tbe other, 
fno iofniority of Uie Oadh indigo is thooght 
to be more the result of soil and elimate, than 
of any diffawnee ia de akiU with which tbe 
■aBuutan is flond«eted.r The indigo of 
Mtdntt wbidi is superior to tbat of Manila, 
ia a&oat equal to (nrduary Bengal indigo. The 
produce of Java -is superior to these. Large 
qoantitica oi indig Or of a very fine quaEty, are 
grown in 8indbL Ur, Wood, Deputy Collec- 
tor (tf Snkkur, ia of opuion tJiai Sindh i» much 

better suited than Bengal for the production of 
this dye-atuff— the alluvial soil on the banks of 
tbe Indus is equal in richness to that on those 
of tbe Ganges, and the climate seems eqnally 
well suited for the growth of the plant. But in 
two years out of three, the crops of the Bengal 
plants are injured by ezcesnve inundations, 
while the work of gathering and manipulation 
is necessarily performed during the rainy season 
under tho greatest imaginabto disadvantages. 
In .Sindh, on .the other handy the inundation of 
the river ia produced almmt solely from tho 
melting of the snows in the Himabya^ and it 
is not liable to those ezeessive lUictuations in 
amount, or t^at suddenness in sppearance 
peculiar to inundations ofaiefly arising frota 
falls of rain. The Ganges sometimes rises tea 
feet in fo«c-and -twenty hours, and at some 
part of its course its depth is at times forty 
feet greater during a flood than in fair weather, 
while the Indus rarely rises above a fqot a day, 
its extreme flood never exceeding fifteen fe^, 
the limita and amount of the inunda^n beuig 
singulariy uniform over a snocession of years. 
Moreover, as rain hardiv ever falls in Sindh, 
and when ifr does so, only continues over a few 
days, and extends to the amount of tiiree or 
four inches, no danger or : inconvenience from 
this need be apprehended. Mr. Wojod men- 
tions that hemp may be grown in profusion 
on the indigo grounds. The districts of 
Kisbnagur, Jessore and Moorshedabad, in 
Bengal ranging from 88^ to 90° £. longilode, 
and to »1 of N. latitude, produce the 
finest indigo. That from the districts about 
Burdwan snd Benares is of a coarser or harsher 
grain. Tirhoot, in latitude S6 d^ree^, yields a 
tolerably good article. The portion of Bengal 
moet propitious to the cultivstion of indigo, 
lies between the river Uooghly and tbe main 
tbnBta of the Gangea. In the Easfc Indies 
after having ploughed the ground in October, 
Novemb^, and Uie beginning pf December, 
they sow: tbe seed in tbe last half of March 
and the bcKinning of April, while the soil 
being neither too hot nor too dry,,is most pro- 
pitious to its germination. A light mould 
answers best; and sunshine, with occasional 
light showers, are most favorable to its growth. 
Twelve pounds of seed are sufficieot for sowing 
an acre of land. The plaau« grow rapidly, 
and will bear to be cut for the first . time at the 
beginning of July • nay, in some districts so 
early as the middle of June. The indicationa 
of maturity are the burating forth of the flower 
buda^ and tbe expanaion of the bloaaoni^ at 
which period tlie plant abounds most in the 
dyeing principle. Another ucUeatioa ia taken 
from the leaves, which, if they break across 
when doubled flftt, denote a state of matu^ty. 
But this character is somewhat faUacious, and 
depends upon tbf i5«^?i4y.oj .i^linesa of the 

soil. Wben moeh nin bUs, the plaBts grow 
too npidlji and do not tuJBoieatlj elaborate 
the Uue pigment. Bright Kumfalae h moat 
adfftntageona to its prodnotion. Tba first 
cropping of the plants is the best ; after two 
mouths a second is niade ; after another inter 
val a third, and even a fourth ; bnt each of 
these is of diminished value. 

Good indigo is known by its fine pnrple 
blue color and by its fracture, which, when 
rabbed with a hard smooth substanee, exhibits 
a copper red lustre. The quality of indigo 
depends upon the species of Ihe plant, its ripe- 
ness, the soil and climate of jts growth, and 
the mode of manufacture. The East India 
and BrazHlan indigo arrives in England packed 
in chests, the Gaatemala in ox-hides^ called 
serous* The iadigo imported from the western 
hemisphere was for Some time eonsidered 
superior in quality to thst of the Esat. Its 
oulUvation, however, has been neglected there 
and the Bengal indigo is preferred at present 
to any imported from South America, where it 
■is now only cultivated by the Brazilians and 
Colombians. But as it thrives best in ' a 
moist climate, the interior of Guiana, chiefly 
newly-cleared land would be welt adapted for it. 

In ludia, indigo is produced from Indigofera 
tinctoria and Wrightia tinctoria. In Nubiai 
from the Tephrosia apolUnea, and on the banks 
of the Niger, from the T. toxioaria. Cuddapah 
iadigo is not chiefly grown by Europeans on 
landa hdd by them in direct oonneetion with 
^tSr fiutories, or euHivated either with their 
own or hired atodr. It is grown ryots on, 
contract to deliver so D^och indigo phint at the 
faetory at a fixed rate per bundle. The agents 
of the Uadras firms avoid occupying the aame 
talooks ; so thst there ia no system of forcing 
the cultivation upon the ryots, who are 
much too independent to submit to' sudi 
a process- The trade is quite free and 
the system of advances to Ihe tenantry has 
done a great deal to impiova their condition, 
as wen as hoilltated thft otdleotion of the 
reveune. The eahivation of indigo is not 
fixed ; it extends or eontracts with the demand 
for the article. It has, however, been steadily 
inoewing of late yean, many of the richer ; 
ryots oahivats it and manufscture it on their 
own aeoounlt. Kativo capUalists also eng^e in 
the trade. Mr. Wedderborn Mtimated the 
cultivation and aanQfacture of indigo by 
natives, without European superintendence, in 
the ratio of 10 to 1 of that produced under 
European management. Eight lakhs of mpees 
were drawn by bills in 18S9 on the Cnddspah 
Treasury by Madnss mercantile houses. And 
eight Utkhs searoely represent oue-hdf of 
tM mm paid for Iadigo, the outturn of 
whiA, on 36,000 aeies, eultivated in the 
yenr 1860, at tn arcrage profit of Bnpeet 60 


per acre will show a value of e^ieea lakhs 
of Rupees. 

Mr. Bohde in a MB. which he furnish- 
ed, mentions that two meAods of preparing 
indigo are in use in the Madras territories—- that 
called " Karpa" indigo and which is known iii 
the market as Madras iudigo, is prepared frooi 
the dried leaves, the Bimlipatam indigo is from 
the recent leavea upon the Bengal plan. lo 
the indigo factories of Bengal, using the re- 
cent leaves, there are two large atone bnilt 
cisterns, the bottom of the first behig neariy 
upon a level with the top of the second, 
ill order to allow the liquid contents to be nm 
out of the one in to the other. The uppermost 
is called the fermenting vat or the alerter, its 
area is 20 feet square, and its ' depth -3 fiKt. 
the lowersBOSt, eidled the beater or beating n%, 
ia as broad as the othsr but OM*third longer. 
The cattingB of the plant as they eome from 
the field are stratified in the steeper tUl tbia 
be filled within 5 or 6 inches of its brim. In 
order that the plant during its fermentation 
may not swell end rise out of the vat, beams of 
wood and twigs of bamboo are braced light 
over the surface of the plsnts, after which 
water is pumped upon them till it stands 
within three or four inches of the edge of tbe 
vessel, and an active fermentation speedily com- 
mences which Is completed within 14 or 16 
hours, a little long« or ahoiter according to 
tbe temperature of the wr, the |Mrevai^g 
winds, the quality of the water and the ripe- 
nest of the plante. Nine or ten howra after 
immersion of the plant Ua ooodition of the vat 
must be examined for, then; babbles ^^»ear 
which rise like little pyramids, are st first of a 
white colour, but soon become grey, Uue* 
and then deep purple red. Tbe fermentation 
is at this time violent, the fiuid is ia con- 
stant oommotton ianunKvable bubbles monut 
to the surfaoe, and a csopper eoJored dense 
soura covers the whole. As long as tbe liquor 
it agitated the feruenmtion must not be dis- 
turbed ; but when it becomes mere tranquil 
tbe liquor is to be drawn off into the tower 
cistern. It is of the ubnost oemequenoe not to 
push the fermentation too far, becanae the qusdi- 
ty of the whole indigo ia tfaerab^ deteriant«d, 
bat racier to ent it short, in whuh enso^ ttese 
is, indeed, a loss of weighty tnt the artiele is 
better. The liquor possesses now a gUatening 
yellow colour, which, whea the iadigo preci- 
pitates, changes to green. The average tem- 
peratnre of the liquor is aommmly 8S* Fahr. 
its specific gravity at the surface n lOOl-S and 
at the bottom 1003. So soonaa the fiqoor 
hits been run into the lower cistern, tan m« are 
set to work to beat it with ears or shov^ fis«r 
feet long, called bssqnets,— paddle iriweb have 
also been emfdoyed for the sasse pwpoae, Meaa- 
wbUe tiro other Ubouiers ^^^w^^ com- 


jmrng beuH and btmboM tnrn iht surfiwa of 
Uw «pp9 nt, Rttiove the eidialisted plant, set it 
to dry tot fuel, d»n oat the resael abd stratify 
fnh pUits ta it. The fermeDted plant appears 
ttffl green, bat it has lost three-fourths of its 
balk iu tin: process, or from IS to 14 pel- cent, 
•r its veight, diiefly water and extractivo 
wder. 1%e tiqnor in the Ibwtv nt miiet be 
tUMtl; benten for en hottr Wad a half, 'irhen 
tte bidigo begina to aicitlemerate in flockt» 
mi t* preeipitete. Tbia ts the moment for 
jWgi^ wbetber than hia been abr error 
coHsbMd in titt feraaentatH» ; whiob, if to, 
■eat b« comoM by the oper^ion of betting. 
If tbe lemcalation baa been d^eeUve, mneh 
fnib riaae ia tbe bieatin^ which niMst be 
a&ijed with a Uttle «1, and then a reddish 
ia«a ippeura,. If large round granulations 
art hrmeii iho beating is oeiiUnu«i, in order 
(o see if tbfljy wilt grow: smaller. If they 
heeiHH as hiuII as fin^ aaod, and if the water 
4sv ap, tka indij{o ii aU^wad quietly to 
•^•kle. Sbooid the vat bare been over 
fersKfttcd a Uiick fat looking crust covers the 
lifsor vhich does not diaRppeat by the inlro- 
daetioa of the flaak of oil. In sooh a case the 
bntii^f Boat be modeiatedT, Whetieter the 
graaalaiiona beeome round and bevin to mb- 
siieiMl the Uquoretears Qp, the beating mnst 
bt disoontinued. The froth err scum diffuses 
itsdf spontaneously into separate minute par- 
tides, that move atMut the surface of the 
It^ucr, which are marks of nn excessive fer* 
BKstalion. On the other h%nd a rightly fer- 
MBted vat is easy to work ; t)i« frotli, though 
sbsadaDt, vanishes whenever the granulrttions 
■ake tkeir appearance. The colour of the liquor 
vheq draWa oat of the steeper into the beater 
is briftht green but ao soon as the agglomera- 
tisaa of the indigo commence it asBuraes lh6 
ealor oi Maddn wine and apeedily flrtervards, 
ia the course of beatinfr, a small round ^rain ia 
Mnietl which «D aeparaUog makea tha water 
tnaapamt and fiills down when all the t!nrbi* 
Ay and froth VRnish. The object of 
he^iag is threefold, first it tends to 
fiae^age a grakt quantity of earbonio 
•dd present ia the fermeuted liquor; se- 
saadly to give the newly devetnped indigo 
iiaicqviaite dose ol oxygen by the most exten- 
■TCCXpoenra of its particles to the atmosphere ; 
thUly, to ajiglomerate the indigo in distinct 
loda or grabuJatioQi* In order to hasten the 
pMdpitatWB, Unw w«ter is occasionally added 
to the (braented liquor in the plrogreaa of beat^ 
iag, bat it » not indiapensaUo and hat been 
Mp|MMed capable of datertorsting tho indigo, 
lalbe front of the beatfer abeam Ui fixed op- 
light in which threfc olr more faoleaare pierced a 
to mAtm diameter. Thiese are closed with plugs 
iHmg tbe beating, but two or three boura after 
3^ u Or iriAgo aabsides, the upper plug ii 

arithdratrn, to run off the iupemattci fiqoor, 
and then the lower plug* in ancoeestob. The 
state of this liquor being examined, affords ati 
indication of the success of both the processes. 
When the whole liquor ii run off, a laboak-er 
enters the vat, and sweeps all the precipitate 
Into oile coruer aild empties the thmuier part 
into a spout which leads into a dstera along- 
side of a boiler 20 f^t long, 3 fhet wide and 8 
deep. When all the liquor is once oollected it 
is pumped through a bag for retaining the im- 
parities iuto tha boiler and heated to ebuAi- 
lion. The froth soon subsides and ehowa aoT 
oily looking film upon the liquor. The indigo ia' 
by thia proeeaa not o&ly freed from the yellow 
extractive matt« butis enriched in the inten- 
sity of its colour and incased in we%ht. 
From the boilor the mixtuM is ran, after two 
or three honts, into a general receiver called 
the dripping vat, or tabl^ which for a factory 
of twelve pairs ^ preparation vats, is 20 fbet 
long, 10 feet wide and 8 feet deap«bavinga 
false bottom 3 feet under the top ajge, Thia 
netern atanrla in a basin of masonry mado 
water tight with chnnam hydrariie oemetit, tha 
bottom of which slopes to oim eftd in order to 
fadlitate the drainage a thick woollen wdl ia 
stretehed ah>Dg the b(rt<toitt of the inner vesMl 
to act as a filter, so long aa the liquor passes 
through turbid it is pomped back into Uie re- 
ceiver, Wbeuever it runs clear tht^ receiver ia 
covered with another piece of cloth to exclude 
the dust and allowed to drain at its leisure. 
Next moruing the drained indigo is put into 
a strong beg and sqneeaed in a press. The 
indigo is then carefully taken out of the bag and 
cut with n brass wire into bile about 3 inobea 
cube, which are dried in an ury house upon 
shelves of wicker work. During the drying a 
whitish efflorescence comes upon the pieees, 
which must be careftilly removed sritb a brash, 
in some phicea, particukrijr on. the voait ol 
Goromandel, the dried indigo Inmpa are allowed 
to effloresce in a cask Ibr aome tone and when 
they become hard they are wiped and packed 
for exportation. 

In preparing indigo fronh dried leaves, the ripe 
plant being cropped is to be dried in sunshine 
from 9 o'clock in the morning tlH 4 in the 
a(ter-noon during two days and threshed to 
separate the stems from the leaves which are 
then stored up in niaxbXineB till a sufficient 
qnantiiy be collected fot uuMuhoturing openK 
tions. The newly dried iMvn must be ^from 
spots and friable between the fingers. When 
kept dry; the leaves undergo in tha Ootfne of 4 
weeks, a material change, their beatftifnl grien 
tint turning into a pale blue grey preriooa to 
which the leaves afford no indigo by maceration 
in water, but subsequently a la^ qoanftify. 
Afterwards the prod^^Jjti^^J^^nttaider- 
able* The dried leara aih infinOT in tka 



ki«ept((g Tat with lix timet tbeit bulk of inter, 
and allowed to roaoeratti for two hours with 
continual itirring till all the floating leKvea 
aiok. The fine green liquor is then drawn off 
into the beater vat for if it stood longer in the 
steeper some of the indigo would settle amoog 
the leaves i^d be lost. Hot water as em- 
ployed by some manufaoturexs, is not neoesaary* 
The process with dr^ leaves poseessM these ad- 
tantagea that a provision of the plant may be 
made at the most suitable times indepencleutly 
of the vicisltudeB of . the weather, the indigo 
Ipay be uniformly made and ihe fermentation 
of the fresh leaves, often capriciouft in its course, 
is superseded by a much shorter period of 
simple maCtfratioB 

^ In his account of the productions of Humnm- 
koonda in thv Peccan. J)e, Walker weutiona that 
only ono apecies, Indijcorera tiootoria, is there 
uaed for ute prepsration of indigo, and it is 
oolteotad in the raina when thed,ve is eommonly 
made. A strong deoootion is made of the plant, 
kavea, flowers, pods and twigs being all indis* 
«riminately thrust into a pot ; when this is 
hot an infusion of Eugenia ]»mbolaaa (rose 
apple tree) is addid, the iudigo is immedislely 
preeipitated and the eupefincumUent waier be- 
ing drawa off, is dried in the bud. 

The native plan of mounting the indigo vat 
merits attention. A potash ley is prepared from 
the ashes of the Euphorbia tiniculU (milk bush 
hedge) and lime by mixing them together and 
then filtering — iu this ley seeds of the Tri- 
gonella fceuum^recura and Cassia lora are 
boiled and the Uquor being strained is poured 
into the water drawn off after the precipitation 
of the indigo and the indigo itaeU is then 
put in and some more potash ley is addedt 

In three or four hours the fermentation is 
perfected and the vat Sited for the purposes of 
the dyer. The theory of this vat is very ob- 
vious : extractive matter derived from the li< 
Quor in which the indigo was iirat boiled, with 
toe sugar, starch and mucilage of the two le- 
snminous steds cause a fermentation by which 
Um indigo is rendered soluble in the alksline 
solution. The process is more simple than that 
uaiuUy followed by 4> era in Europe, and is in 
perfect accordance with every rule of practical 
ehemistiy. There is no superfliiity and no wast^ 
and on the whole it is a most favorable apeeimen 
of native ingenuity and akilL Indigo is now, 
1871, largely cultivated iu the North Arcot 
and Cuddapah and South Arcot Districts of 
the Uftdras Presidency, and the d,ve is pre- 
pared both from the wet or green and the dry 

. Indigo has been manufactured from time 
immemorial iu the districts of Mooauffergurh, 
llooltan, and the country west of the river 
lodna eiiUdd tho Derigat- It ia wported| but 

not to any great extent, in the dooetion of 
Afghanistau. The article, as at preaextt 
prepared in the Western Punjab, is qaite 
unfitted for the European market, but onder 
proper superiuteudence it might be prodnosd 
of the finest quality, and to an almoat unli* 
mited extent. 

Indigo might be cultivated in Ulwar, but 
there is a (treat, though by no means inaaptra- 
ble disinclination on the part of the people 
generally against its cultivation, as it is loolml 
upon as ' napak,* unclean. The cost of th« 
production is about two aeera for the rupee. 

The plant i« sold in Bengal by the 
buttdlof whidh ia meaaured by a chain. 
In the Dosb it ia sold for 1 rupee, (60 cent*}, 
for5to6 maunds. 200 to 235 maundsof plant 
to a maund (75 lbs.) of indigo, ia a fair ava«ge 
product. Therefore it would oost abont 33 to 
4^0 rupees, or 18 to 20 dollars, for the plaot 
necessary to mak» 75 lbs. of indigo. 
The expense of manufacturing would be but 
littie. — Bowynge Awuriea, pag9 18S. 

Blancard'a Manual ctf Trade of India, men* 
tions what Europeans call Orven Jndiffo. 
M, Lefevre, Vicar AposloHc of Lower Cochiii- 
China, was acquainted with tbe greeu dye,^aad 
Quang-due,one of his Cochin- Chinese interpre- 
ters at Touranne, ioformed him that the green 
dye plant grows in the provinces of Qwxng-nam 
and Quang-dvte^ but especially in the latter in 
the vicinity of Hou^ fo— and that it imparts a 
greeu dye both tasilk and cotton, and he sup- 
poses it poseibie that the ftecula of the dinh- 
xaug (UDg in Oochin-Chiiiesa means grMn 
yellow) may be identical with the " tsai," of 
Poivre ana Father Horta. In 1779, Char- 
peiitier de Cossigny when notidng the dink' 
mank asserted that the Indigo pUnt, when 
boiled by a process differing from that followed 
to obtain the blue also yields a green feoula. 
Neither Loureiru, in his Flora, nor Figneaox 
and Taberd in their dictionary, make any allu- 
sion to the " iinh-xank^" green dye of Cucbin- 
China. M. Bondot aeems to think that the 
" Ttai^ and " JAnh-xavh'' are identical : and 
that the plant belongs to the genus Melissa or 
is identical with the Meronrialis pereanis. He 
adds, faowerv, that Correa considers the "Tsai" 
of Poivre to be from the Justieia tinctoria of 
Low Md Hwii- and tbe K;ristropho tinctoria 
of New. About 1790, Loururo noticed tbe 
green dye of Cochin-China, called Kim-long- 
Hhuom, a product of this plant, the leaves of 
which he describes as saturated with a gr«en 
dye^ and used in dyeing cloths of a beautiful 
colour, and MM. Pigneaux and Taberd 
agree with Loureiro in this sccount of its 
properties. The KaHovng-houng, and the 
Gkam'U^la were also noticed by Loureiro aa 
green dye plants^ OEtchiM^tiyg^^o K9y 




iMM^^Mur^r, ii the Aletris Coehin-Chiaentis 
of Lmusud and the Sannviera loete-Tirena of 
Haworth la hia Sortwjhridit eoeimeuia* Tha 
otber pUot, tba Ckam^lm-la ia Spilaolhus 
Unotoriui of Loumiro, tfaa Adeaottemma tine* 
titfiafla of Cuiini, uid both a bloe and a 
gnan odour m atated by Loareiro to be ob- 
tauiod fiooi the poanded leaTep^j><wMBi tine- 
teroBK ejtrmliam virulmque. He adda that 
tbia oolooriag matter ia also obtained and 
aqnalt} brillUot from tbe iodigp plant. 

The indigo pknt la eolHrated in' China to a 
great extent, aa well aa ■ apeeba of potjrgonam 
fcon Ibeleaina of wkioh a edov ia procured 
which nearly equals the blue obtniaed from 
indigo ; from the buds and ytfung leaves of a 
minuto delioata plant, appareetly of the Oolu- 
tes genus, a moat delicate but briUiant green 
ia obtained ; a most exqaisite bUolc dy« is 
pv^aied frun the cap of the acorn, and the 
finaat and iwwt .brilliant aenrlet froin tbe 

AUhea roeea, the parent of the many beanfi- 
fal Tarieties of faottyhock, a native of Chiaat 
vielda a blue coloring matter equal to indigo. 
Indigo of an exeellent quality has been obtained 
in tte Baat fkom a twining plant, Gymuema 
angtM or Aaeakpias tingens. 

Th* Jcnneae, who of rH tbe Ualayan race, 
bare oertainly made the highest progress in all 
tbe neeful aits, have a specie term for dyeing 
or tintiug;— " madall /' bnt the Bialays ex- 
^«aa it only by the word for dipping, " Cia- 
lup." Tat the only generic words which either 
of tfanm possesses for "colour/* are the Sanscrit, 
wanw ; and the Portuguese, tinta. Their 
colours are nanally aombi«,*^Uttle varied, bat 
gcMrally fast. Biuea are alwaya produced 
from indi^D, yielded for tiie most part by the 
Indigofere tinotoria, as in other parts of India, 
bnt ia Snmatn^ oeeaaiooally, from the Man- 
dmin tuietoria, a plant of the natural order of 
thn Aaolepiadea, '* Kulaf ' or " vasma," in the 
Paojnb, is the pounded dried leaves of indigo 
plftnt used principally aa a hair dye after the 
previooa apptieatbn of *' henna" (I^vsonia 
inennia.} The powdered leaf oflndigprera 
nail ia need in the cure of hepatitis. — 
Oapper^t tkrte Fmideneia of India. Pow^ 
eU** Bamd-beoi for (ho PunjtA, vi. p. 461. 
Mr. Bokd* M8S- IHetiotafy, 8immfin£» 
OirBmtnulDiHionorf,BopU*t lUuttrcUions of 
Mkkmalt^ftm Jo<a*y- Aajiaft /wliMn Jthni- 
wuintiia» 1170. Amjum^s^ AvieriGo, p. 136. 
TomiinooM** DitUonarf, p. 63. Sirr'» China 
m»d tko Okhm, VeL /. i». 030. 0*1, (Mi. 

INDiaOTBBA, a ganaa of pUuiU aom^ of 
wUoli an of gcMl oooMiiie nlno^ of the natural 

order Fabacese, about 160 species' are known, 
many of which grow in the'East Indies. 

•rborea. eehioata pentaphyllt. 

Mgeatea eUiptie». poIyKOOita. 

anil' CDDca^ylla pn)<we)ta. 

aspalathoMN. fiftceiaa. tfnctoiia. 

•tropurpnT«ik glanduloift. trita 

braoonia. birsata. trifolUtit. 

eoerulia. liniColw. nnclData. 

einerMceQS. muorouata. oniflora. 

diBpemu. paudiflora. violnoet. 

dMua. pedUeltata. viboom. 

There are also several undetermined spectCa 
the " dug kenti" and the " Kenii" of kaghai? ; 
the " doui^-daloon'* of Burmah. the latter ii 
tree four or five feet in girth, found both in tbe 
Bangoon and Tonnghoo diatriets, though it is 
scarce. Its white colored wood, ia adapted to 
every purpose of bouse building. — An indige- 
noos shrub, a apeeiea of indigo, is senietimes, 
in Tenasserim, used in forming a blue dye and 
a wild indigo is found abundant iti the Sutlej 
vaMey between Rampur and Sungnsm at-nn 
elevation of 7,000 feet, to rocky hills. The spe- 
cies are indigenovs in the equinoctial parte 'of 
Alia, Africa, and America, but there la some 
difficulty in ascertaining att the enltiTated 
BpCfdeSt ee the anbject ia usually n^leoted both 
by natumKfU and cultivatore.— ATonm** To- 
naourhn. Wighft leoneo. Eng. Cye. Oleffhorn. 
PvKjab Beptni. roiai, Morb. FL Ind. 

INDIGOFEIIA ANIL— ia eaid by De 
CandoUe to grow wild in America, and to be 

cuUirated in both Indies, as also along tha 
Gambia in Africa. The name Aui), vhich baa 
passed into the Spimish, has evidently the safaie 
original ffae Arabic Neel, or Nil " blue/'tbe 
Spaniards &nd Portuguese, who had found the 
way to India by two oppoaite courses, must 
there have become acquainted with Indigo, and 
adopted its Indian name : they were the first to 
maotifaetare it in Amtiicar-^lhe Portugoeae in 
BrsKil, and the Spaniards in Mexico. Sn, 
Wij^ht and Amott sta^, they have not au£Bi 
dent materials to determine if /. Antl be 
a distinct species. Tb4 author of the " Tlore 
de Senegambie" consider tbem distinct/ as do 
most botanists. According to Dr. Honig- 
berger, anil is cultivated in some pro- 
vinces of tbe ?unjab, but more for dye, tbaq 
for medicine, the leaf (Yiahaso Dauie, j>Saw.) 
being used by the nativea in hepatitis and'pov- 
dered indiga baa been employed in Germany 
in the tmtnient of epilepsy, but witb very 
unoertain results. ^O* SkM^hnm^'^ p, SBS, 
Honigberger, -pt iS^. See Pyea. 

I. CohmU.'^lM. " 

. A epecies MuiiUy stated to bo a nafiro 

of lodia. and tho .lalbo^^E^n iBr. Box- 

bnrgh might 



Dn. Wight md AidoU tiMJ» M it the 
•peciei cuUiwIad in Enpt and Barbii; for 
the lake of ilslodigo, aud, accordiDg; to Hum* 
boldt, also in Amwiea, Tho Indian species 
which hat been confounded with it is /. pauai 
fiiia ofDdille, which has aUernate leafiatSf 
and linear, slightly eompreased, toriilose le- 
gumes. 7, arfwUa is shnibbv, with round 
branches^ whidi appear of a silky wbiteneBS 
from appressed pubesoeuoe ; See Dyes. 

Roxb. Syn. of ladigofera asMlathoides. — 


iadigofm aipalathifalla.— tesft- 
AqMlathw IwUeai.— £f«ib 

LeapedflU janoea.— ITaUL 

SmU flowartd auab- ( Sbmwmm wmba .. Tam. 

thtts.^. ... Bm, I llaiiiU.«. « Xauau 
SUti almba. ... Sahbgl | 

A shrubby loir ftrowiag plnal of the panm* 
sula of India employed in medicine^ The small 
iaavea, flowers and tender shoots being sup- 
posed to poaaesi eooling demalcent uid nl- 
tcratif e pn>ptttis«i are presoribad in deoootion 
ia laproos and oaooaroua affeetiMsw Thfs plaot 
appean to be the Mnmir-U of the Uotina 
llahbariooB. Bheede UlU ua, that from the 
root of it an oil is extiaeted vhudi ia of use 
inerysipelu. — AhuWi Mai, Med, pcye 118. 

INDl60F£ttA C(fiRUL£A.-XM«. 

t Nnetorla, | l. bnchjoupa. 2^ C, 
KstdIU.. Tec. 

This j^lant gxcnrs In the Diadiftul Hills and 
the Bajahmiuadry Circurs and lUxburgh 
elates that it comes near to /. argenien. Linn. 
DeCandolle inquires whether this be sufficiently 
distinct from /. linmoria. tt is an erect shrubby 
apetues, growing in dry barren uncultivated 
ground to the height of 3 f«et, and higher in . 
good garden soil. Tt Oowers during the wet 
and oold seasons. The leaves are pinnate ; 
Or. Boxbnrgh statea that he had oRen eiiracted 
a moat bea^tifol light iik^o* from the leaves 
oC this plant more «> than he aver oould from 
the ooamoB Indigo plant* oi even from Ntrwm 
tkuAotitm^ and iu a large proportion. The 
ptoeesa he adopted wa^ simUair to tlia^ practised 
with the leavfs of Nerwm tinetarium, or the 
•eslding proeesa. — Sng. Cye. 

ftra. of Xedigotea enneaphylla— Lima. 

IndigolBra «BspHoik-lB%U. 
Hedrunun ^oitiatam.— Xim. 

Ch^n-nazingt'..'... Tijt. I Ch«to pMdM]a..J.„.Taib 
CSisnagadla Twl,\ 

Grows at BindignL Sahanmpor^ Prome, 
Begaio t ihe ezpened joice li giren as «& alte- 

ralive by (he native physiciaju in old »phiUtio 
diseases.— 0'<91*oivA(w«y, pa^e 292. Tc^?'. 

I2n)IG0F£aA aLAN3>UlX)£IA.<t-rsUd4- 
Bsrugadam : . ..Tbl. 

A small shrubby species, a native of moist rich 
lands amoiigit theOircfir mountains. Flowers and 
ripens its seeds during the wet and cold seasons. 
The nstives of the hilly countries male meal 
of the seeds which they bske info bread, and 
use as an article of diet, when more agreeable- 
food is soared. Oatlle are fond of the plaot.-^ 
UotAittgk'a Flfiw Jmiiea, vol. IIU p- 372. 



Kanti llniD. I Kiita of Eaghan. 

Kheati Traina Indus. 1 ShagaU of Chenab. 

KaUii nx Kail <tf Beas. 1 Katoe e( Rari 
Hathawal; „ ( ILaahii 

This, the commonest of tfte Himalayen 
speciea, is a shrab which Is abundant In many 
riaces in the ftlfla and the eastern shirts of the 

Suliman Range from 2,600 to 8,00 a feet. In 
K^hmif and elsewhere the twigi are largely 
used for making baskets, be., and in some cases 
they form part of the twig-bridges. In Ken- 
gra the flowers are used as a pot-herb.— 
Siewart and Ol^kimi, See ParrotU^^ 


ludigofera tinctoria. — Zmm. 

tates in the lower mountains of the P«n)ab. 
There the root of this plant is said le be ofleiml 
and to be used In febnle eruptions. It it Deal- 
sing's root fur Torkeu. — Ho»ig. Dr. SttfOAH. 

. I. 4>8anU«.— ilaiuti. 
Bremoutien aaMw^lou ftarmannl.D. C 
Jhil.,. ..^^...Hnn. 

See Dyes. 

of Indigofera tinctoria.— Zum. 
I. ladioa.— £im. \ X. Snaaatraas.— <7(»^ 

KiU Aaaaw. Bbkq. Duk. 
HiRix Fibs. SIuoh. 

TSynng,.. .BuaTi. 

Ibi^ay, Bvbm. 

Indigo plaat» ... ... ^o. 

Tom, , Jav. 

ToliUD, hxlUtVQ. 

Tamntj » Xaur. 
Amari, ... ... MALBAlb 

Waania, fiaania, Pavjab. 

SiK, Sam. 

Taj»«, — T*fl. 

Avicik ...^.i. Tam. Tu. 

Xiilan, Tam, 

Kili* «■ To; 


TUa opecses o( IndigoCon ie. gavwdlr 
onltivatod in India, whenee it has been ie- 
trodneed both into Africa and Amariea. K 

is safftrn^oose, ereot^ braniAed ; Imi^ pionifte ; 
Legumea approximated towards the baaa Ute 
nuws, nearly eylindrioal, alightly toraloae^ de- 
fleted, and noi^ zSir ),lai»«^r^d^ vpwards 


avtnm thickenecl ; teeda about 10, cyliodrieal, 
traoeat^ at both en<ls. Thia tpeciea Is some- 
timea in the West lodies, called Indigo Frano, 
or French lodigo. It is anid to be found 
wild aloud the landi of SenesBl. Jt is grown 
oeeaaionaliy 1^ Kutens and Buinese. but not 
extenuTdy. It la not very commonly caltivated 
in the Faiyab although indigo from the Indns 
is aaid to be mentioned in Arrians ^eriplu^ 
and many traoea of an export of it by the aame 
rirer to Europe are found in the hiaforicAl re- 
cords aa early as the middle of the iTtb centu- 
ry. At pieseot the chief tracts for Us cuUira- 
tion are in the Southern Pu^jo^S near Multan, 
largely io lower Bengal, in the Northern Ciroiri. 
and throughout the North Arcot and the Cud- 
dapah collectorates of the Peninsula of India 
— RidddVt Qardenuig. ^g. Oyo. 2)t. J. t. 
Stewart Panjai planit, DrtMoton'iTtnauerm. 
^g- Qrc. fMOting FUnrt de S€>^tganiX\ie* vol, i. 

laOigatin eihasM-M. M«*k 

A common bwbaeeous plant, «rith trHulht^ 
leaves and small nddiah green fiowert. ' 

INDIVAHA, or NaHa Kalava. Tsi. tiym- 
ph<Ba steIliita.~XPiEI(2. "Ihe blue Iotas." 

ISbUIflKA BA81K.— The ^reat divisions 
0f Asia are Korth, fitid, ajld BouCh-Asia, the 
lit eomprising all the mer basins that dis- 
oharge their waters into the Kotth Sett, and 
alao the N. E. Peninsula, — the Indijirka bdsin 
and the other oonntrle^ beyond it to the E. 
being termed N. E Asm ; the -2nd embracing 
Central Ana with the western basins that have 
ontleta into the Caspian, Blaek Bea and Medt- 
tmiftean and the eastern bAsina from the sea 
of Okhotak to the Quif of Leatung ; the Srd 
embraeiag all the repiainder of Asia from ihnt 
Golf to the Bed Seaj tifae countries to the W. 
of the Indus beiuK designated S, W. Asia 
and the term, S. E. Aeia^ H nsed fbr the 
eoantriea between China and India. Hie 
aaeiea^ termed the last of these India bejrond' 
I)m Onna. -Leyden included it and the Iii- 
dian Aiehipelago onderthe name of the Hindii- 
Cihinese codntriea. Malte Brun eftNs it Ohin- 
India, ^ter, the greatest of 'Mographm/ 
jftl^eaems the' Oerman mine ffintrr-Indiea. 
lulead odAtrUwr Indra,'Tnm^ngetie India, 
Aft CMleni 'ttobisttU of Indb; Ste., the single 
woffda tntniadia and ^nsindia have bMn 
prapoaed'hy Mr. Logan, as they Admit of the 
etbnie and Adjective forms of Ultraindtia and 
mtraindian or Transindian. The Tndiian ethnic 
iflineaee has been qonsidenbhi to the 9. E. and 
lie thfaiKs that the whole Indian region, oonsist- 
ing of the eontinental pertion biji^oted bv the 
Buy of Bengal, and Ae eastern Ittands fi far 
as Udiuixdaedoe readied d'Aeeity, may thtra 
be eem^Mi^ udder khe three niiaies olTodi*, 


Ultxaindia or Tranfindifi, and Indonesie. The 
earlier and wider connection of Ultraindia with 
China being best indicated by embiaeliig both 
under the term S. E. Asia.— Zo^n in J.' In. 

IXDIKE. BvRH. Ebony. 

INDO-ATLANTIO.— A designation of the 
CaMeasian race of mankind, and of their lan- 
guage, usually atj^le(IIudo*Kuropea|i. Seelndia-^ 
Iran j Indo-European. 

IND0-AU8TBALIAN.— A name applied 
Mr. Logan to the seijai-n^ro typeofmey^ 
ocout>yiog the southern ahorea of Asia. See 


INDO'OHiNESfS races oceapy tW low 
lands near the Brahonapatra ; but the term ie 
applied atriotljr to tbti peopJe occupying the 
(^untrioB between Indiaaod Chi^n.-tr-Cav^beiL, 
Jt. 49. See Ubb* Badza wtng. 

INDO-SUBOPEAN.—Dr. Priefaard ar^ 
ritnges the languages of the old worid into 

1. The ludo-Eoropean, aometimea termed 
Indo-aermeiiic, and by late arilers the Ariau 
or If^niaa languages. 

• 2. The Turanian, or as he"terma them, 
Uitro-Tartarlan tanguages, or the languages of 
Htgh^Asta aud other regtous. 

8. The Chinese and Indo-Chinese, or the 
monosyllabic and uainffeeted famgnages. 

4. The Syro-Arabieii, ofmi termed Semitic^ 

The three first of these dynasties of Ian* 
gua^B are confined to Europe and Asia, 
the fourth is e>immo^ to Africa and those 
parts of Asia which are nearer to Africa. He 
states that tiie Indo-Buropean hnguagea are 
the natural idioma of all thoMraces who at the' 
time of'the Qfeat Cyras became and hare ever 
since eontinoeit to be the dominant naduns ef 
t^ world^. He only excepts from Ihih lemarl 
those ioBtancee In iraich certain Syro^Afabijkn 
Qt Ugro-Tartarien ntttiont, ufrder kome ertta- 
ordibary impulse, as Uir ontbreak of th^ ttaho* 
medan fanatitiism, attnlndd or iteeofered t pat'^ 
ti^ stray over some of ^e weaker dfvleiotis e| 
the Indo-European race. He eoUsMme that 
the Indo-European tangoages and naNons may. 
be arranged into many diffiorent gronpa. Ibw" 
might'be dtitributed in (he order of their 
nitiea, but he regards^e moat obvious divi- 
sk/n to be a geographical one, and be atylea 
hn first, as tbe eastern grenp. Thia by many 
writer* haa been termed exelnaively tbe Arian 
family. It indudes ail the idioma of the 
ancient Medei and Pemians, who named them- 
seltes Aril, and't^^ coanity Eeriette, or Irauj 
and likewise the Sanskrit with all the Tttk-* 
rtta, prpperly-so tertbedi and the Pah of India. 
AinoDg thi( former traa tbirt aneimlF Petaiaa 
language in irtiich one na^j^ff^ of Oe 

Di^ilized by' 



cuQ«iform ioBmptioDs wts written. Thii dia- 
lect WM so near tbe Banakrit that the inabrip- 
tioni Ittn been interpnted throngfa tbe medi- 
vm of that language. Tbe Zend Uy* claim to 
a ttill h^her antiquity, linoe the Zend is said 
b; Buniottf, Professor Wilson and others, who 
hafe etudiea it most snoeessfully, to be more 
nearly allied to the Tery ancient dialeet of the 
Vedas, which preceded the oUssiesI CkknsVrit, 
than it is to this last more cultivated speech. 
But how this claim is to be reconciled with 
tbe comparntively recent date of all extant 
oompositions in Ibe Zeudish language, remains 
to be explained. That the high castes or 
twice born classes of the Indian race were of 
the saaofl stock as the tneient Persians, may 
be oonaidared as a fact established by the affi- 
nity of their langoages. The twice born dasaes, 
U kb^ tbemsrifea, are the brahmana, 
the c^triyas, nnd tbe raisjras^ or the three 
hq|beroftti0 four elastea of hindik They 
also )u,ve the name of Aria« whiob neana 
noble or dignified, and this is doubtiess the 
origin of the epithet which, as we leaxp from 
Herodotus, the ancient Medea assumed. The 
Arion hiudus most have crossed the Indus 
and have driven the aboriginal Indians across 
the Vindhya mountains and the Nerbudda ioto 
the Dekhau, wber« they stUL exist and apeak 
their native laoguages, though mixed more or 
leal with the Sanskrit of iheir Aiiau cMiquer- 
ors, for we know that the Ariaii hindus emi- 
grated into the Dekban tud Ct^lon at an early 
period. Some other Aaiatio nations, how- 
«ver, of infe^r notc^ apeak dialects more re- 
notely oonneoted with the same, group of the 
Indo-European lauguages. Among these are 
the Fushtaueh or A^hans, .ihA. Annwiians 
and the Osaetes, and soma oUiet nations of the 
oLain of Mount Caucasus. Or. Prichard ob- 
aerves that the priooipal branches of the Indo- 
Saropean stock of languages are, 

1. The Greek language and its dialects. It 
itprababla Uiai the Lydian and .other , lan- 
goages of lesser Asia, and perhaps also the 
Tbracian and Blooedooian were altered ,to . the 
H^nio or Pelosgic Greek. 

3. Hw old Eperotia and lllyrian. Tbe 
Itagnage ia still w^ known. It is the Skip^e- 
tarian or Albanian oc Arnaut. It is a dia- 
} tinet Indo-European idiom. 

3. Tbe old Italic languages, comprehending 
the Latin, Unbriao, Oscan, Siculian and ex- 
cluding the Eaaeuic or Etruspau. 

i. Probably the Etruscan was an Indo* 
European dialect, though distinct .frurn the 
Itali«. But very little is known about the 
lEtmscan language. . 

5. Tbe old Prassian, including, the Lettish 
^ and Iiithnanian, said to resemble the Sanscrit 

mon neaib than any otbec Uuguage. 

6. Tha Qernuuiio family of languogea. 

7. iptavonian and Sarnatian dialects whioh 
comprehend the languages of eastern Europe, 
Russian^ Polish, Bohemian and the dialects in 
the greater part of Europe sabjeet to tbe 
Turkish Entg^tire. 

8. Oellic 1 The Teutonic and Scandinavian 
tribes of the Qerman race, were known to Py-. 
theaa who sailed on the Baltic in tbe times of 
Aristotle ; and the Brahmans probably spoke 
Sanskrit at tbe court of Palibothra, when they 
were visited by Megasthenes in the age of the 
Arst Seleucus. All ancient Germany, Seandi- 
navia, Sarmatia, Clb>ult and Britain, Italy 
Greece, Persia, and a great part of India, were 
then inhabited by nations separate and inde- 
pendent of each other, speaking different Un- 
gusKCS, but languages analogous and palpably 
derived from the same original. 

Dr. Piiobard prefers i\9 term Ugro*Tar- 
tarian to that used by othev writers. Hegcoapn 
this elasB of languages into 

1. The Ugriau tribes dweWng in nbrthera 
Europe evtwarda t« the Na«Ui Oape of Asia. 

3. His sftpoND group of «j|tious belungiog 
to tbe same great family, includes the varioua 
hoides who, have been known asder the namea 
of T«rUr, Turk, Mongol, Mandiburian, 
and Tungusian. All these nations appear, 
from the result of late reiearobek to be allied 
in desoent, (bough bng suppose^ to be quita 
separate. In the vast wilderness extendiof^ 
from the chaiuof Altai to that of the Himalaya 
are tbe pasture-lands, where, durjng imme* 
morial ages, tbe noma^c tribes of }Iigh Asia 
fed their flocks and multiplied into thqae hordes 
wbidt from time to time descended iaimmenea 
awanna on tbe IcrtUe regions of and pf 
Europe. Perhaps the eariiest of these inra- 
siont of the civiliised worid was that of the 
Hiongfnu, expelled from the.bordere of China 
by^the power^il dynasty of the Han. These 
were tbe people who, after their lnroaij| on tba 
Gothic empire of Hermaarich, made th«ir way, 
under Etzel or Attila^ into the be«rt of franoe, 
Uwites from the some regions nnder ^ognU 
Beg, and Seljuk, and Mabiuttd of Ghizni, and 
Cbengiz. and Timur and 'Othmaa, oyerwhelmed 
the kalipbat and the empire* of Ghisa, of 
Byzantium, and of Himiuataai and lineal dea- 
oendanta of the ahepherda of Sigh Aa{« atiU 
sit on tbe throne of Cvrtts, and on that af the 
Qreat Couatantine. As a broneh ^f ^e ffgro- 
T^riarian. h^ ape^ks. of some of Ute iifsulsr 
nations tbe eastward, of Asia ai^d neaf tb« 
coast of the Pacific Ocean. Tbe idiom of thQ 
isUnds eomprlsed iu the empire of Kippan, 
as well as that of the in^epeoiieet lii^^kiu 
Arcbipelago, bears, some sitjns of affioijy to 
those of the Ugro-1'arlaHau nations, aa4 
adds that Mr. Norris, who has studied Ih^ 
JaponBw, and whose very otennve knovlfdga 
of fauguegei rmd^ If&i^i^MiV^thority ia 



wdi qaMtioiUt had aamred him tUt tbe prinet 
pie itf voealie harmony and other pbenomenb 
of tha TazUr language* pnvail in tba idwm of 
tha J^Huieae aad liakiu Ulanda. 

Ai a gronp of hia Ugro-Tartarian, he 
daaaei the abori^ioal iobabitaDts of Iitdia* 
who were expelled from Uindustaa by tlie 
IwabmilM and the Arian people who . acoompa- 
sied them across the Indus, and retired, as it is 
SDppoaed on apparently insufficient proof, iotp 
the Dekhau. They still oocopy the greater part 
of that peninsnla, and a portion, at least, of tbe 
island of Ceylon- Their idioms-^ tbe Tamil, the 
Telaga and tbe Karuataka of tbe Mysore, — 
an aiatar dialects of one speeofa, and be oon- 
iiden it likely that tbe languages of the moun< 
tain tribea of India, the Bliil, the Gond, the 
Toda and others, belong to the nme stock. 
I^. Friohard adds that professor Kask had 
ooojeotared that these nations an also of the 
Tarur stook, Tbi-ir laD^tnages have some of 
the peeuliarities of structure which have been 
pointed oat. He alao observes that there are 
some cuxions analogies between the Tamuliau 
nod other dialeets of the Dekhan and the Ian* 
g«a^s of Australia,with which we have obtain- 
«d some acquaintanee through the bibonra of 
Hr- Threlkeid and several other missionaries, 
•Btl from tbe able researches of Captain Gray. 

l>r. Pridiard'a THiao family of langnagaa 
belonging to the great continent, an the 
(ttisasa and Indo-Chinese idiraw. Th'cgr are 
•eaodated the resemblance of their strueturs, 
emaistiiig of monosyllabio words snd not by 
utif considerable number of common vocKbles. 
OUwT languages have monosjUabio roots, ss the 
Sanskrit, but tbe words of the Sanskrit become 
po^ylUbie in construction ; not so the 
iiiinese, whiob are incapable of iuflection, and 
■do BOi admit tbe use of particles as a lupple- 
noent io this defect — the position of words and 
seoieneea being the principal means of dtter- 
sniaing their Mlntiou to each other and tha. 
meaning intended to be conveyed. Baron 
William von Uumboldt Ins observed, that ooii- 
vnaation ia these languages therefore requires 
■ greater totellectual effort than is necessary to 
aMBpr^md the meaning of smleuces spoken 
ia the iuflected languagca. Ue remarkt that 
bU the nations who speak these lunguages bear 
a «cqtsiderablQ resemblsuce lo each other in 
tbck mental character and disposition, and still 
more obviously in their physical charaetera, in 
which, however, some varieties are obseryable. 
SuMgly marked aa the peculiarity of the mo- 
noaylkbio laagoages undoubtedly is, they are 
■ot aa a class so completely msulated as many 
peraona imagiue. The Bhotie or Tibetaa 
lajBguage belong to this fami^, but it is in 
aiwaa leapects intermediate between tba nono- 
qrUabie languages io geneial and the Ifongo- 
Ibn, vhiokii one of Uw Tartarian group* 

His rouKTH family, the Syro-Aral»an lan- 
guages, he says, appear to have been apok«ni 
from tbe very earliest times by the vsriona 
oationa who inhabited that part of Asia lying 
to tba westward of the Tigris. 

In briefly remarking on the progress of eth- 
nology in Ceennica and America, he mentions 
that besides much other valuable inrormation, 
tba great work of Baron William von Hum- 
boldt, 00 tbe Kavi speech, has afforded the 
important result that the resemblances known 
to exist between the nstions of tbe islands ia 
tbe Pacifie Ocean termed Polynesisn, and tha 
tribes of the Indian Archipelago^ ^alaeea and 
Madagascar, are not, as some persona have 
thought, the effect of easqal intercourse, bat 
are essential affinities, deeply rooted in the con- 
struction of these languages. For the prooh 
of this assertion, and of the ultimate fact in 
ethnolo)cy which results upon it, viz. tbst tbe 
races of people sre themselves of one origin, he 
refers to M. de Humboldt's work. The Papua 
Isnguages, or those spoken by the black and 
woolly-haired nations, are for the most part as 
yet noexplored. One observation to be made 
lespceting them is. tha^ the dialects of the Fa* 
punn races often partake more or leu of tbe 
Polynesian. Whether this arises from the 
adoption by the Papuas of the Polynesian voca* 
bulary has not been determined, though most 
persons incline to tbia.laat opinion. It is how- 
ever now well known that tome black naiiona 
have Polynesian dialects. Tbe idiom of the 
FijittU islanders, for example, is proper^ a dia* 
lect of the Polynesisn Isnguage. 

Chevalier Bimaen's names differ from those 
of Dr- Prichnrd. He classes one group as tbe 
^reat Asiatic European stock of laoguagea, 
whioh he subdivides into eight families, v s. 1. 
Celts, 8. Thraoian or lllyrian, 3. Armenian, 4. 
Asiatic— Iranian ; 6. Hellenico-Italic. G. 
vouic, 7. Lithuanian tribes and 8. Teutouie. 
Hia fourth or Asiatic Iranian, or the Imniaa 
stock as represcpted ia Asia, he again aubdi- 
videa into i— 

1 • The nations of Iran proper or the Aiian 
stock, the laagiiages of Media and Persia. It 
includes the Zend of the euneiform inscrip- 
tions and tbe Zend Avests. The younger 
Pebtevi of the Sassaoiaus and . tbe Pasend the 
mother of the present or modern Persian tongo*. 
Tbe Pushtu or laagusge of tha Afghans be- 
longs to the same branch. 

3 Tbe second sub-divisjon cmfaraees tha In- 
nisn languages of Jbidia, sqireaentad bf the 
Sanscrit and its daughters. 

His Semitic slock of languagca he constmota 
from the following ualiona wlra foim another 
compact mass, and represent one phy^U^- 
cally and historically connected family. 

Tbe ff»breu»ym^, i,be ^a^hnol Canaan 
n Faleatine, iochdin bif the ndtticiani, who 



turn^ t faaHlftiW » B^ throogli their edonka- 
tlQtf, U Cltfte uTtliB (Artbaginiknt. 
' Tbt ArflrtMiift trfbes, or the Mstoricat 

THiioh^ of Aram, Syna, ]tIe9opotaraia and 
Uabyloikin^ 9[i(;Rkiiiz Syrian in the vest, 
and the sn-cslletl Ch;^ldaic in the east. 

Pfnillyk iho A rabians, whose language is 
^MMeeted <t»\rn^igh ihfl HiDajraritic) with the 
JSlMtopic, tlie ancient (now the sacred] Tan- 
l(t^o of Abjtainia^ He calls this secDn 1 
ntmfly, by the nnrnt* now generally adopted 
ati^ang German llclirew scholars, the 8emi- 
dtti'— ^heVk^ier Bunten further remarks, as tho 
Wilt l«uem nrhieh tb« knowledge of the E^p- 
Am faqjguan tM^n^ that iH the nations 
iMch TMnir tH dm flf history to our il ays 
hftve been the leiulers of civilization in Asia, 
Eutupe ntiil Africa, must have had one begin* 
nin<!. lie nibis tUnt the researches of our 
clnj3 hnvu veij considerably enlarged the 
splierc of inch Jnii^-iiAgca of Mstorioal nntions, 
as iirc unituil by lies of primitive affinity. 
Those resenrches ham made it more than pro- 
bable that the Tartars, Mandshn and Ttin;^- 
tiAiia belong to one uta&t st<>ok ; that the 
^>lMmaii*^M well as the Tshudes, Fins, 
£M»uMr^ ind ftfa^n (Hungarians) present 
fQotbet itodb libulir united, and that both 
Vheiie RMilies are originally exnnected with 
eiieN othtir Th«a tiiftioni, wlio probably 
fuiky be reihioeit toCird fainilies, one centreing 

eonnexioD. — ^He remarks that botonies may 
either preserre the ancient foma, or beoome 
the occasion of a great change. Tboa the 
ancient liinyiiage of Tib^, which is In the 
Chinese trnditions the land of their earliest 
recoUeotions, may have been preserved by the 
colonists, who formed the Chinese empire, 
while Tibet went further in its^ development. 

In a similar position we find another mem- 
ber of that family in western Europe- It' 
there preoeded the Celts, in the Iberians aad 
Canlabrians, whose language is preserfAdin 
the Basque (Biscsyans). Those tribes were 
once prevalent in Trance and 'Spain, probably 
also in Italy. Their laftguage has the same 
structure and certainly some signs or vestiges 
of a mHtertal conversion in roots, with the 
Attai-UfMl idioms. He concludes by remark- 
ing that his historical formula respectinf; this 
formation will therefore be as follows : — all 
the nations, who in the history of Asia and 
Europe occupy the secoud rank ss to the civil- 
izitiit power they have hitherto dis|i1ayed, are 
probably as much of one Asiatic origin as 
the Iranian nations are. They centre on the 
northern borders of the Himlaya, and every- 
where in central Aeia are the hottito, aavagQ 
neighbours of the agriooUural Iranian pea> 
pie whom they have disturbed and dispos- 
sessed iit different ages of history, having pro- 
bably themselves been primitively driven by, 

in the Altni atiiI the pasture land towards the | them, a« nomndes by aftrioolturiBts, from a 

more genial common home. — He indioafeSj 
summarily the relation of this rreat fs- 
mily with tlie three grent families, into 
which the leading nations of civilization, ss 
children of one stocic, sppeiir to be diviJed. 

Himnlsyn, Rn<L the other having its centre 
in tlie Uriil ii^rimtains, have acted in the 
biiiory oi fivilization ft most powerful episode 
by conTii-at mi l deatniition. They sppeared 
in the fifiK oi-nmry the Uuns, a ac-mrge to 

ttmiins ftTiil tii'rmnn ; they produced Chengis ' The names of Cham, Shem and Japhet (the lest 

fhan^ TimarlAiig and Mahomed 11. i they 
destroyed the Fenian empire, subitued Hi«^- 

equivalent with Indo-Ger manic) represent to 
us scientifically three steps of development of 

4^(t«tsii, end they still sit hpon the throne of ; the same stock. He asks with whidi of 

-B)rkaWCtitoi nubta that of Ohina. They 
«Maa knXh^ kfiifiUke only by conquest in 
4t» ti^liW ^ffnfNtkin of the surrounding 
ai^lons, older or younger ones, the Chinese 
ftitfKnlin^ th(^ orie eitinem«, the Irsnians the 
other. Little dispnjetl to learrt from them M 
neighbours or Bubjticlp, tfaev become more or 
less civHiaecl by being their masters. They 
cannot resist the inwdird forre of the ctvili- 
nation of Ihtfir subjects, although they reptil 
it, as an outwanl pnw^er. These tribes appear 
aho S9 the onf« subdued suhstratnm of Iranian 
e^lTEHlioM^ Bo in the north of Europe, where 
thn Fiai^ Mtt pfeoeded the 'Seandinavians. 
But V» %uie great family appears also in 
Ajd»ll4|^^iaiiffttftd or primary element. It 
Beetfi» pi^dfeilhle^ that the aberigtnal languages 
of IncKft, whith nttstned their fnU develop- 
ment in the Dekhset dialects, belong to tMs 
atocfc, not only by a general attalon of stmc- 
tilHstnel aiid Iraeiable 

these leading nations is that great Altai*Unil 
family originally connected, and to which of 
these three great divisions, Ohandsm, Semi* 
tism and i^aphetisra do these secondary fiimi- 
lies more particolsriy approach. He considetl 
there is no doubt of such v connexion but nddi-^ 
that at the same time we find these langnage% 
akhongh very inferior to those Indo-Germanie 
tongues, more nearly allied to them than to 
Chamism and Semitiam. They represent like 
Cham and dhem, a lower degree of develop- 
ment, if compared with the Iranian language^, 
but a degree of their own, starting ss it wera 
from the opposite pole. The tongues of High 
Asia, form with these most perfect langii^;eas 
a decided opposition to the Ghamitie and Srait- 
tic branches. The* an more adnnoed thn 
theae and therefore utter, but to to »y, tdvine* 
ed in a wrong or less imperfect way. He i 
therefore proposes, t^^l^i^^^^td^i^mi^ the/ 
Tnranian, nA tbe udo^GenDrime ox Indox 




European tKe Inaian, followiag tbe antitlieses 
of Iran and Turao eitabUvbed by Heereu and 
Carl Ritter. And, indeed, tbe more we go 
back to the moit ancieoti historical traditions 
or the Ja{dwtie family, partioularly in Indin 
and Peraiay iba more we see how th« two branch- 
es, the Iranian aud the Turanian, though al- 
ways in ^position to each other are to be 
cMuidcTed but as dWergiog Ikes from tbe 
common oeBtn (See Lassen, lodische Alter- 
tbamskande, p. 728.) In a aote, he adds that 
Doctor MnL Untler, the editor of the Kig Yeda, 
gare hiin tbeleUowiog dnts for tiiia assertion: 
'* In the hymna of the Hig Veda we liad atifl 
the dearest traoei, that the liye principal tribee, 
the Tada, Tur?asa, Drnbyu, Ann, sod Pa- 
nt, were cW4y connected bf .the ties of us- 
tionality, and had their gods in commoD. Id 
the succeediag age, that ol the epic poetry of 
the Hahabbaraia, these fire aations are repce- 
aented as the sent of Yayati oselof the old fa* 
then of mknkiiid. Tsyati oames four of hie 
sons, and tJbue ourie of Turvasa is, to live with- 
out Uws and attached to beastly vices in the 
land of barbarians in the Nwtb. In this 
name of Tur-r^s^i, as well aa afterwards in the 
aame giren to tbe lodo Scytluan kings in tbe 
history of Eashmir, Turushka, ,we And tbe 
same root as in the Zend Tura, tlie name of 
the nations in the north. But tura itself 
means quick, from tvar, to ruA, to fiy, sod 
thos the Tory name of these tribes gives tbe 
aame characteristic oftbese nomadic equestrian 
trUies, which afluwlwds is ascribed to them by 
Firdu^, and wt^ich nukes them alwaye appear 
in India, M wdi aa on the Saasaniantiuscrip- 

tions of Persia, as the An-ir»n, or uon-Arian 
people ; that is, as the enemies of the agricul- 
tural and eivilizing nations." 

And further on, be expresses his belief 
that Wilfaelro von Humboldt has establish* 
ed the conuexion between the Folynesisn 
languages and the Malay or the language of 
MaUcca, Java and Sumatra, a&d that thii Ma- 
lay laniiuage itself bears the character of the 
Don-Irauian branch of the Japihetie family. 
Whether the Papua' languages, spoken in Aus- 
tralia and New Ouiiiea and by the aborigines 
of Borneo, of the Peninsula of Malacca and of 
some small Foljtiesian islands, be a primiiire 
type of tbe same stoclc as the Malay which af- 
terwards in many parts superseded it, — is a 
point which must remain uncertain until we re- 
ceive from the hands of the misaionxries aVapua 
grammar. We thus see that Asia (with the 
exception of China and Tibet},' tbe whole, of 
ISurope and probably of Amerioft and the Pol^ 
nesian islands(at least in their sedondary stoek)' 
belong to one igreat original fomily, divided- in- 
to the Iranion and Turanian branobes. Bunsen 
chIIs this definitively the Japhetic race. In 
many pnrts we know that the Turanian race 
baa preceded tbe Iranian : its language certain- 
ly represents an anterior step or preceding 
degree of development. In some parts we find 
that tbe Turanian race succeeded to a still 
older native element. By tbe method of exami« 
ning languages through their grammatic forms 
rather than ijy separate words Frederick Schle- 
gel showed the intimate historical connexion 
between the Sanscrit, the Persian, the Greek, 
the Roman, ud the Germanic languages. 

Grim, the philologist, *discovered aa the law of transposition of sounds in (he Sanscrit, Greek, 
Koman and Gotbio words, that the letters F. B. F. an interchangeable ; also T. D. and 
















(/00l>: . ««M 


(foil) w\«Pf 

(father) mnpi 

(over) mttfi 


(hemp) M»<ra/9tt 

(yPOBK) — 

(to break) m. *. 

(to enjoy) 


(to hear) ■ iftft* 

(brow) "sfpM 

(bead) csfa^ 

(thou) TV 

(him) fMi 

(three) 'P"* ■ 

(other) "*rMpo* 


pea, pedia 






cannabis - 











fuUr . 


bra Icon 



•(■» •■• 






Olb. Hiok 


.. vol 





















(toolh, aco) 










Scb wager) 

(10 kaow) 






(to Uek) 













cor (dii) 


























OtD High 





















The Lithuanian follows generally the three old languagrs, Sanskrit, Greek and Latin, 
only substituting, from its ilrficieucy in upirateSi unaspirated for aspirated letters, for 
iiittance :— 





(I give) 
1 (three) 


rata (wheel) 

ka (wbof) 


pati (basband) 



Leibnitz ard Lsreprde divide the bumsn 
race into Europeans, Laplanders, Mongols and 
Negroes ; Linnsus into white, red yellow ami 
blaok : — Kant into white, copper-coloured, 
blaek and olirc-cflloored rscta ; Blumenbach 
into GaucasisDs, Ethiopians, Idongcis, Ameri* 
DBBf ; and Uala)* ; Baffon into Northern (via. 
Le^andcrs) Tartarian) South Aiiatio, black, 
iknropean, and Ameriean racea ; Priehard into 
{raniani (also Indo-Atlantica or (Taucasjana) 
iSuauiani (Uongolians) Americans, Botten- 
tots aad Butbmen, Negroes, Papuaa (or wool- 
^ired tribes of Polj-nrsim) snd Alfonrous (or 
AnstralisDs) ; and Pirkering divides then into 
whites, Mongfliira, Malays^ Inclisna, Negroes, 
Ethiopians, A bytsiiaians, Pspuas, Negritos, 
Australians and Hottrutots. Maiiy of these 
dasiificfltions nre framed from eiterral, and for 
the moat part uoesseniial, marks of diatinction, 
9$ colour of the akin, colour and form of the 
^ir, or vitk teferepre to their probable crigia- 

al geographical position. But the imperfecl- 
neia of such a classification will be evident 
when it is remembered that a negro, even 
though the colour of his skin sod his woolly 
hair were to be changed, would not become a 
European, an Indian or a Malay ; and a child 
of European parents begotten aiid born on one 
of the islta of the Malayan Archipelago or iq 
Alhiopla will not be a Malay or an EtbiopiaDy 
but an European, by race, although the eolour of 
its skin might possibly sp|mwih, by elimatieal 
or local influences to that of the indigenous race, 
— (7. 0. JSntuen, Sep. Brit, Au, 1847, p. 263^ 

INDO-GKHMANIC— A term employed to 
designate the Indo-Altantie, Indo-European or 
Caucaalan race of man and the family of Ian* 
guages apoken by them. See Hindu ; India. 

INDO-GETIC— The term in use todeaipnate 
the Scythic Gefee race who settled in India 
and on its N. W. borders. See Sathi; 

Digitized by Google 




INDO-ICALATA, aMve tug^ested b; Mr. 
Lo^caa to detignftte tbe Eastern Archipelago. 
8m tfaamalia. 

INOONBSIA, a nana sa^sted by Mr. 
Logan to designate the Eastern Arohipelngo. 
WritioK in the iouraal of the lodian Archi- 
pelago, Mr. Logan nnnarlu that amongst the 
aea basins wboM ethnie influsnse has been in 
operatios daring all histw-ie times and is 
UDinierrapted at the present tUy, ere the 
Cbtna, Halttcea, Jits, MaBftkasar, Solo, 
Uindoro, .Uoloeea, Banda, Papuit, Jilolo 
Fapaaa. Papaa-AustnliaD and Papua-Micro- 
neaiaa Seat, and the ArehipelnKion Seat of 
Johora, the Trans-Jnran or Timoresn Cbainj 
the Bitayan group, the Molueoas, Eaitem 
HeUnesia and tbe diffierent Fotynesian ami 
Hierouesixn tfronpi. All these bfuins exert a 
two-foU influence. Tbey profoko a constant 
ntenonrae between the rivers of their opposite 
■argins or the islets anttered through them, 
they bring the whole nnder the operation of 
foreign ciTilisatiotts and, opening as they do 
into each other, thty are as broad hif^hnrjiys 
tramting the wliole Archipelago in differeut 
dircetioDs, and uniting it, both for foreipi 
narigators and for the more advanced and 
enterprising of its native communities. In- 
stead of tbe name '* Indian Archipelago which 
is too long to admit of being used in nn adjec- 
tive or in an ethnographical form, Mr. Eirl 
at first aaggested tlM term Indn-nesian but 
rqeeUd it also in favour of Ualayanesian. 
Tbe purely geoKrsphieal term, Indonesia, is 
suggested by Mr. Lofjan as a short synonym 
for the Indian Islands or the Indian Archi- 
pelago, as we thas get Indonesian for Indian 
Arehipelftgian or Archipelago, and Indone- 
nans fur Indian Archipelai;iAns or Indian 
Islanders. By Mr. Logan's term Malayu — 
land is nndentood all districts, whether geo- 
graphically united or not, that are possessed 
hf oomnnniiiea of Malayns, and by Mnlayt 
or Malayos is understood men of the M;itnyn 
and language. So by bisJawa-Iand is 
vnderstood all the lands of the Java race ; 
so Sunda land,, Batta-land, fco. 

For eorapound insular districts it is very 
desirable thst single geogrnphical names should 
be need. Until unexceptionable ones are 
suggested we mast continue to speok of the 
Somatra-Philippine itlands ; the Molulco- 
l^morean, fco. The Indian Archipelago mtist 
remain, bnt the shorter form Indonesia might 
be osefnlly employed on many occasions. The 
principal divisions may "be designated, lat^ 
Western or W. Indonesia, i. e. Sumatra, the 
]fai*7 Fenittsula, Borneo, Java, and the in- 
larmediate islands, 2nd, North Eastern or N. 
S. Indonesia. L e. Tormoss to the SoIoJArchi- 
pdago nnd Mindanao, all included, and em- 
teadng Um Fhilippitift and Bisayan group*, 

^ &c. 3rd, South Eastern or 3. E. Indonesia,' 
from tbe East coast of Borneo to New Guinea, 
including the Western Papua islands and the 
Keh and Am Archipelagoes ; 4th, Southern 
or S. IndoDesia, the great Southern or 
Trans-Javan chain between Java and Kev 
Guinea or from Bali to the Timor Laut group. 
Tbe different portions of .the first divinon nro 
sufficiently distinguished b^ the names of the 
great islands of which it » composed. The 
only portion of the Snd division which has not 
a distinctive name is the Southern chain which 
hits a close ethnie connection. As it is 
throughout tbe great seat of piracy in the 
Indian Archipelago it has been proposed to 
term it Pirataiiia, including under that name 
Mindanao, Solo, and the crowd of other islands 
extending from Mindanao, to the N. E. coast 
of Borneo and asparating the Uindoro fi-oa 
the Solo sea. In the 3rd division, S> E. 
Indonesia, may be diatingoislied as subordi- 
nate groups, the Molulcss, Halamaheft, Ter- 
nate, Tidore, &o. (N. Molukas, Banda, Ceram, 
&o. S. Molukas and the Keh Arus.) The sea 
basins^ that is the sens with the marginal 
basins of their affluent rivers, which are dis- 
tricts of the greatest importance physically aa 
well as ethnographically, he would ilsme a^er 
the seas. The bnsin of the Java sea will ha 
the Java bBsin,-so the Mangkasar bnsin, Celebea 
basin, China basin — or better China Malayan^ 
ko. Mr. Logan is of opinion that tbe post-fix 
"nesia" should be confined to the great divisions 
of the Indo-Pactfio insular region, Indonesia ; 
Melanesia (New Guinea, Australia and all tbe 
eastern Papua islands) ; Micronesia (all the 
istaods between Melanesia and the fjuOliu and 
Japanese chainj ; and Folyneaia, all the islands 
of the Pacitio to the east of Micronesia aad 
Melanesia as far as Easter island. Papuanesia 
may be occasionally used to distinguish the 
northern Melauesiau islands inhabited chieflj 
by spiral haired tribes, from Australia. 

As Oceaoica includes all flie Indo-Facifio 
islands, he propoaes to nae the Word Asianesia 
to indicate the great 8. E. insular region, 
whiob has intimate connexions, geogrophieal 
and ethnic, with Asia. It would include Indo- 
nesia, Melanesia, Mtcroneeia and Polynesia, 
but not tbe N. E. chiiin that lies along the 
continent, because, ifc forms a distinct and 
well dedned geographic and ethnic group. 
[Je would therefore call it Aino-Japanesia, and 
it will include all the Jspanese and Aino 
islands from Formosa to Kimtschatka. lie 
remarks that these great basins have several 
sabordiuate ethnic regions to which It is oeces. 
aaiy to advert, if we desire to trace to their 
sourMB the successive foreign elements that 
have been introduced into tbe Archipelago. 
The principal one ifl.l*? bj@b&§f e« 
which u iurroauueu by the Japanes^Luchuao, 

Olutbjr, Mamoue, aD^ Booin t^roups. Oa 
the S. it merges in tbe Mufo-Put)Hraian 
hand ; on tbe S. W, H wiisUtutes a portion of 
. the Indian Archipelago ; on the N. W. it-forma 
. thfl outer bo)ii><l«i;y tiie China-Coreaa baain 
, oa the N, it eonnectB ij^elf with the basioa of 
. the Japoneae and Oktwtah seaa, aad it thus 
brought into dircot ethnic union or close con- 
nection with ttfe E. diatiicts of M> and N. 
Aaia. Tbe Cliioa Sea unitea tbe Indian 
Archipelago primiUrely wjth the (ireat ethnic 
region of iS. £. Atia Gy tbe districta f»f tbe 
Sbngkianji;, Tongkin, Mekong and Menem 
basins, and the m^rgiiiAl Chinese «^ Anafti 
districts,— Ue Malay Peninsula, which fornn 
the western bonuding district, being ethnically 
• ooffuBon porUoa of tbe Archipeli^o and the 

This PenjnaulBT district again ^ten oa the 
.^est into the twin basins of the Salnin and 
.IrawaJi, nhich are themselves closely con- 
nected more inland with nil the previous 
basins, as veW as wiXh the great eastern one 
of tlie Ysng-tse-Kiang- The latter is iuti* 
mately connected witn that of the lloang-bo, 
and forms with it tbe twin basin to which 
the most adTaiiced aud powerful eastern 
civilization owes its development. 

The Tibetan district, tlic relations of which 
important district is central ethnically as well 
as geographically to all S. G. Asia and to 
Asianesia, unites all the preceding onee, con> 
necti them with tbe great plfUeau'of mid-Asia, 
and abuts on the eastern eitremity of tbe pri- 
mitive Iranian region. Tbe next ethnic region 
of the Indiim Oceanic bagtu is that of the Bay 
of Bengal or Indo-H^Ialayan sea which unites 
the western margin of the China Malayan 
basin with the e.istei n seaboard of India. As 
the rivers of the Indian Peninsula connect it 
closely wiih the western mnrginnl distiicts, 
the watershed being near the Indo-Afiican sea, 
while the basin of the Ganges Las its head 
nearly in the same longitude, we may consider 
the whole of India as 9 portion of this region. 
It contains therefore the district of the Malacca 
Straits, the marginal districts of the northern 
part of the Malay Peninsula, and the basins of 
the Salwin, Irawftdi and KolandfQ all which 
appertain also to the eastern region. The 
districts that ore peculiar to the Indo-Malayan 
basin, some however being common to it with 
tbe Indo-African basin, are those of the Brah- 
maputra, GangtSj Godavery, Kiahna and Ner- 
budda, with the secondary districts between 
the Ganges on the one side and the Nerbudda 
and Godavery on the other, tbe great Oekhan 
and Singnlese projection and the western 
marginal districts. India is connected with 
the Tibeto-Indoneaian region.—bindward by 
the paneg of the fiifflslaya, the^buneae valley, 

and the eastern margin ef tjie l*)«er Bnafama- 
putra baain, nnd o»»icaUy by the opaata mmI 
winds of the Bny of Bengal. 3f tbe latter it 
has also a dirail aad independeot eonneetioii 
with the insuUr^itioft of tbe &nA ngioo* ' 

Tbe IfUl^-Afrieao Sea, ia tbat pwtion oCtlio 
Indian Ocean extoidiiig frona ila K. W- 
boundary tp the Mozambik Chamal aibd ia- 
oludiog thiPeraian Oalf, Arabian Sea uad Red 
Sea. It has bad maeh iufiuenre on the eib- 
nology of BaabecB Africa. Tbe eorrespondlng 
eastern portion of tbe Indian Ocean may be 
termed the InrlorAnttralian sea. Innportamt 
ethnic consideratioqa — ^relatiag to tbe Qoean- 
ic winds,— make it fieeesstfy to -distiay wlah 
these two reKioos from the middle obb ; ihia 
with the districts of the Indiu basin, the 
marginal distnet of Bolaohiatan, (be gnat 
looKitudinai one formed by the Persian Gulf 
and the baain of the Suphiatei, tbe eostlMm 
Arabian district, 4bat of the Ited Sea, and tbs 
marginal or Traoa-Nilotio one of £. Afriea, 
foruta the next ragion« Of these, tho £ii- 
plirates and the I^ed Sea are of <espeei»l iia- 
portaiice, for by them the ancient civiluution 
of tho Mediterranean and the Nile sprend 
their influence jnlo the Indian regi^u, winla 
the former was itself the seat of a frreat archaic 
development iuielleet and art. - He oonsideta 
that the shores of the Indian pocfin were sui^ 
rounded by races in an advant^d staite before 
the seeds of a Iu>iber civilization germinnted in 
the basins of the Nile and the £Uiphrati>a, and 
that they were inAueno'td by the mora powerff I 
and populous nations of the Nile and southern 
India long before tbs later uid slowly <le8- 
ceuilisg Iranian civilizntion touched thena. 
These races included iiavigaiing tribes, otfaer- 
wiae they could not havs spread tl^mselves 
over evtacy . habitabie island of the jElastem 
Ocean from, Miidagascar lo the Ftfi group^ il 
not throughout Polynesia also. To account* 
for Ibis extension, it is not necessary to sup. 
pose that they lied larger boats than those ia 
wliich in modern times the Papujia have beea 
accustomed to make descents 00 Ceram,and the 
Sakalavas on Camore and the. Coast of Africa. 
But the far higher maritime art of eoutfaern 
India appears to be one of the most ancient ia 
the world. . It was certainly not derived from 
the brahmanical tribes of the north-west and it 
was too much iq advance of tbe Hissyaritic to 
have been borrowed from then). There an 
abundant reasons for believing that India, 
before the prevalence of brabmanism, was at 
least as civilized as Africf^ and nations wbo 
had reached this stage^ weroas capable of per- 
fecting a.navigaiion of their own aa the Citi^ 
nese, and far more so than the Arabs, wItQ 
wanted the. nurseries which the large . eastern 
rivera gava to India. The earlieat glimpse 
we haye of the coMt fif 


IKDORE. at a eomparaiinly leeent period, 1800 
ytam ago, bit it » •trongljr in fiivour an 
ii4igcjui» Mi. Ainongtt all these foreitni 
taiwuKM af wkldi the pmenee ean ba tAtuly 
traced, twn an of the widest extent and unnt- 
Mk importance. The Snt is entinly Afrtcao 
aad Indo-AlirieaB in its oharacter, it embvaeed 
tiK wbole ladian Archipelago, Anslrslia and 
ftpuiiMBia- Whether it exltnded to Potviiesia 
ud ^lieronesia Mr. 'Logan regards as still 
doubtful, bat it oertainly Inoludwl a portion of 
Hieninrain. AIon|; the aborst and islaiidi of 
the ladian Oeaan the raeca to whit^ it must 
•be rafenad appear to hare preniled, Ttieir 
Jinita area those of Bionsoons;' or fhiDk Afrioa 
4a Ptrfraesb. Wfam they thus spread them- 
aelvea orer Alriea, India, and &n ladiaa Ardii- 
pthgo, the great xutljing regions itf the old 
•dtld» tfaeie coold hare bean no eivilixed 
Setniiie, Innian, Bamcie or Sianeie racea on 
ttat sea ta binder them. 

Ike kngaage of thair population belonjred 
to a atate interniediate between the monototiic 
aiul the inieotiiMMt, and had strong and tlirect 
affiaitiea to th« other families of language of 
4hi9 stage, — the lJgro<Tartarian. Japanese, old 
Indian and Afriean, and to a oertain extent too 
tha Amerioan, whk^ Ia»t may ba considered 
B9 coDsUtuting a peenliar family. Amongst 
tko beat pnaerved aamplea of these languages 
are tha Fomasa, the Philippine and the iwstra- 
liaa. It is probabte that sons of the eastern 
Uebnesiaa languages will be found to be 
eqwUly ehancteristio* 

TUe seeond of the gveat insular families is 
Tibeto^Indian aad MAyamS'AnHm, It con- 
nects itafdf with all the r*ceB and languages 
from Tibet to Anam, but it chiefly flowed in 
throofcfa the ethnic basic of the Malacca aea. 
By a luig continned influx this family iprenri 
itadfofer Uu Malayan Peninsula, Snmatra, 
Java. Bofaeo, and Celsbes^ hot its further 
pracnness, over the many isLimIs to the north 
and E^st appears to havs been hmv ehedced 
by the older ncca-— ^ow. of tie ludiax 
Are*, Vol. IV. Am. Y.andVh May mUd J%ne, 

riaia euoallata. 

INfiONa^MOOTUBA. Ualit. Mother 
of Pearl. 

Greaka of Asia. 

INDORE, is the oapilalof the naharsjah 
HoUcar. Of the feadatovy territory, eonsbtf 
ia^ of 71 atata^ aspennsed by the Oentn) 
ladiam Agaacy^ the head qnartera ia Indore* 
biA it haa thas giaad diaisians. The- North 
Seat divisioa onaprissa the natlre atatasof 
Bnadiaeimd aad Bawah. The Northam divi* 
mm eoaaista of the NorAnn and CcMral dis- 
feiaUaf OaOwaUorSUtei. IJk 9Mltii West 

division comprises the table-land known in 
modern times as Malwa, though far ariihia tha 
ancient limits of the province of that bamCf 
and the sabmontana territory between it and 
the Ncrbudds, as alao a considerable tract 
south of that river, extending to the Kaodesk 
frontier, Tha firft or N. Bast division, ex- 
tending from Ihe Bengal Frcsideiicy in tha 
e>st to tlie GwHltor State in tlie west, includes 
Rewah and 35 other states and petty chief- 
ebipB' Its area is about S2,400 square milea ; 
its population about 3,170,000 souls, and its 
public revenues aggregate about Rs. 63,58,000. 
The 2nd or Northera diviaion extends front 
Bundleeund and the daugor district, and has 
an area of about 19,50S tquare milesf its po- 
pulation is about 1,180,000 souls, and Its 
public levenue about Bupws 67.66,000. Tha 
3rd or South West diTiilou goes on westward, 
to the Bombay FreEndency, and contains the 
remainder of Gwalior, Holkar's states, Bhopal, 
Dhar and l>ewa8 aad other small statea. The 
area of this diTision is about 41,700 square 
miles, its population about S,320,UOO souls and 
its pnblio revenues about Rupees 1,30,00,000, 
The states and petty chiefships in Central In. 
dia, form a political, and are in a natural, di* 
vision of British India, and include an area of 
83,600 square miles and a population of 
7,670^000. This territory is divided thai,— tiz.. 






BmhmiDC, &e. 



dary. . 







with a total revenue of Rupees 2R,123^0C0, 
The Indore. Central Agescy controls the 
Pirtharee ikdkoor who receives a tunkhi 
of Rupees 4,88$ from Dewas. under a settle- 
ment mediated by Captain Borthwiolc and Sit 
John Malcolm in 1818 with Mahbut Sing. 
The two chiefs of Dewas are in the habit 
of making certain deductions from this amount. 

Bogle* thakoor who is a dependent of Sin- 
din. Under a settlement effected by Sir John 
Malcolm in A. D. I8L9, thakoor Salim Sing 
leeeived Feepliu aud eight other vilUites on a 
qut-reat of Rupees 6,562 a year, and five 
other villsiiea on a quit-reul of Rupees 909. 

Saroi^a, a Takeel on the part of the thakoor 
remaina in aitendanoe on tha^iEenlJdi^he Go- 
venofQeneiaL "-■^''v 



VonS: thahoar, receives funUof andcr BTin 
Kinla [kiiJii biriilia and Holkar. 

I'aikaiea (Imkaor obtained the TilU);e of 
pHtlmmi in the jMrgunnata of Oonohode from 
Suuibliaj-^e Sad' ^gri« on a quit-reot of 
Rupties 7UL. 

Uktmffoni;, riml Singkana setUements were 
mciltnttid ljy M i'jQTUenley who admitted a daim 

to Kiipets S.^S- 

B,tf/se^ s^tlleiueut made by Sir John Malcolm 
in I81i). Furbut Sin^ and Bughoonath Siug 
Veril to iDniatain the security of tde Simroi 
Ptut aqd to retsire the taxes on merchandize 
Nwivd iu Alk Bii'c time. 

Mayne. Sctlltment of the Taiza Tarwees 
cUim ivii3 efTii^c'tL^d by Sir John Malcolm on 
2jtli JHiiunrv 1-ilS. 

J}ltaar& Kuujat-a, was settled by Sir John 
Malcolm, and was similar to the settlement 
inUh the Ta'uA Tucivee uf Mayne. 

Riiyoogarlh {Detoo$.) An enf^gcment with 
thaboor Ztlim Stng was mediated by Sir 
John Malcolm aiider wbleh be held nine 
villn^eii from Tonkajee Rao Puar of Denas 
subject to ail annual payment of Rupees 
2,S^7-S, Hnd deren TitUf^es from Aiiund 
Rao Puiir fur wliiclt he pxid Uup«es 4,287-8 a 
ysnr. lie i^^is succeeded by his son Dowlut 
Sing who lebi^lle^l in 1857 for which bis cs- 
tatea were cntilrscated by Dewas at the re- 
qiiifst of Llie :\-j:<^iit to the Governor-(3en«ral. 

Kaijiha — Hy mi engagement mediated by 
Capuli^ iturthnictk jn 1818 the thakoor receives 
llupt^es 1,'227 a year from the two chiefs of 

Khtiisee Jiialiina.—Va(\eT an engagement 
tliakoors Suroop Sing and FuLteh Sing receiv- 
aU a^nnually Rupees 225 from TukKjee Hao Fuar 
of DewaS' 

PoongJud, — Piejft Sing received from 
Slndu ft tttnklMtvf Rupees Hi alsoagrantof 
JP'eoghat and titrelve villftgea subject to an 
annusl pnyment of Rupees 4-01. 

Bhoj'il-Iitrre ivng granted to Rawiit Dooijun 
Sidg tlie villiigi^ of Seedra on payment of 
Eupeea 100 a yenr to Kotah. 

Icdore fT» captured by the British on the 
e4lh Auguiit liQ4> As a city, it is of modern 
dftte. '£htk,0^'9i the Holkar capital called 
Old tnHuti^ tirss « small village, the site of 
arlisli riaaiad Alia Saf, who eneamped kt it 
vHer the d»th of Uulbar Row Holkar. — 
HPnatks, Eniffi^mi&vU and Suttmrndk. Muloolat 
t^lmt India, Voi' I. p. U. 

INDO SC^TTHIj and Indo-seythian are terms 
employed to designate a race who became eariy 
qoaupanti of W. India. The Yucki, estab- 
VuhoA w B««tm and along the Jihoon, ereniu- 
Aij bne IhAmms Jeta or Yetan, that it to 
aaj, Qetc«. V^t empire lubsiited a long line 

in this part of Asia, and extoided even into 
India. Theae are the people whom the Gredu 
knew under the name of Indo-Scytbi. The 
period allowed by all authorities for the mi- 
gration of theae Soythie hordea into Europi^ 
is also that for their entry into India. The 
sixth oentury ia that ealeulated for the Taksfaae 
from Sehesnagdesa ; and it ia on this event 
•nd r«ign that the Pooranaa declare, that from 
this period " no priooe of pure blood would be 
foqod, but that the Soodra, the Twahka, and 
the YavsD, would prevail. All the Indo- 
Soythio invaders held the religioB of Bndtia : 
and hence the conformity of manners and mj- 
tbology between the Scandinavian or Genu an 
tribes and the Rajpoots, increased by compax^ 
iog their martial poeti;. The ludo-Sc^tlU of 
ArriiiD were a Scyihio tribe who settled ahwg 
the Indus. Tb^ attempted to penetrate £aaW 
ward by way of Kandesfa and Halwah, but 
were opposed by Vikramadit^a. The Indo- 
Scythia of the Greeks waa tkenfoie the valley 
of the Indus, Northern Indo-Si^ihia being 
the Punjab proper, and oceupted by - the 
Med race, and Soutliern Indo-3cythia being 
6iud, occupied by the Jat, a tribe of the 
Abar hordea. Phny calls the western region 
of the Caucasus, Scytbia Sendiea, and 
about this were congregated the Haidi. next 
to the Sindi and Kerketm ; a tribe of Arii or 
Ariehi, who gave their name teaa i^nd of 
Aria, or Arietas, or river Anus } a tribe of 
Maetra or Hseotai wiih towns named Madia 
and MaUum ; a tribe of Matmni with a town nf 
Mateta ; a tribe of Kottm, with a eonntrj baUed 
Kutais and eities called Kuta, and Kutaia ; 
a tribe named K(>lebi, with a EMmnttin and a 
district called Koli ; a tribe of Iberea with a 
toan called Iberia, a tribe called Buonomai, a 
district of Minyas, a city of Male, and a tribe 
of Baternaa with a river called Bathys and a port 
named Bate, reminding the investigator of Um 
Med, Kathi, Kol, Abhir, Mina, MalUna and 
Bhatti of the valley of the Indus. Tha 
bulk of the inbabitunts of British India, 
in the Peninsula and Hitiduttin, are of tin 
Turanian (Uongoluin or Scythio) raoe, and ara 
regarded by Europeana aa the earlier inhabit- 
ants of the country. They are atyled 1^ ICr. 
Hodgson the Tamulian races, to distinguiah 
them from those Arians (Iranians, Tndo-Atlan- 
tica or GaucasiaDs) who subsequently followed 
the Uougoliau tribes and who are now to b« 
found in all posts of honour from the snowy 
moontaius iu the north to the settthem-moat 
point of the Peninsula of Indb ; Humboldt 
calls theae the East Ariana or the BrabminM 
Indians, to distinguish them from the Weaf 
Arians, or Persians, who migrated into thtt 
noithem country of the Zend, and were origin* 
ally disposed to eomlHnenvitjh^tiie , dnaliatis 
belief in Omita(fi^i1iiyW6J^a«UMd 



Tenention of nfttun. Mr. Hodgson briefly snnis 
up hii Ttew« u to the groups to which the rnees 
in South Eestera Aiia betoniTi when remHrking 
that the hOest inmti«ators of the general sub- 
ject of human affinities inelude in the greRt 
mongolian fmiiily, not merely the high Asian 
nonm^es or the Turks, the Mongols and the 
Ttngus, but also the Tibetans, the Chinese, 
the Indo-Chinese, and the Tamulians. Under 
the term, Tamalian, he includes the whole of 
the abwtfcines of India, whether ciTilized, or 
UBcivilized, from Cape Gomorin to the snows, 
except the inhabitants of the great moun- 
taioous belt confining the plains of India 
towards Tibet, China and Atk. These last 
he khmks are, in the North West, derived 
from the Tibetan stock ; and in the South-Esst 
from the Indo-Chinese ttoek ; the 9S» of East 
]jonfntnde, or the Dhansri river of Assam, appa- 
rently farming the dividing line of the two 
races, which areeacb vastly numerous, and 
strikingly diversified, yet essentially one, just 
as are the no less numerous anti varied races 
of the single Tamulian stock, and Mr- Hislop 
took a similar view as the result of his philo- 
logical investigations. The great Turanian or 
Tartar family of languages is spoken by all the 
tribe* from the Himalayans to Okhotsk and 
to Ijapland and includes the HunKnrian, 
Krimeaa and Tnrkish tongacB* In British 
India and on its borders ace fonr distinct 
branches of this fiimily of languages spoken 
by members of the Turanian race. I» 
tie North, vn the Himalayan tribes, with their 
dtalMts, oeeupying from the Kunawars on the 
Bntlc} to the Bots of Bhutan in the extreme 
easL Then there are the Lohitie dot* of Ian* 
gn^ea, eomprising with the Burmrse and 
ethers of the Malay Peninsula the dialects of 
the Naga tribes and of the Mikir in Assam, 
and of the Bodo, Kachari, Kuki and Garo in 
Bastem Bengal. Nearly related to this class 
is tke 9r Jfaaifo familjf of languages, 
iBdadinc the Kol. Southal and Bhumi of 
Kfi*Uiham and Western Bensnl and the 
Mandala of Cfaota Nagpur, the.Kur or Hnaii 
and the Korku in Hushangabad, and vrat- 
wards in the forests of the Tspti and Nerbudda 
uatil they come in contact with the Bhil of the 
Tiod'hya Hills, and the Nahal of Khsndeeh 
heloag to this family indeed Mr. Hislop 
held that the word Kar is idtrntical with Kol. 
The fourth branch is Tamulic or Drsvidian, to 
wbid) belong the Brabni of Baluchistan, the 
Gondi, the Tuluva of Kanada, the Karnata of 
the Southern Hahratta country, the Todava of 
the Neilgherries • the Halayalam of Travancore 
the Tamil and the Telngu. The Knr and 
Boiilfaa! an dosdj related and are separated 
from the Dravidian. The Kor or Muasi and 
the Korku or Knrku to the North.West and 
Wot of the UahadevB hiUi, are, In language 

at least, quite distinct from the Oond tribes. 
Mr. Hodgson is of opinion that the Tamulian 
Tibetan, tuda-Chinese, Tangoe, Chinese, Mon- 
gol end Turk are so many branches of the 
Turanian family, and he regards the aborigines 
of British India, as Northmen of the Seythio 
stem, but he remains undedded whether they 
owe ibeir Scythic physiognomy to the Tan- 
gU9, the Mongol or the Turk branch of the 
Tartars or Sc}-tliiani, and whether they immi- 
grated from beyond the Himalayas at one 
period and at one, point, or at several periods 
and at as many points. All writers are of 
opinion that when the Aryan race entered 
India, they found the country occupied by the 
prior Soythie races, to whom their writings 
applied contemptnoue expressions, Dasya, 
M'hiedia. ^eae prior races seem to hare 
been driven largely out of Northern India into 
and through the Vindhyan mountains into the 
Peninsula of India and Geylnn,where thefr idiom 
the Tamil, Telugu and Karnatica are sister 
dialects of one speech, and Dr. Priehard con- 
curs in opinion with Pmfessor Hssk who re- 
gards the languages ot the monntsin tribes of 
India, the Btii^ the Oond, the Toda an'l others 
as also of the Tartar stock, and mentions that 
some curious analogies have been observed 
between the TamuKan and other dmleots of the 
Peninsula and the languages of AustraKa. Mr. 
Logan, however, who has had great opportanitiea 
of oontrasting and eomparhig the DravidianB 
from various parts of India.incKnes to call them 
South-Indian. He remarks that, physically, 
the population of Southern India, is one of the 
most variable and mixed which any ethnic 
province displays. A glsnce at a considerable 
number of KUng (Telugu) and Tamutar of 
different castes and occupations, show» that the 
varieties when compared with those of a similar 
assemblages of men of other races such aa 
Europeans, Ultra-Indians or Indonesians (in- 
cluding negroea in the last two eases) are too 
great to allov of their being refrrred to a 
single nee of pure blood. Borne are exceed- 
ingly Iranian ; some are Semitic, others 
Australian, some remind us of Egyptians, 
while others again have Milaya-Polyne- 
sian and even Simang and Papuan fea- 
tures. Tet when the rye takes in the whole 
group at once, they are seen to have all some- 
thing in common. They are not Iranians, 
Polynesians, Papuans, &e., but Sonth Indians. 
The Dravidian language, however, or one 
of its principal elementa, was prol)ably an 
extension of a Mid or W. Aeiatio formation, 
and it mvy be inferred that the oommon 
element of the Dravidian, tlis Fin and 
Japanese languages, must be much more 
ancient than the occupation of Japan by the 
Jspanese, India by ^t|^ Jffi^iid^^i^^l'inlaiul 




The pecaliflriti^ in th« pravidian physieal- 
type, wben comptred mth tlie Scythi^ are 
Afrioan anU Airtco-Semitu:. 

The m&in aflitiitiea ot the DrAviditm forma- 
iioii, tbus point iwo irayiij — the lioguUlio 
ebiefly to a Soytbio, and the physical ohieily 
to iin African oiigia or fraternity- The geogra- 
pliienl posiiioit of the Brahui would leail us to 
expUin the double lUUance by plaidiig the oative 
land of the Dmvidian etock ia Beluchistaa and 
including it vitb Arabia, or the Boutliera por- 
tioBof the latter^— ill the archaic Africaner 
Africe-Semitio era. That the Afrioaa phyiioal 
elemeiit prevailed over the Soytliici while a 
St^thio language has entirely superseded one 
of an Africatt characterf finda explaaation in 
the fact tliiit the Scythic raoea aiid langoagea, 
h«ve ill themselves an intimate. at chaic connec- 
tion with the African, and the Pravidian lan- 
guage, although Scythic more than African, hae 
^oialAfrtco-iSeaiULo affinities, ^tt is further 
of opinion lhat races may blenil without the 
different types being effaced and th&t^ while cer- 
tain exclauve or excluded castes, or ae{|Mester«d 
geogcaphical sections of the population, may 
preserve one type better than another all may 
oontinue for some ihousenda of years, to i» 
iieproduoed in softened and modified forms 
even in tho leaat aecluded portions, and to this 
be refers bis explanation of the variety of 
physical types visible in south peninsular India. 
That the Oravidian race did not bring with it 
ipto India, the civilization which the present 

great southern nations possets, as the Arian 
id theirs, appears, he thinks, to be little ques< 
Uonsble when we consider the antique character 
and affinities of the dialects. of the Nfale, Oroiid, 
Khoud ixid Toda, the very archaic and bar- 
barous character of many of the customs of 
the widely separated tribes which bespeak 
(hem a prior race, and above all, the nature of 
the relationship of the dialeets to those of the 
Wf ilised nations. The known ethnic facts lead 
directly to the conclusion that the uncivib'zed 
I>ravi(iinn speaking tribes are genuine Drnvi- 
^iaos who hnve in a great iqeasiire escaped the 
culture which the more exposed tribes hare 
received and thus preierve a condition of the 
i:aee, certainly not more barbarous than that 
which ohnraclerised it when it first entered. 

The Dravidiau race, every-where in India, 
has been long, in contact with other races and 
sUovs the influence which the intermUture has 
produeed.. If the formation of their tansuftge 
w taken aa a test, it leaves no doubt tbat one 
tribe carried a large batch of its native glossary 
over all Ipdia from the Himalaya to Qeylon. 
In the Himalaya and in Korthern India, the ol3 
laoe has long been in contact with ultra-Indians, 
Tibetans and Arians, But if their physical 
appearance be exatained even in the extreme 
Bottth the diversity which pievaile sbowa tbat 

there has been great intermixtuie, but there era 
nevertheless widely prevalent eharactera most 
of which are not Arian, nor Tibetan, and «re 

even distinct frran Ultra-Indian, 

The more important of these characters ara 
a pointetl, and frequently hooke<l, pyramidal 
nose, with conspicuous nares, more lon^; and 
round ; a marked sinking in of theorljitnl line, 
producing a strongly defined orbital ritige: 
eyes brilliant and varying from small to middle 
sized : mouth large, lips thick and frequentlj . 
turgid ; lower jaw not heavy, its lateral expan^ 
aion greater than in the Arian and Issa than iu. 
the Turanian type ; cheek bones broad and 
large rather thau prcjecting, as in the Turanian 
*'yp^' giving to the middle part of the face a- 
marked development and br^th and to the 
general contour an obi use oval shape, some- 
what bulging at the aides ; forehead well formed 
hot receding, iocUning to fiattish ajid seUam. 
higb ; occiput somewhat projecting ; hair fine, _ 
beard considerable and often strong, colon r>of , 
skin very dark, frequently approaching to blacl^. 

We may, he adds, conclude ^om tJhe ethnic 
character and position of theancient Indino- 
population, that it belonged to the small Tu- 
rano-Afrioan type. But sucoeasive raodiUca- 
tions of race, seem to have been going on in. 
India from times long anterior to the Arian or. 
evrn Tartar eras and imply liwguislie changes 

The above is the higher and much improved 
type. But aa in Africa, Ultra-India and Asio- 
aesa, a smaller, more Turanian, and less SemU 
ticised type is still preserved although various- 
ly crossed. The successive Turanian predo- 
minant races and formations and the Irano- 
Semitic have in turn influenced all the grest 
outlyiDic southern provinces, Africa, India, Ul- 
tra-India, and America, the last in fienerid in- 
directly, through Ultra-India, Indij end Africa^ 
From the formation of the lanf;uage, there was 
seemingly a still older intnuive people, the 
Scythico-Semitic and pastoral who found India, 
less Scythic and more African than it liecama 
under their influence, but the same evidence 
shows that the Drnvidtnn race and linguistic 
formation preceded the Ultra Indian, Tibetan 
and Arian iu Indin, and prevailed everywbera 
to the southward of the Himalayns. ' Their 
route seems to have been from the N. W. 
wheje, from time immemorial, the region be- 
tween the Indus and Euphrates has been occu- 
pied by the Turnnian, Iranian and Semitic 
races. Physically the Dravidians are somot 
what Turanian, and the linguistic formation ot 
their language has a strong and unequivocal 
aflinity to the great Asiatio-Tnranian, or Ugro- 
Japanese alliance- The Turanian formation^ 
physical (md linguistic, evidently long precede 
ed the Iranian and Semitic, as an expansive 
and dominant ooe; ilM?4>iLjiL«f^il^ ^at the 



Tannian was migratory and diffusive 6n a 
great leale, loAg beTon tha Semitic aAd Ira- 
nian, whidi muat hare remained sequestered in 
soma poitioDa of (be mountain band of Asia 
ICiBOT) Axmenia, and Icani« and the adjacent 
8 W. region wliich includes t&e basin of the 
Euphrates, dnring the great era that must hare 
been occupied while tb6 Turaulau Hngiiislic 
formation spread to Lapland and Japan, lo 
North Cape and Ceylon. 

The peculiarities in the tariable physical 
character of the Dravidian physical types, 
when compared with the Scythic, are African 
and Afrlco-Semitic. The very exaj^rated 
oecipilal and maxillary protuberances are not 
characteristic of the ^pical Africao head, but 
of a debMement of it confined to ceitain looali- 
faa. Several east and mid-African nations 
hare the ao-call^ African truts mudt softened, 
and. differ little from the Dravidian. lEren 
wooHy or spiral hair is not a universal feature 
ia Arrica, some tribes having fine silky hair. 
The Dravidiaa pyramidal nose, the sharp de< 
pression at its root, the slight mnxillary and 
occipital projection, theturgtd lips, the oval con* 
toar and the beard are all African. Mr, Logan 
thinks there is reason to believe that the strong 
Africanism of some of the lower South Indian 
castea is really the remnant of an archaic for* 
nation of a mora decided African character. 
The pontion of India between two great heitro 
prorinees, that on the west being atJU mainly 
negro, even m most of its improved races, and 
that on the east preaerviny (he ancient negro 
haaia in points so near India as the Andaraans 
and Ktdab. It is therefore highly probable 
tbit the African element in the population of 
the peninsula of India, fias been transmitted 
flora an archaic period, before the Semitic, Tu- 
ranian and Iranian races entered India, and 
when the Indian ocean had negro tribes along 
its B6rthern as well as its eastern and western 
shorei- On this point It may be remarked that 
Dr. Pritchard mentions as the result of Baron 
W. Unmboldt's researches into the Kavi 
language, that the resemblances between the 
aatiooa of the Polynesian islands and the 
tribes of the Indian Archipelago, Malacca and 
M^agaaesr, are not, as some have supposed, 
the effect o( caauHt iatercourae, but essential 
affinities, deeply rooted in the construction of 
these lananages, aud that the races of people 
are tbemselveB of one origin, 

Mr. W. W. Hunter describes India as partly 
peopled by races distinct from the Aryan 
popnialion, some of whom he says, have pre. 
sehred their ethnical identity in sequestered 
wilda, whilst others have merged as helota 
or low castes into the lowland hindus, and he 
riso regards these now fragmentary peoples ae 
the dcbrii of a widely spread primitive raee, 
Ik Us dietibnaryoftDettoa-AryanUnguagtosof 

India and High Asia, he classes all languages 

as under — 

1. Sefleeidng type* — Arabic, Sanscrit. 

S. Oompomding iypt*, — Bask ; Finnic ; 
Magyar ; Turicish j Circassian ; Georeian ; 
Mongolian Mantshu; Javanesej Ngoko*^ran- 
ese ; Krama ; Malay •Javanese. 

8. Isolaiinff tifpeg.— Chmeie of Nankin; 
Amoy, f ekio, Shanghai and Canton' ; Japan- 

P Brahui, 

4. Chine$e frontier and TRiheL — Gyanoi ; 
Gyamng ; Takpa ; Manyak ; Thochu ; Sokpa ; 
H^rpa ; Tibetan, 

5. If'epai (Wo$l to Eatt) Serpa ; Snnwar ; 
Gurung \ Murml ; Magar ; Thaksya ; Fakhya ; 
Newer ;Limbu. 

6. KirantiGrtmp, Xait Sepatd.—^vttcntx ; 
BbdoDg; Rungchenbnng : Chingtangya ; Na- 
chhereng ; Waling} Takha ; Ghoarasya ; Eu* 
lungya : Thulungya • Bahingya ; Lohorong ; 
Limbichhong ; Balali ; Sang-pao^ ; Dami ; 
Khaling; Dungmali. 

7 . Brolen tribes of Nepavl, — Darhi ; Den- 
war ; Pahri ; Chepang; Bhramu ;Tayil ; Kiit- 
war ; Kuauuda ; Tharu. 

Lepcha (Sikkim.) 
Bhutan! or Lhopa. 

8. B. BengaX^—^a&o ; Dhimal ; KoCch 
Qard ; j^aohari. 

9. Saaien JFrontier of bengal. — Mnni- ■ 
purt ; MilVan Naga ; Tablung Naga ; Khiri 
Naga ; Angami Naga ; Namsang Naga \ Now- 
gong Naga. : Tengsa Naga ; Abor Miri ; Kb- 
sagor Miri ; Deoria Chutia : ^Dghpo^ 

10. AraJc'an and Burmah. — Bnntaail 
written and spoken ; Khyetig or Shoa ; Kami ^ 
^mi ; Itfru or Toung ; Sak. 

I t. Siam and featzMerun.— TaTain or Men ; 
Sgau Karen ; Ffvo Karen ; Toungh-tlm ; Shan ; 
Annamitic ; Siamese ; Ahom • Khamti ; Laoa* 

12. Central /nrfwx.—Ho (Kol) ; Kd 
(Singhbum) ; Santali - Bhumij ; Uraon j Mnn- 
d«la ; R&jmahali ; Gondi ; Qayeti : Bntlok ; 
Naikfide; Kolami i Madi; Madia • Kttri ; 
Keikadi i Khond ; Savara ; Gadaba i Telrnkala ; 

13. Southern /»d!»a.— Tamil anoieiit and 
modem, Malayalam do. do. Telngu : Sar- 
nalaka, ancient and modern ; Tulura : Kurgi ; 
Toduva ; Toda ; Kota^' Badaga ; Kumnba ; 
Irula ; Singhalese. 

And when writing on the non-Aryan langua- 
ges of India and High Asia, Mr. Hunter states 
(p. 22} that his book containa primeval roots 
common to both Aryan and non-Aryan speech, 
in a far more definite manner than the similar 
indications by which scholars have sought to re- 
dooe the Semitic and Indo-Germanie familiea to 
a cognate source. In support of this view be re.' 
marka that many of the not^nanunpletoT 
IndU, he tellt us, ta£i their f rig jrttigj&tioBa 


from tlie word for "man," in tlicirresyeetWe dia- 
lects sad the very general term mi (mun) with 
some pfffiyed or supposed syllnbte, supplies the 
ba^'w of tlie race name to not less than forty 
nsoertnined tribes. Thus, Du-mi, Kami, Kumi, 
Acgami Nii£a,Miihaji Naga. And tfwB recognize 
Ihenon-Aryao phont-dcdiflplacementBof »and 
I yad of 1 aud r, the list can be greatly iucreased, 
-^thus^ ia thp Suk, Zu; Toang, mm; murmi, 
Bii, Tfaaktya, mli ; and tfae root U afforda the 
generic term Aomo, loan, to a whole seriea of 
t/ibal names. - Thus BaIa>H ; Ma-li, the peqile 
of Bajmabal ; Bbiraa-li ; Santa-li Ban]ca-li, 
meaning the people of Bala^ Ransa, and so 
iourth, - Li II thus oft«n added to specific 
))amM for man to form names for aboriftinal 
tribes. In SanlaH, li furnishes thd nbmen- 
dature ooiinecled ivitli the propngHtion of onr 
speoiea, such as lat, iaih kc. autt nppears in li 
i}ih« a child ; U daha or lad ko, children ; Khi li 
a generation of' men, (ho-li) and the hitherto 
i)nexpUine4 terms, Che-la^ Che-li (s=Khi-li=: 
iinli) for son and daughter, used by all the 
semMborisiaal castes ■ of I^ower Bengal, 
The root J^o, with the generic affix Zt, ia met 
with in all periods of liistory and in all India- 
The Mahabarata and Viahnn Purana, speak of 
Ko-li tribes in eonnection wiih Mifcala.DraTida, 
){.irata and others, qnd the Aitareya Brahm^na 
speaks of the Koli a? Dasya. Among a section 
pf the non- Aryan faces of India, or aborigines as 
Mr. Hunter styles them, the root ho, shortening 
jn some to hit i^nd ha, or inter-chancnng 
jiitQ ko, and kp, furnishes the specific 
word for mnn aiDongit the Kol tribes 
of Central India aiid is one of th<s Qldest and 
nost irid^ly spread roots for msn. In the 
Sanscrit pla*. theMrichha kali, go^io is man ^ 
among the Kur, near KIlichpQre. it is hO'ko. 
Amongst il^e Siamese it je hhan or hM, 
vhioh is thp same form.fl^ it takes amongst 
Khond.— fffVorjf of the Tarfam. Ilifitoire 
d4f Ruatt Vol. I. p. +2. 7*orf'« Hojitlhan, 
fol. I. p. 05. J>r. jr. Hunier, on the 
La»^ogBt of Itidia, p 22. Logan in Joum* 
India* Ardiiptlago R/fort Itril. Atiocia- 
tion 1847, pjs. 341-250. Tod*8 Bajitfllian. 
JSUiol's ffi*foryf>fIn^ia,'-pp.607-Q,An. 
Cotmi y, //- P- 40, See Jat, Med. 

INDEA,the hindoo god of tliunder, a 

Sifsonifioatioa of the sky, the chief of the 
evata, or Sura (vide >Devata). also the yoga 
star of the- 86ih Nacaliatra, 7 Pfitasi. The 
attributes of Indra eorrespoiid to those of the 
Jupiter of the Qreeks and Bomans and the 
Thor of ScandioaTia. Indnt ia nothing mora 
than the impersonation of the commonest phei. 
mena of the skies above our heads. He is tlie 
king of immortals and the lord of the firraa- 
nent. Ueis represented 4B a white man sit* 
ting upon his celestial vaJtan, the elephant 
AiraratI) profluoodat the chumiqg of the ocean, 

ixDnA. , 

aud holding in his band the vojra or thand«r% 
bolt, lie is depictrd, like Argus, covered with 
eyes and is tlius called the thousand-eyed rod : 
which distinction was not conferred upon him 
in consequence of his frood Heeds, but having 
become ennmoured of Abilya, the wire of the 
pious riahi G»tama, he enHeamurcd to seduce 
her. The rishi having discovered his inten- 
tions in limie, bestowed on the god his curse 
that hia body should be covered in a very extra- 
ordinary manner, whi^h, on the contrition of 
the offending deity, ho changed into eyes. The 
heavni of Indra is swai^a or swarga-locnm an 
interesliiig description of which has bem friven, 
in (he English bnguage by Kasiprasad Ohosa. 
In Iiidra's heaven, tliis poet makes flowers of 
delitfbtful pt-rfiioie shed tlteir fragrance around, 
and enumeralcB all that can fascinate the 

" Great Surya smiles with lustre gay. 
And flings through azore skies bis ray ; 
The golden mountain's gUttering brow 
Is decked with many a sparkling gem. 
Which shines, by Surya*s brighinessi now. 
As if a halo circled them ; 
And on the mount beneath his beam. 
The king of Swer^ia's garden smiles. 
In which by many a gurgling strefim. 
The God his time in pleasure whiles. 
Ilere Vayu through the charming wood, 
Por ever creeps in geuilest mood : 
Now o'er the blowinti gr^ss he goes. 
Now stirs the Tragrance of the rose. 
Here many a flower of lovely hue, 
Tamed in the loves of former time 
Blooms glittering with .the diamond dew« 
And sweetening the heavenly elime> 
Toung rosra through the passing breese. 
To tasle their sweets invite the heea. 
Here fountains round the heavenljr bowers 
Perpftual fall, and glittering showers ' 
Of diamonds, pearia, and atars descend, 
A»d sweet celestial music lenil 
Uuio the ears of mortals, blessed. 
Vox pious deeds, with heavenly rest. 
The garden's edge is compassed round 
With trees with ta»iing verdure crowned. 
And in the garden's centre stands 
A palace built by heavenly hnnds, 
With sopphirea decked, the goldeu walls 
or Satflkrutn*s courtly halls, 
Keflecting all their beauteous light, 
Aii'l glistening rqund all fairiind bright. 
The anew-white pavemepts made have Iwn 
Of chrysolites of brightest sheen. 
Where sweetest flowers of lovely hoe 
Are sparkling bright with drops of dew ; 
The outer wall is smooth all o'er 
With rubies gUlteriag more and mofe. 
And through the gardenst trees appear 
Like morning's light in winter's sty, ^ 
K're the re?p]sii(|Bj^t\gHfyt^g^rs 

Ki« glorious face of light on hi^b. 

Aa'if iu floods of ruby light. 

The court it bathed and alanes so br)}rlit. 

fiut lo ! a throng afHt appears. 

Like raniihed joys of foriuer }-eara ; 
' So incliatinci, tnat scarce the e)'e 

Iia faiut progretsion can I'escry. 

Aa when at morniDg'i duliious light, 

A aur or two appears in sight ; 

And now behelil, and now uo inore, 
Tbey glimmer in the growing shiue 
So like a roasi of dim light o'er 
The xarilen move the gods dirtne ; 
And midst tham those who greater are 
Bhiiie like so many stara afar ; 
Now more and more advance they nigh 
Wiih breast erect and statures high. 
With steps majestically slow. 
With looks cast on the ground below, 
Berore them Indra, dignilied 
With royil mien and royal pride, 

It 19 related that on one o«caaion,the ceremo< 
By of Atwawudha, or sacrifice of a borae, for 
the bnndreth time, whs commenced which 
would have deposeil Imlra, and elevated king 
^guni to the sovereignty of the immor- 
tal» in his plai-e. On another occasion, in the 
form of a abepbrrd boy, Indra robbeil tlit 
garden of a peasant. In this iheft be was de- 
tacted and bound with oorda, bat released by 
the aid of the aubordinate genii of the winds, 

The peaaant seized, and with wrda^ atrong 
Shackled the god, who gave him ahuwers- 
Strught from eeven winds immortal genii fiew, 
Varana green, whom foamy wavea obey, 
Bright Vaboi, flMmiug like the lamp of day ; 
'Knven sought, by al), enjoyed by few ; 
Stem Tama, ruthlesa judge, and laa, cold ; 
With Kairit, mildly bold, [thunder, 
lliey. with the mddy flash, lhat poiuta his 
Read hia vain bands aaunder : 
Th* •xaitiug g(4 reanmea hia thoaaand eyea 
Tour anaa divine, and robea changing dy en." 

' Vallf to ofideratand Uieae allnsions, it muat 
be remembered that the hiridus have asaigned 
leganta to each cardinal and intermediate point 
of the oorapasa. Indra being esteemed the 
first of firmamental deities, and especially the 
ruler of the eaat, that point is reckoned Brat, 
and the others ere thus ruled : Agni, south- 
cast ; Yanw aoutb ; Nairit, south-west • Tarnua, 
weat ; Vayn, north-weat ; Ktivera, north ; Isa 
or laaai, north^at. To which are sometimes 
added three other quarters, or pointa, viz 
riwve. governed by Brahma ; below, by Nafta 
or Seah K^, the king of lerpentt, otherwite 
■auMd Tauki ; and the centre, nrted ' Rndra, 
erSivw* Aecordngto Coleman'a Mythology, Indra 
ii the r^ent of shownrs and of the eaat wind ; 
VsruaAy regent of the west ; Vahot of the 
Bo«tb-eaat r Kuvera, of the. nwtfa- ; Tanni, of 


the sonlh, Isa, or Isani, of the north-enst, 
Nairit, of the south'-weai. This aocouut will be 
found to vary slightly from other descriptioaa 
of the regents of the winds or eight points of 
the earth ; but the several act^ounts differ in a 
very trifliiii; degree, introducing Agni instead 
of Vabui ; inatead of Nnirit ; Chandra fot 
KuverH ; and Chandra also, or Pritbivt, for 
Isa. Vayu, in hindu poetry, is the north-weat 
wind. Indra has a vaiiety of uamei. He ia 
called Sakra in cousequeace of being the evil 
adviser of the demons or asura^ by whom 
he was so often driven from heaven : and, 
wiih true mytlioloj^cul iuconniateDoy, Fakush- 
HBani, he who governs the gods with justice; 
Shntkratu, lie to whom a hundred sacriBces 
are made ; Vajra paui, the bearer of tha 
thunder bolt ; Vitralia ; Hularati, and Numu- 
cliisadaiia, the destroyer of the giants ; Urisha 
the holy ; Meghiiaadama, he who is borne on 
the clouds, &o. &a. Indra possesses the fol- 
lowing blessiugs, produced at the churning 
of the ocean. Kamdenn, the all-yielding cow ; 
Pariyatakn, the tree of plenty ; and UobU- 
rava, the eight-lieaded horse. The princes 
of Kangti. the rajaha of Atam, and othet 
chiefs iu the eastern parts of India, pretend 
to bare derived their origin from Indra.— 
Indra, as the king of imoiortals, corresponds 
with one of the ancient Jupiters, for several' of 
that name were worshipped in Europe and 
particularly with Jupiter the conductor, whoso 
attributea are so nobly described by the Flatonie 
philosophers. One of hia uumeroua names ia 
Syupeti, or, in the nominative ease, biifora 
certain letters, Dyupetir; which iheanv the 
Lord of Meaven, and seema a more probable • 
origin of the Hetruican word than Juvana 
Pater, as Diea peter waa probably not tha 
Fatiiert but th» Lord of Day. He may be 
considered as ihe Jove of Enniua, ia Ha ma;-, 
morable Uue. 

Aqdes bw nbliuB oudent, qsNi Umcaat obMb' Jovoif 
where the poet clearly means the firmamen^: 
of which Indra ia the peraOHifieation. Heia 
the ttod of thunder and of natnrs's dements^ 
with inferior genii under his commmd and is 
conceived to govern the eastern quartet of the 
world, but to preaide, like the genins or 
agathodsemon of the ancients, over tto oblestia! 
bands, which are stationed on the snmmit of 
Mem, nr the north pole, where he solaces tha 
gods with nectar nnd heavenly muiie. Hence 
perhaps, the biiidus, wheu githig evidence, 
and thd magistrate who rtceifes it, are direct- 
ed to stand fronting the east or north. The 
^enii, named Cinnara, are the male daooeia in 
swarga, the heaven of Indra ; and the Apsara 
are his dancing girls, answering to the fairies 
of the Persians ^^^^d^.^darnQs^M^n the 

Koran, hur-ul-aiun 


l^ndra is fabled to reside in itie oeleslial 
city of Amravati. where bis palace, Vaija* 
yanta, ia situated, ia the garden Ntindana, 
which contaios the aH-yieldiog trees Fariya* 
taka, Kalpadruma and three others similarly 
tiouoUful. The hmdus make drawings of 
atrfie (&Mma?J yieldiag, if Dot all sorLa, 
a curious BOrt of fruit, viz. wen ; with a 
inan of larger mould climbing up its stem ; a 
tecoud, with a bow at his back, is lookiug on, 
encouraging him. Fifteen men are hanging 
on the boughs like fruit. AUbough these, or 
even one of- them, might suffice, ami qualify 
ita oWner for the title which Indra bears of 
Xord of Wealti), he is sometimes represented 
to possess likewise tlie all-prolific, cow, Kam- 
denu, above alluded to, as nell as Ucliisrava 
the eight-beaded horse, that arose with the 
cow and lirst named tree from the chunied 
ocean, as related in another place. His con- 
ftort is Indrani : he rides the eltpbant Airavati 
driven, by his charioteer MataK and be holds 
the iroapon Tf^ra, or the thunder-bolt, and 
u hoiCB named Tajrapani. Hu chief musi- 
cian is named Chitra-rat'bs, who rides in a 
painted car, which on one occasion was bum- 
ed by ArjuD, the confidential friend and agent 
bf Krishna, or the sun. Indra is more es- 
pecially the regent of winds and showers : 
the water-epout is said to be the trunk of his 
elephant ; and the iris is appropriately called 
his bow, vhich it is not deemed auspicious 
to point out Menu saya " Let not him, who 
knows righi from wrong, and sees in the sky 
the bow of Indra, shoff it to any man. 
Uis consort, ia Indriani or Aindri, also named 
Pulomaja, sometimes ^wlumi and Saki ; and 
she ii very Tiriuous as well as beautiful. 

In hlndu mythology the guar^ans of 
the world are eight deities, who now rank 
next below the hindu triad. They are, 
1 Indra, 3 Agni or fire, 3 Surya the sun, 
4 Chandra the moon, 5 Parana the wind, 6 
Tama the god of Justice and lord of the 
infenial rcfgbns, 7 Varuna the god of water, 
aiid. 8 KuT«ii the good of wealth. Indra 
takes a very important position in each of the 
three periods of hiudu mythology, la t be Vedic 
period he is Uie great Being who inhabits the 
ficmment, guides the winds and clouds, diapen- 
lea rain, ud hurls the thunderbolt. In tbeKpic 

Seriod heifl sUU a priacdpal deity, taking prece- 
enoe of Agni, Varuna, aud Tama.* In the 
Putaqic period he is still a chief deity, only 
inferior in rank to the great triad, Srahms, 
Vishnu, aud Siva. Uis heaven is called 
Swarga-loka or Indraloka, and his pleasure 
garden or dy8ium,his city(aometimes placed on 
mount Meiruj t^e Olympus of the Greeks, bis 
ohariote^, his thunderbolt, his elephant ; 
his bow . (tbe rainbow) are all famed, in the 
preaent state of hinduisnt in which, however. 

every hiudu has a separate belief and hero- 
worship, tbe ffOTship of incarnated beingt,devii- 
worship, the worehip of the tingam are the 
prevaiUug forms, Indra is almost uoheaxd of 
and unknown. 

Amongst the earliest dissenters from Indra, 
were the Yadu race under Krishna's iufluenee. 
The reasons leading him to the change are not 
kitown,but the Mafaa Bharata makea him say to 
Nanda his father, why worship Indra as the 
Supreme God t father we an Vaisyas and our 
cattlelivfl upon the pastures, let us therefore ceaae 
to worship Indra, pay our devotions to the 
mountain Govarddhana. Up to that time, it 
was to the heaven of Indra, that the good who 
died were believed to proceed. 

The two gods, Indra aud Agni, Bain and 
Fire, were the chief deities worshipped by the 
Vedic Aryans ; the sovereign of the gods, Indra, 
the most powerful of the Vedic deities, was 
the god of the firmament, the hurler of the 
thunderbolt, who smote the rain cloud, and 
brought down waters, who delighted in the 
Soma juice, in eating, drinking, and war, strong 
and drunk with wine. Indra is now never invok- 
ed, but has been succeeded by Vishnu and 

Agtti, another Vedic deity, i> the personi- 
ficaUon of Gre aud was worshipped as the dea- 
troyer of forests, as useful in the sacrifice and in 
the household. 

" When generated from the rubbmg of 
sticks, the radiant Agni bursts forth frm the 
wood like a fleet uourser." 

" When eidted by the wind, he niahes 
amongst the tnes like a bulli and coBBumeB 
the forest as a rajah destn^s hia enemies," 

Such as thou art, Agni, men preserve thee 
constantly kindled io their dwellings, and offer 
upon thee abundant food" {Rig Veda J, 73.) 

Varuna waa tbe Vedic god of the waters^ 
and god or tbe ooean, but the name was some- 
tio»a applied to the sun and sometimes used aa 
a personification of day. As with other gods, 
when addressed, he was regarded aa eMpnine, 
and capable of forgiving sin 

" Ixt me not yet, Varuna, enter tiis house 
of elay * have mercy, Almighty, have mercy ! 

" If I go along trembling, like a cloud drire* 
by the wind j have maroy, Almigbty, have tatng 1 
" Thirst gaaa opui tba worshipper, tiuugh 
he stood in the nudst of waters, have, vercy 
Almighty, have mercy." 

Surya or the sun, called also Savitra, Mitrt, 
Aryaraan and other names, was a vedio god, 
who contioues to be worshipped down to tbe 
present day, by brahmins and soroastriaus^ 
The solar race of K^eirya who appear io the 
Aaraayana, derive their origin from the sun : but 
in the higher spirit, the sun ia regarded as 
divine, as pervading alL^iMs, ufthe bouI of 
tbe world and ik^pcttto^^WgfiYcm Ia« 




vene of the Big Veda (iil. 62, v. 10) this idea 
it rappond to indicaied. lb ia O'm I Bbur- 
l^hTiMuvtkl^ 0*0. Taut Til'hru vamnykin. 
B*bai^d^TaM}&dhima)u dhiyo yonafaa pradio 
dSjub i 0*01, earth, air, bcftven, O'm kt ua me- 
ditate OB the Bupreme aplmdour of the divine 
au, may he iilumioale our nuoda : and, at the 
praaent day, the eDlightened brahmiiu regard 
thi« reraa aa an inyoeation to ihe aeveral deities 
who are implored by the worshipper to aid his 
ibtelleci in the apprebeuaion and adoration of 

In connection with the sun are the 12 Aditya 
sona of Aditi, the universe. In the latter vedic 
age, they wm identified with the 19 aitini of 
the Zodiac, or the aun in it* twelve adceceaive 

Sona, aim Chandra, tfu autea is ohiefly ade- 
brated in the vedas in cniineotioa with Uie Soma 
plant, but in the Uaha Bbaratat Soma ia the 
mytbieil progenitor of the great lunar raoe of 

Tbe Aawinl, apparenUy a pertonification d 
lif^t and moisture aa sous of tbe sun, also as 
the 8an*a rays, and noticed na tbe phyaiciana of 
the goda. Th«T are described aa young and 
handaome and riding on horses. 

Vayo or the air, and ihe Mnruts as winds are 
personified and invoked Tbe Maruls are depicted 
aa taarii^ amongst the forests aud compared to 
yontliftil warriors bearing lances on tlieir 
ahonldert, delighting in the soma Juioe, like 
ladra, and lilie him, the baatowen of benefita 
on tbeir warakippera. 

Uabaah or the dawn, the early morning, 
the fint pale flush of light i Ushaa is com- 
parad to • molber nwRkening her children 
to a loving maiden awakening a sleeping 
#«rld : to a yeung married maiden, *' like a 
youthful bride before her husband than nn* 
eovereat tliy bosom with a smile." As a gotlflese, 
ahe is styled (Rig Veda T. 23, v. S) the migbiy. 
the giTer of light : ' from on high she beholds 
all things ; ever yoiUbful, ever reviving, she 
oonea fiiat to theinvoeation.*' Indrn, aoctml- 
i»g to Bunien (m. 687,8, fe. 4i9),is the 
prototype of Zms, and was a personUieation 
of Etber, Bona was offisred to him in sacri- 
fice, aa the regent of tbe east, identical 
vith Devandra,, the king of the Devaa, 
The Erytkrina fulgena, the Pari-jata, or fairy- 
loekm^ ia anppoaed to bloom, in Indra'a gar- 
dena, and an epiaode in the Furaaai^ relates the 
quarrelling of Bukmini and Shtyabhama,. tbe 
two wivca of Krishna, to the exelosive poates- 
aaoD of this flower which Krishna bad stolen 
bom ihe garden. The GaodbBnra, in bindu 
mf thfdogy, a ^de* a spirit, a ghost, a celes> 
timl musigian, are demigoda or angda who 
inbaUt Indm'a heaven and form the orchestra 
aft tha biaqaeta of the goda. They ate dea- 
cribed M. witneuca of the aotiou of aad 

are sixty millions in number. W^iam*t Story 
o/Nala, p. i26, U3,8U, CoU, Msth. Bind., 
p. laS./fiacf** Work»,tol, xiH. /fM. of Mom, 
thap, iv. «. 69. JTMr, p. 2 7 1. WOtoiCt Bwdu 
fkMire^ I, Miff Feda, 1, 73,t», «. 10 
Aanamtn, C87-8, to. 469. Sir W. /on«, 
Mr. iii p. S69, Jr^viUMt or fft/mn to Indra. 
See Adilya Brahmiaiefde ; Hindu ; Inscrip- 
tions ; Krishna ; Kurmi ; Lakahmi ; Uafaadeva. 
If em • Osiris ; Pandu • Potyandrya ; flaktf ; 
Saraawati t Valian ; Teda ; Vidya. 

INDBA DTOOMNA; Sans-, the last 
wonl aignifiea riches. 
INDHAaiBI on KUANTAN- See Johore. 
INDBAIN. OvE. HiNO. Sans. Cilmllas 
ooloeynthis, 8okrad. Colocynth ; Gneumia 

INDRAJIT, tha son of Ravana, and in 
Hindu legend the conqueror of India. Thd 
term ia saatcrit ffon jee to conquer. 

INDfiAJOW. Ooz. HiNQ. Wrigbtia an<' 
tidvBsnterica. See Conessi seed. 
iNDBANI. Savs. Vitex neguodo. 
IHDRANI. the wife of Indra ; 

A aiTeeter atrain the Mge muBlcian cbow : 
He (old, how Snefaf, soft aa morniDg light, 
BIythe Satbi, from her Lord Indnhii bight, 
Wbau through dsaa aUea their oar athavsat 

FixM oa a ganien trim her irand'riug sight, 
Wbere gsypotn egninktes,fKsh with early dew. 
Vaunted their Uosaoma new : 
** Oh t ptndc, ahe said, yon genu, wUeh natara 

To grace my darker treaMa." 
In form a ahepherd't boy, a god in soul, 
Ue ha^teu'd, Rod the bloomy treasure stole. 
The reekleai peaaant, who thoaa glowing 


Hoi<efuI of rnbied fruit, had foater*d long;, 

Seix'd aud with cordagit atroug 
Shackled the god who gave him shovr'ta. 
' Straight from aev*n winds immortal Oeuii 

Green Varona, whom foacay waves obey. 
Bright Vaboi flaming like the lamp ox day^ 
Cuvera aought by all, enjoyed by few, 
' Marat, Tvhn bids the winged breezes pl«r. 
Stem Bama« rothleaa jn^, aid laa Mid 
With yairrit mildly bold i 
They with the n^dy flash, tbA pidirta hb 

Rend hia vain bands atnnder. 
Th' exulting Ood resumes his thoittand eyes; 
Fonr ormt divine, and robeo of duuiglng dyeiit 

—Sir ^. Jonet** Symnto /«rfra, Tol. Xlll, 
p. 37«. 

INDBAFRESTHA, an Aryan town In 
Pandava, Kanrtiva and Yadava times. Tfa 
ruins are pointed ont between Pelhi and this 
Kutub. hidrapmtha and Delhi were two dif- 
event cities, sHoated about five niilea apart, 
the one on the Junna, and the otlwr on a 
rocky hill to the sonth-irebt in the interior. In- 
draproskha doo8^nt*,ai^^(t9c^feM^b« 

fimeui plaoe up'^' 



The bistoritna. of AlexRoder and Seleuens, 
also make no allurion to tlie princes of Indra- 
preatha wliiob, faoweTer, wm one of the fire pat 
or prastfia which had been demaaded by 
Judisfathira «« the price of peace between Uie 
rival Kuru and Pundawa riices and wliieh old 
Dhritaraahtra gave away from bit kinsdom 
to his turi)iileiit iiephews> The prioflipality 
aaaigned to them was a bit of foreat-land, 
then known under the name of Khandan>Tana. 
The existence of both Ddhi and Indnpras- 
tha in tbe second (%nturj, are recognized in the 
Drtidala and Iiidabara.of Ptolemy. Tbe men- 
tion of Delhi nmy posaibly be found in. Ptole- 
my's Daidala, wbiob is plnoed doaa to ludra- 
bara (perhaps Indrapat), antl midway between 
Madura, or MKthum, apd Batan Kaisnra or 
Sthatieswara. Tbe close prozimily of Daidala 
to Iiidrabara, joined to the curious resemblance 
of their names of Delhi and ludrapat seems to of- 
fer very fair grouods for assuming iheir probable 
identity with these two famous ladian eities. 
The date of the oooupatioa of Indraprestfaa 
as a capital by Judishtbira may be attributed, 
with some eoafidenee to the latter faalf. of 
the 15th century before Christ. Posterity 
can now hardly trace its site. The only spot 
that has any daim to have belonged to that 
aiieieat city, is a place of pilgittnage oh tbe 
Jumna odllad the Negnmbode Ohaut imme- 
diately oiitiide the northern wall of the present 
city. Popular, trvlition regards this ghaat 
•a the plaee where Judidithira, afte? his per- 
formance of the aswamedha, or the horse sacri- 
fice, eslebrated the ' Horn.* There n a fair 
held at tbe ghat whenever the oew moon falls 
on a Monday. Local timditioOi however, in 
this instanoe, oontradieU the BCahabarata. 
wbMi states the aswaimedha to have been per- 
formed at Hastioapura on tbe Ganges. Tbe 
N^umbode gbat may be tbe spot where Prtthi 
faj oelebrated his aswamedha. But it had 
aoquired a SRcredneas from before the time of 
that prince, and was a place of resort where 
his ^raadfHther Visal Deva had put op an in- 
scription to transmit the fame oi his conquests. 
Ill vain did Humayoon try to do away with 
^the name of Indrapat and substitute that of 
Deeiipannah, None but pedantic or bigo'ted 
mahomedans make use of this name. The 
-eoumra people either eall it Indrapat or 
Fooianah Killah. Kcither could Shere shah 
have it called e^r him as Shereghur, tbe voice 
of tradition is not easily silenced. The 
Pooranah Kiltah, as it now stands is nearly 
rectangular iu shape and its walls are over a 
mile in circuit. In the interior of the Poorauah 
Killahia the Keelar Kona mosque said to have 
been commenoed by Humayoon and completed 
by Shere shah. It has five horse-shoe arches de- 
corated with blue tiles and marble, and is a fa- 
.Torable specimen of the arehiteetuie of tbe 

Afxban period. It is perhaps one of the most 
tasteful mosques in or nvar Delhi and is re- 
markable for its richly inlaid work and graceful 
pendeativea.. Tlie prevuiliag material of the 
centre arch is red cut sandstone and black slate 
and toward^ the ground white iharble and black, 
slate, the carving ibroughout being very ornate. 
The two side arches are oompoanl of simple 
redstone, picked out with yellow glase bhbI 
bhiok slate finely ear*ed. the outermost arafaea 
are still plainer in conatruotion, the outer sralls 
changing from red to grey stone. — TV. of Rind, 
v. II. pp. 130* U5. See Hindu ; Inacriptioua ; 

IXDRATIGE. Tel. Tbuubergia fragraoa. 

INDKAVADU. Tel. Toddy drawer, em- 
ployed also as palaukin bearer. 

INDRAWAy. DuKH. Cucumis pseudo- 
colocyiithis. HoyU. Citrullus oolocynthia 

Wrightia anti<lvseiitericN. Conesai seed. 

INDRAYUN. or Indrair,. Colocynth. 

INDRO. See Macaasar. 

IN^DKF. Hind. Quercus annulate. 

INDUPU CHBl'JU. Tel. also Chillia 
Chettu, Tbl. Strychnos potatorum. — Linn. 

INDURJAO.Fanjab, Holarrbeuaantidyseii- 

terica — Wall, Indurjuo-i-talkh, Fsas. or better 
Indurjao are the seeds of Holiirrhena pubescens. 
" lioora" and H. Autidyaenteiica, the same 
size and colour, farrowed deeply at one side : 
very bitter. Indurjuo-i-shereen, PsRs. Mild. 
Iiidurjuo, Seeds of VVrightia anti-dyseuterica^ 
nbout I incli long, brown, nearly tasteloaa. — 
B&t. tk. 203. 

INUURLATIB, Himd. KardosUcbys ja(». 



SiDg-ge ehu or Lioa 
river, Tibetan. 

Sinh-ka-bab or Lion*8 
moath dflacended* 


Sin-tov ^ 

Tsitng-po. LafiA.Ki, 

Aba-Sio.... „ 

jvotiTe Saiud'barft, 
This magnificent river mns to some extent 
through the Hritish dominions in India, rising 
about' lat. 32** N. about 17,000 feet above 
the lev^ of the sea, and it disembogues near 
Kamebee in Lower Sind. Tbe whole length 
of its moantain eourssi from Hs eouroe to At* 
tock, is about 1,039 miles and the whole fall 
is 16,000 feet or 15*4 per mile. Prom Attoek 
to the sea, the length is 948 mites, 
making its whole length from the Kadas moun- 
tain to the Indian ocean l,&77 milesi Its 
maximum diaebarge, above the. eoDftueace of 
the Punjab or five riven, oocurs in July and 
August, wtien it is swollen by the seasonal 
rains, and it ihen^teaebeft UIMM)^oabie ftet, 




fiiHing to its minimum of 15,000, in De- 
cember. In Ladak, it is commotil; desig- 
nated T«ang-po. Tib., or the nrer, nnd is 
tke Sam-po-ho of tlie Chinese pilgrim Hwan 
Thsang, who travelled in the middle of the 
acTenlb centuiy. From iu source to Lr, it has 
hitherto b^n leis known than any other part 
in Tibet. It takea its risi! from tlie (iarigri or 
Ksilas range, a abort- way to the eastward of 
Oattop (Oaro). The Garo cirer is the Sing- 
ge-chu or Indus and there ts no great eaatern 
branch- The true aonrce of the Indus, is in 
3l« 20« N. lat. md 80'' SO' K. long, at an 
estimated height of ! 7,000 feet, to the nortli- 
west of the boly lakes of ManasnrovarA and 
lUwan H'rad in the southera slopes of tjie 
Gangri or Kailas mouataiiis- Indeed, 
from the lofiy mountains round lake M»naea- 
roTara, apring four celebrated rivers, the Indus, 
the Sutlej, the Gogra and the Brahmaputra. 
A frw miles from Le, about a inile above Nimo, 
the Indua is joined by the Zanakar river. I'htt 
■nlXey where the two rivers unite, is very 
Tockj and precipitous, and bends a long way 
to the south. From this point the course of 
the ludiia, in front of Le and to the south-east 
for many miles, ruus tlirouKh ■ wide valley, 
but the range of mountains to the north sends 
down many nigged spurs, wliich, in the shape 
of low rocky hills, advance close to the river. 
On the south or west bank, a little lower, the 
Indus is a tranquil but somewhat rapid stream, 
diTided into severul branches by gravelly 
islands, generally swampy, and covered with 
low JHppophae scrub. The size of the river 
there is Tery muoh less than below the junc- 
tion (rf the river of Zansknr. The bed of the 
lodns at Pilak, below Le, has an elevation of 
■boot 10,500 feet above the level of the sea. 

river now flowed more rapidly, and was often . 
wider and more shallow, one rapid was not. 
less than 150 yards in width. Banks of allu- 
vial clayey conglomerAte were usually intern- 
posed beiweru the mountains and the nver» 
fonnini; cliffs which attained not unfrequanily 
an islevation of fifty feet. Advuoing up tho 
stream he found that numeroua hot S|ningi 
rose on its banks, and sometimes under tli« 
water. The hottest of these had a tempera-< 
lure of 174°. From these springs gas Iras' 
copiously evolved, smelling strongly of sul* 
phur ; he noticed fieh in the water of Pugha, 
at au elevation of nearly 15,500 feet above the 
level of the sen, thus indicating that air »t 
that elevation is not, from its rarity, insufll- 
cieiit for the support of life in animals breath- 
ing by ftiUs. The whole of the lake plain of 
Pugha is covered, to the depth of several feet 
at least, with white salts, principally borax, 
which is obtained in a tolerably pure al&te by 
difEKing. the superficial layer, whioh amtaias n 
little mixture of other saline matters, being 
lejrcted. There is at present little cxpcwt of 
borax from Pugha, the tlemaiid for the salt in 
upper India being very limited, and the export 
to Europe almost atsn end. It hsslong been 
koowi) that borax is produced naturally in 
ditferent parts of Thibet, and the salt imported 
thence into India waa at one time the priaci-* 
pal source of supply of the European market. 
Dr. Thomson quotes Mr. Saunders (Turner's 
Thihet, p. 406.) as describing from hearsay the 
borax lake north of Jigatzi as twenty mites in 
circumference, and says that the borax is dug 
from its margins, the deeper and moie cent ral 
parts producing oorompn salt. From the 
account of Mr. BlsnB(Ph* Trans. 1787, p. 
297), who described, from the infi^ation of 

lint the town is at least 1,300 feet higher, [ the natives, the borax district north of Luck- 

From Us rise in the mountaius north of the 
lakes of Manasarovara nnd Hnwan H'rad, it 
runs in general towards the nortli-eist. Moor- 
croft has described its appearance at Garo or 
Gartop, where it is a very insi^nific&nt stream ; 
but the intervening country is so little known, 
except by native report, that we can scarcely 
be wid to hNve an exact knowledge of the 
upper part of its course, lltere is in some 
naps an eastern branch laid down, but of that 
ws hare no definite information. From the 
trid and snowless nature of the country 
through which it must flow, it is probably a 
Tciy small stream, but its length may be con- 
siderable. Immediately above .the open plolD 
in which Dr. Thomson joined the Indus, it 
would appear to have a very rocky and rugged 
channel. He followed up the left bank of the 
Indus, which gradually assumed a more norUi- 
Qrly direction. The mountains on both sides 
approcwhed more closely to the river and those 
on the right ofHitinned extremely lofty. The 

now, and, therefore, in. the more western part 
of the course of the Sanpu, it would appear 
that the Inke there contains Iwracis acid, and 
that the borax is artificially prepared by saturst. 
ing the sesquioarbonate of aoda, which is so 
universally produced on the surfaoe of Tibet^ 
with the acid. At least, tbe statemrnt, 
that the produciion of borax is dependant on ihe 
amount of soda, leads to this conclusion. Mr. 
Saunders does not notice any hot springs in 
the neighbourhood of tbe borax, but in tli« 
more western district, described by Mr. Blane, 
hot springs swm to accompany the borax lake 
as at pugha. It is not impossible that tbe 
three districts in which the occurrence of borax 
has been noticed, which are only a very small 
portion of those which exist, may represent 
three stages of one and the same phenonenoD. 
The boracie acid lake may, by the grsdusl 
influx of sods, be graduajly converted into 
borax , which, from its great insolubility, will 
be deposited a* it^U Ibro^nir' «-Oa^|w^draiiuigo 




or flryin|i;-np of Jsnch a lake, a borax plain, 
Bimilar to that of Pa^ha, would be left behind. 

In ererj part of the Himalaya, and of West- 
em Tibet, whererer the moUDtaiDa attain a auf- 
fieient deration to be corered with perpetunl 
inov, gtacien are to be found. lo the lofty 
dunn of the ei«*Riid trana-Sutlq Himalaya, and 
of the Houen-lon, whose risetoavery great 
height, and collect in vmler enormous depths 
of anovr, they are of great length. In the central 
parts of Thibet which are often tower, and even 
in their loftiest parts are less snowy than the 
bounding chains, the glaciers are of inferior 
dimensions where the snow-bed is at once cut 
oS abruptly in an ice oliff, which can hardly 
be said to be in motion or rather whose motion 
must be almost entirely from above downwards. 
Moraines, which, on the larger {(Uciers and 
among mountains of earily decaying roclcs 
are of astonishing dimensions, form the mar- 
gins of each glaoier, and tJso oecur longi- 
tudnully on diffmnt parts of their surface, 
inoreasiiqf in number as the glacier advances, 
tUl at last the different series wliose origin 
oan long be traced to the different ramifica- 
tions of the gfader, become blended into one. 
En route to £arakoram, after leaving the Nu- 
bra Talley, when a auffiefent elevation above 
his enearapment had been ^iaed, Dr. Thom- 
son obtained a commanding view of the gla- 
der which oeenpied the continuation of the 
main valley. It was nearly straight, and he 
believes, at least five or six miles Ifjjig ; dis- 
taiieea, however, are sa difficult to estimate 
on sao#', that this must be regarded as a mere 
pieas.- The iaclinatiod of itt surface was eon- 
Btderable ; but, while the' distanee remaineil 
dbttbtfttl, no just estimste of the height of the 
ridge from which it descended could be made. 
On each side, two or three lateral glaciers, 
descending from the mountains by which it 
was enclosed, contributed to increase its size, 
all loaded with heaps of stones, which had at 
the lower end of the central glacier so accu- 
mulated as corapletety^ to cover its whole 
surface. One day at starting, be proceeded 
along the edge of the small plain close to 
whidi be had been encamped. On the right 
hand was an ancient moraine, which prevented 
him from seeing the road ip advance. At the 
upper end of the plain he found a small 
atreamlet running parallel to the moraine; 
and about a mile from camp reached the end of 
« small glacier, from which the streamlet had 
its origin. Crossing the latter, which was 
Btill partially frozen, he ascended in a deep 
hollow between the left side of the glacier and 
the moraine. The icy mass had not yet beinin 
to thaw, the temperature being still below 
'-^-s^reeumg. After half a mile he ascended on 
aurfiioe of the ice, and so soon as be did 
wo, mw ensUed to see that the glacier had its 

origin in a ravine on the south, and entered 
the main valley almost opposite to him. Tho 
great body of the ice took a westerly direo- 
tion, forming the glacier along which he had 
beat travelling ; but a portion formed a cliff 
to the eastward, which dipped abruptly into ft 
small, apparently deep, lake. At the distanoe 
ofperhaps five hundred yards there was another 
glacier, which descended from a valley in the. 
northern range of mountains, and like the one 
on which he stood, presented n perpendicular 
wall to the little lake. Bigjbt and left of the 
lake were enormous piles of boulders, occa- 
pying the interval between its margin and the 
mountains, or rather filling up a portion of the 
apace which it would otherwise have ocoupied* 
Into this very singular hollow he descended^ 
on a steep icy slope, and passing along the 
northern margin of the lake, ascended on the 
glacier beyond ; as before, between the ice and 
on Teaching tha surface of the second glacier,, 
he found that a similar but smaller depresaion 
lay beyond it to the east, in whieh also there 
was a small lake, with another mass of ice 
beyond it. This third glacier also came from 
the north, and was h much more formidable 
mass than those which had already been orosa- 
ed. It was very steep, and was covered with 
snow, wliich was beginning to thaw more tbwa 
was convenient. When at the highest part» 
he found that though apparently nearly level, 
it sloped downwards sensibly though very 
slightly for nearly half a mile, in an easterly 
direction. It was evident to him that he had 
now reached the highest part of the ascent, 
which he assumed to be 17,600 feet, and that 
the crest of the pass was covered by this 
glaoier. (.Dr. Thongon's TraveU in WtHern 
Bimalaya and Thib$t.) In the mouths of the 
Indus the tides rise about 9 feet at full moon 
and flow and ebb with great violenoe parti- 
cularly near the sea, when they flood and 
abandon the banks with equal and incredible 
velocity. At 75 miles from the ocean, they 
cease to je perceptable. See Floods ; Glaciersi. 

Below the junction of the Fanjab rivers 
down to Sehwan, the Indus takes the name 
of Sar, Siro or Sira j from below Hy- 
derabad to the sea, it is called Lar, and the 
intermediate portion is called Widiolo (bioh, 
hindi), or Central, representing the district 
lying immediately around Hyderabad, just aa, 
on the Nile, the Woatani, or Midlands of the 
Arabs, represented the tract between TTpper 
and Lower Egypt. Sir A. Bumes mentions 
that Bar and Lar are two Baluch words for 
Kortb and South. The Indus, or Bindh, has 
been called by that name from time immemorial 
to tho present day^ by the races on its banks. 
The ancients knew that this was the native 
appellatioo. Fliny (lib. 6 vi.) says : " Indus 
ineoUs Siodns a|^^alUiliiS4*<-- 1?h((gMs wiota 




the uoM. — The Chioese oatt the river Sin-tou . 
After tranriing tho eoiuHry of Chan-tban, 
fnm the Sovfch-Ant to tba North-weat, it 
en ten Ladakb, m Ha eaatent frontier about 
thirty milea cast of Leh, its capital, it benda 
■rare to the north, then inclines to the west, 
and having been joined by seTeral lari^e streams 
and mountain torrents^ turns to the south, 
toirards the plaina, oonatiiuting the great re- 
ceptacle of the masses of melted anov, which 
are periodically brought from the lofty ridges 
of Tibet, to fertihu the aUovial tracts of West- 
em India. From the sndden melting of these 
vast aceuoaulationa of ioe, and from temponry 
obstaelea, occasioned by gtaoiera end ava- 
haebaa in its opper oourae, this river is aubjeot 
(0 imgoUritiea, and espeoialfy to dsbactea, or 
ealaelyaiiN, one of whiui, attriboted to » land 
ahpf in 1841, prodneed terrifie deTastation 
along its conrse, doim even to Attodc. 

At the eoofiiience of Siofa-fca-bab with the 
Sbayuk, the principal river whieh joins it on 
the north from the Karakorum mountnins* the 
river takes the name of Aba Sin, * Psther 
Sindh/ or Indus proper, and fluwing then 
tNrtween klly rocks, which ooiifina its furious 
waters, receiving the tribute of various streams, 
lad at Acho expanding into a broader surface, 
it reaehea Derbend, the north-western angle 
of the Punjab, where (about 650' miles from its 
aooice) it is 100 yards wide in August, its 
fallest srason. From Derbend it traverses a 
plain, in a broad ehannet <rf no great depth 
to Attack, in Si" SVN. Ut„ 1%" 1 8' E. long., 
ka¥iag, about 200 yards above thia place, re- 
ceived the river of Cnbul, almost equal in 
breadth and volame, snd attains a width of &58 
feet, with a rapid boiling carrent, runnioi; (in 
Aagnat) at the rate of sii miles an hoar. T«ri- 
ova accounts, however, are given of the breadth 
of tlie Indua at Attoek, which depends not 
only apoo the aeason but the state of the river 
anvarda. The breadth was fonnd by Mr. Bl- 
phuMtODSb in Jane to be S60 yards ; ^y 
Hr. Tr^>erk, in November about 100 yards ; 
bySirA. Bnrnea, in llareh, 120 yards. Bnt 
lieatenant Ban- fonnd the river at Attock, in 
Harch, awollen with rain, hsd split into vari- 
oos branches, and bounded with resistleas 
speed, daahing its waters into foam against 
the rocks. Its violence hsd swept away the 
bridge 9f boats. The river of Gabut is con- 
siderod to be the Cophones of Arrian, and tbe 
CSoffaasof ofBlrabo. 

Attoek is the limit of the upward nsviga- 
tioa of the Indns. From Attodc tbe coarse of 
the Indns to the aoa, 940 mites, is south and 
seath-west, sometimes along a rocky channel, 
bet Veen high perpendicular diffB,'oy foreing ita 
wiy, tambling and roaring, amidst huge boul- 
deia, the uaawose body of water being pent 
vitUaa mvBir chUMli eaoiiDg ocetiioul 

whiripools, dangerous to navigation, to Kala- 
bagh, in lat., 83" 67' N. long., 7r 86' fl. 
situated in a gorge of the great Salt Range, 
through whieh the river rushes forthinto tbe 
plain. Id this part of its course it has acquired 
the name of Nil-ab, or ' Blue water/ firom the 
colour imparted to it by the blue limestone 
hille through which it flows. There are some 
remains of a town on the bank of the river, 
named Kileb (where Timnr croaaed the Indns), 
supposed to be the Naolibus or Naulibe of 
Ptolemy. Prom the middle of Hny to Sep- 
tember, the upward navigation from Kalabagh 
to Attoek is impracticable; the downward 
voyage may be performed at all seaaona. The 
villegea in this section of the river are penned 
on the verge of ita banka, atandiog on the bart 
Toek, without a blade of vegetation near tbem. 
At Kalabagh, the Indns enters a level ooun- 
iff, having, for a short time, the Ehnsooree 
hilW, which rise abruptly, on the right. R 
now becomes mnddy, and as- f^r as Mittun- 
kote-, aboat S60 miles, the banks being low, 
the river, when it rises, inundates. the country 
sometimes as fsr as the eye can reach. Hence 
the channels are eontinualty changing, and the 
aoil of the ooiratry being soft, a " mud basin" 
as Lieatenant Wood terms it, the banks and 
bed of the river are nndergoing constant altera- 
tions. These variations, added to the shoals, 
and the terrifle blasta oeeasionally encoontered 
in this part of the river, are great impedi- 
ments to Bsvigstion. The populalion on its 
banks are almost amphibious ; they launch 
upon its enrface, suatsined by inflated skuia 
ormuasuks, dried gourds, and empty jars used 
for catching the celebrated pulla fish/ 

At Mittunkote, the Indus is often S;0(FO 
ynrds broad, and near this place, in Itit., 
28065' N. long., 10^ S8' E. it is ioined, 
without violence, by tbe Punjnud, a large navi- 
gable stream, the collected wateriof the Sutl<j, 
Beaa, Ravi, Chenab, and Mum. Its truo 
channel, then a mfle and a quarter wide, 
flows thence through Sind, sometimes severed 
into distinct streams, and discharges its dif* 
ferent brunches by varioos mouths into the 
IndiHn Ocean after a course of 1,650 miles. 
The Indus when joined by the Punjnud, 
never shallows, in the dry season, to less than 
fifteen feet, and seldom preserves so great a 
breadth as half a. mile. Keeled boats are not 
suited 10 its navigation, as they are liable to 
be up-set. The Zohmk, or native boat, is 
flat bottottied. (See Boats.) Gold is found ia 
some parts of the sands of the Ibdua. 

The laogasges spoken on the North-wesfem 
border of India are dialects of Hindi, but 
sufficiently distinct to be called Sindi» 
Panjsbi and Kashmiri. Lieatenant Leech in- 
deed has given T?i^^ffl!^??et. ^jwvpc lan- 
guages spoku on the vest of the lodds. The 



irc&tucii border tribea are bUII faosUjr tinder 
petfiarehal govefnnoients. In Ihe morenoutberly, 
are the rarioua Buluch tribes in the territories 
to which .tliey give their Dime, and wlioae 
lai^oage is stiiit by GapUin Kanrty to be » 
jniitore of Pereiaat Sinai, Punjabi, Hindi and 
Sanaorit. Tbe Brahdi .tribes in SAbaratrax 
«nd Jhalawani whose great dhief is the khan 
of Kliilat, ethtA»logtsts oonuder to be of the 
same Seythio stodc bb the Uravidiaa races in 
ibe peninsula, and infer from this that the 
passage of the Dmriilian tribes from Turna was 
along the valley of the Itidu*. The Brabni 
pliysical type ia ScyUiio and the languaft;e has 
strong Bravidian affinities. The Brahui is 
a genuine repreaentatire of the pre<Xrauia« 
population of S. £. Irania or BeliicbiBtan. 
The Jat of the lower Indus, appear t« be of 
the same race as the Brnhui and are almost 
black —BUioi, p- 6 25. Hutorp of tie Punjab, 
rol. I.p, 8, 9. See Hindoo ; Kellek; Kheiat ; 
Khyber ; Korea ; Krishna, Kukha ; Jet, Ladakt 
Faig'ab ; Scylax ; Semiramua ; Sndra ; Tibet. 

INDUS COAL. See Coal. 

INDtYANSA, or Lunar race in the Raj- 
3?arringini and Bi^oli, the laduvanaa family 
are aUown to bt» desceodanta of Pondu 
through his eldest son Yoodiahtra. Xlieee 
works, celebrated in Rajwarra as coUecliona of 
^nealogies and historical facts, by the pundiiA 
vedyadbra and Ragoikath, were compiled 
under the eye of the most learned pcinoe of hie 
period, Sowae Jey Sing of Amber, and give the 
various dynasties which ruled at liidrsprestba, 
oi Behli, from Yoodiahtra to Vieramaditya- 
The Tarrii^ini commences witJi Adinath, or 
Xishubdera, being the Jain theogony. Kapidly 
noticing the leading princes of the dynasties 
, ^iscusaedj they pass to the birih of the kings 
Dhritaraahtra and Pando, and their offspring, 
detailing the causes of their civil siiife to that 
conflict termed the Mahabharat, or great War. 
The origin of every family, whether of east 
cr weet, is invoked in fable. That of the 
iPandn is entitled to as much -oredsnce as the 
Virth of Eomulus, or other foundera of a raoe^ 
Their traditions were probably invented 
to cover some great disgrace in the Panda 
fiimily, and have relation to the story already 
related of Vjrasa, and the debasement of this 
branch of the Ueri-cola. Accordingly, on the 
death of Faiidu, Duryodhana, nephew of Pandu 
(son of Dhritarashtra, who from blindness 
could not inherit), asserted their illegitimacy 
before the assembled kin at Hastinapoor. With 
the aid, however, of the priesthood, and the 
blind Dhritarashtra, his nephew, Yoodiahtra, 
elder son of Pandu, was mvested by him with 
the seal of royalty, in the capital of Haalinapoor. 
Duryodhana'a. plots agaiBtt the Pandu and 
^ partizana weie «> bodmious, thst the fiv« 

brothers delermiued to leave for a whil* tbefr 
ancestral abodea on the Ganges, They sovglac 
shelter in foreign coantries about the lodaa 
and were &rat protected by Droopdeva, ki«0 of 
Panchalica, at whose capital, Kampilni^uf^ 
the surroundinig princes had anrived as suiton 
for the hand of his daughter, Proopdevi. But 
thepiize waa destined for theexiM Pando. 
aqd the skill of Aijoona in wkwj obtained biaa 
the fair, who " threw round his neA tbc 
barmala or garland of marriage." The dissp- 
4>aitited princes indulged Uieiz resentment 
against tke exile ; but from Ai^oona's bow tbey 
suSered the fate of Penelope's suitors, and ihe 
Pandu brought home his bride, who bccaoM 
ibd wife in common of the five brotbers>maa>- 
n^r« decisively Seythio. This marriage, so in*- 
consistent with hiadu detieacy, is gloaaed 
over^: Admitting the polyandrisit , bat ia 
ignorance of its being n aational castom<puerne 
rdasona are inttf polated. In the early anoata 
laf the satne race, pradeoeaatMof tbeJesanlaaer 
family, the younger ton is made to lueeeed t 
also a Scythic or Tatar enstom.^lWs R^am* 
ikan, Vol. I, pp. 47, 48. 

INDTERU. Mahk. Andgeri. Oai*. 

INDZAB. FusiiT. Grewia betulffifoUa, 3um, 

also Ficus caricoides- 

INIfiEiriA «r AjivA. . See Jains, 

INFANTS; Don Henrique. See Marco Palv. 

INFANTICIDE. Oliildten are greatly 
longed ^for by all the races inhabiting the 
Fouth And east of Asia. A prevailing ferl~ 
ing regarding thrm is sueh aa is expma- 
ed in PsbIqi ckzvii. 4, 0, " aa ftnrowa 
are in the band of a mighty man; so ate ilie 
diildren of the youth. Happy ia the num that 
hath hie <|uiver full of ibem, they shall net be 
asbanied, biit they shall apeak with the eua- 
mies in the gate," for, moat persona will hesi- 
t»tt» to attack a bii^e naited family. But the 
longing is for male children. Amongat hindos 
a»d Chinese, with whom apuit worship laigeljr 
prevails, sons are particularly longed .for in 
order to obtabi froffi them dutiey W.tfat 
manes of'thek pareats. The eastern eastoan 
of nursing a ohUd from the - hip dr side, as iti 
Isaiah Ix. 4( is stiU eontianed, and a doM 
born after vows^ is atill, aa in FNwirba X3tzj^ 
2, called the son of a vow. As in Qeoesia 
XXV. 6, the cbildrea of mabonaedans, bora 
of a wife of humbler birtb, or of a harent 
woman, are not deemed equal in eoeial rank t* 
the children of a high-born wife. Infanticide 
is still continued amongat certain ngpoot 
laoea, not however for the fulfilment of any vow 
or from any religious doty, but ^de or 
poverty innluce tlum td destroy their fernate 
ohil«h-ett, and many r»t^t tribe* have the 
aitvost diJeMty in ohtaGtine wiiMf,: T^he Chi- 

epH to life, but u) BO oouotiy of tlie uutli- 
ewt of Ana ie th« noriiising -ol chiidr^n ob 
raHigioM gxojfoAt* ooatuiu«d, tJwngh down lo 
ctMBfilfBtin^y reoeMi hiaterio tima*, tbe Pboeoi* 
cka^ Oirtb»giDt«ii9, AuBueans; Syriana, Bn- 
fagrlMMaa and twm I«r«BUte» and tbeir ntiigk* 
boui OB both ikicB of tbe Jordaai aaorifioBd 
tbaic dutdrai irilb the hoped for object of 
mrtiog raj gnat uid serious miefoiiune. 
A fWpaciaD legend is <^ Kl, the strong, offer- 
iag Bp his BOQ Ymltid or YeduJ, the beloved- 
Bl Wag the Knftuos, iBwuum, in. W-) Malekh 
Bri was (he asme as the T;risn Hercules, or 
Mdodi «T Bsl-Holoch, to whom, as ^iso to 
Ifae^ and Melekbet Artemis, tlo^ were sam- 
M. Za BabjloDia (Is. Ixvi. 3, Ez. xiil. 
U, xxxfv. 30) their neck or badcbone had 
to he broken unless redeemed. 1 he piinnpsl 
sacrifim bSec«d to ^ercuieft Ufoo» as veil 
ss t« bis asy Ifaieal oompaoion,were hnmao beingi^ 
vhieh i« Laodicia of Ffacinicia might be ran* 
■ened by a ^oe. At Cajrthage, the practice -of 
Mcrificiog their favourite children, and those 
(tf tbe hif^hest rank in honour of Hercules, 
cpi4ip|i«d down to their l^st wars. The 
l^cBd of the Grecian Hercules is that he be* 
nme inaoiia, burned his own children, as well 
IP tfaooe of bis twin brother Ipbicles, and 
w^«red bisguest Ipbitus. (Butteev* ir, Hft, 
lis )Tbe Gf^eksexposed their children on tbe 
hi^wajs to perish with bungeri or to be de- 
voured by beasts of pn^, and h&d their bar- 
hanme practioe aanotioned by some pf their 
most celebrated lawgivers. Among the Ro- 
■lans the custom of infantidde also prevailed 
ss it did nn the first discovery of America, 
anong some the savage tribes of that contL> 
aent. It is probable, says Miilthus, that 
tbe practice of infanticide had prevailed from 
the earliest of ages in Greece. — And when 
SoIoD permittpd tbe exposing of children, it is 
probable that hs only gave the sanctiun of law 
to a custom slresdy prevslenL Of all the state 
of OreMe, tfaeHiefoans are mentioned by ^lian, 
as tbe only exception to the generKl practice of 
expcwing infanta at tbe will of their parents. 
By tbe other states of Greece, infantiMde 
wasaanrttoned and legulated by law, under 
It^l provisions, for the regnlation of this 
pradioe. HsAthas, I. p. 291, in a note 
■ya: ham .snn^etly the laws rdatiag to 
the encourageB>«)t of marriage end -of childfen 
wa-e despised, appears from a speech of 
Kimctus F^ix, in Ootavio. Ci^. 80. 

Tos «mm video ptoaceatos iilios nunc fer- 
ii 4t avibna -exfOMre, nunc adatrsngulatofl 
■ iw ro nortis gencveotidere : Stmt qua in ipua 
Tis iw ib u a meiiicaniB^iia epetis origins futuri 
heainis eaEtMji«ant<ot parricidinm fiseiaut nnte 
pmm fugvant.** 1!his triop, be filds had grown 
8» auefa iotoa «uikoiik in Kane, tiiat eren Pliuy 
to emate it ; qooiuRia aiiquarun 

feeueditss i^eaa tiberis tali Mniii iadiged' 

4. xiiii^.c4. 

Among the Canaanites, the Pheoicians aod 
the Carthaginians, the sacnfiM of ohildicft waa 
prescribed as a pcopitiatioo to their sangui- 
nary deitica Molooh and Kronoa. In India, 
iufaDliBido' wae long aupposed to hava 
been Aonfiaed to the irMws ei B^kumar 
or Bajspansa, who inhabit distriota la- 
the neighbourhood of Benafes, but a larger 
knowledge disolesBd the existCAoe of a timiiar 
praolice among several tribes in Quzerat, all 
through Rl1jplHttn•,^and in nsany otiher psfto 
of IikUs. Tb» Ri^jkumsr and Bajavansa, is a 
portion of the territories of Oude aud the ad- 
joiiiiog provinces; and others, the Jharcjah, in 
the eotuitries of Kotch and &merat on tbe 
western, side of the putinsida of India 
alleged that the pc»fltioeof femle iafan^ieidm 
bad existed for 4,B00 yeua^. and ihe. lats 
Geaeral Walker in an acooant pt^Uehed hf 
M^or Moor, in en interestug work on tfaia 
eubjecr, estimated the number of deaths of 
male children snnu^ly, in Kulsh and fiuzent 
only, at no l^s than thirty thousand. 

When Cnptaiii Wallis visited Otaheite hod 
tbe neighhfmring ialnnds in the Suutb Siw, the 
practice was unhesitatingly avoivod by -liii*. 
iHsclvious Eereeoia societies in these islands.' 
la China, and also in Ja^i infant murdec 
is at fcbe present time prevataat ; the homA- 
practioe of female infanticide was conlnuMk ovec. 
sU Ar<tbia, in the time «T Mahomad *nd is 
fre^^nUy reprobated is the Koran. ■ 

It was the custom of the Talpur dynasty oC 
Sind to put to death all childmn bow to the 
princes of stflTe women. Dr. Barnes was ieh< 
formed tlia.-t o«e member of the fsmily elooo 
had dfstroyed 27 of his ilWgitimate offspring.) 
Dr, Co{>ke saw mammy like 'bodies o/ infoata 
in a e»ye in Bhagwana in Beluohistant aame of 
whiqh had a comparatively reeeitt appBarsooB. 
lafHuiicide of girl infants was common in Saur* 
rodah, by entombing them alive, or WEeppiu^ 
them in doth and so burying them. It was put 
B,n ond to by Colonel John Campbell about tha 
year in the great cities of Pekin andean- 
ton, Sir Geoi^e Stauntw found .tbe apo8S7e.of 
ohUdm to be TeTy«Hnaiem.ABioinv theChineat^ 
however, it is to be ascribed to thetr exiremn 
poverty. Jii India, tbe practice of tn^ticida 
obtains under two sets cif circumstances: 1st, 
in ca^es of illegitimacy when widows and their 
pursmours tifo the instigiators, and the sex of 
the vietim is not of much moment in detorvunr 
ing tlie crime ; Snd, in ihe. oiwe of fem^e inr 
fis^ amppg Jtnjputs, SQths, Jats and somp 
mahomedan tribes. The motives to tbia 
crime fire complex, though mainly, tbe smaU 
value And low estimate of tbe feoude ux, 
and the fear that wopAn Jutu^^waaa 

on the famity, b^"' 




ings contribute such as the expenses of msr- 
nage, the sense of being under a moral and 
pccuQiary obligation lo a son-in-lsv who, 
aware of the disgrace entailed by religious 
and traditionary feelings, upon a daughter's 
attsiutng puber^ aomarried, practises upon 
the feelings of tl» father for purposes of 
extortion ; the insane sense of honor which 
will not brook the thought of a daughter 
nurryiag beneath her, or remaining un- 
married ; and the conceit and exclnsiveness ol 
a HDidl tribe or caste which disdains inler- 
niiriaga.vith another. The law of popula- 
tion which provides for an excess of the 
female sex, coupled with tbo necessity of 
xaarriage before puberty, constitute another 
fundamental ground of infanticide. Polygamy 
also, especially among the Kulin bruhmans, 
and polyandry, as among the Koonda, 
prompt to the crime, because both praetiees 
abolish a mutual and reciprocal sense in the 
parent of the duty of supporting the olf- 
•priDg. Bat irrepressible sexual passion in 
the mala renaim, and leads to two eontequent 
crimes— -child-stealing and barter, and uuna- 
tunl oimes. 

The subject wm overlooked till 1667, when 
Mr. liobart, a youufi civilian, was sent into 
the same district to report whether, as was sop- 
posed, the practice had abated since 1656. 
Instead of this be disoovered that the bouses of 
certain Bijpoot clans were floored with skulla 
and the tanks choked with infants* bones. Sir 
William Muir, at onoe put represure measuea 
in forw, and applied to the QoTMiment of 
India for immediate legislation ; the Han'bia 
Mr. Stracliey aouordingly -moved for leave to 
introduce a Bill, and took occasion to trace the 
hisiory of our relation to the crime from the 
days of Jonathan Duncan, If Suttee was bad, 
the continued prevalenee of female infantioida, 
in our oldest districts is much worse. Ths 
races in British India, with nhom ii has beea 
customary to sscrifice their female children ara 
the Jut or Jat, the Bahtore rajputa of Jcjpora 
and Joudpore, the Jahrrjit rajputa of Cutoh and 
the Bajkomar race, the Sounui of Oaajam and 
the polyadrio Todah race on the Neilgherries. — 
Srowne on Infaniieide. Cormact on InfanH- 
cide. FrUsnd of India, CalmUa fieview. 
Gormack't FemaU In/mtieide, pp. 4i, 46. 
GjU. Myth. Mind. i. 173, Malcolm'n Bittory 

Infanticide was greatly condemned by the ! of Persia, hi. 11. p. 841. Hutmm: Sinde^p, 

Sikh guru Govind who says "With the slayers 
of daughters whoever has intercourse, him do 
I curse. And, again, '* Whosoever lakes food 
from the slaym of daughters, shall die un- 

Female infanticide, by violent measurfs, has 
greatly decreased smongst the Jat tribes ; but 
naay chiklren are allowed to die by neglect. 
The great cause of the crime was tlie excessive 
expenditure for their marriage, but this has 
been greatly curtailed. Hr. Duncan was the first 
vho bron{;ht the prevalence of infanticide to 

69. Female Infantiridef p. 43. CaieufUt 
Rezieto, Jai*nary 1871 , />. 4-'$. Oovind. Rehtt 
Jfameh. Extra to the Gmnt'b. OfMru^Aoaa** 
History of the Sikht, p. 383. Bee China ; 
Harm • infanticide ; Hajput. 

INFANTS.— Z;«ie xviii. 1 5. They brought 
unto Him also infants, that Ue would touch 
them. When a hiiidu spiritual guide (gooroo) 
visits a disciple, the latter takes his child to 
him lor his blessiug ; placing the infant before 
the gooroo, and forcing its head down to Ma 

the Botioe of the British rulers of India- He f'^.^*' ^!^« P'^^' "^'c^'* blessing which he 
became acquainted with its existence in 178? ti>^" some such words as these Live 

while at Juanpore, and be induced the Raj- 
kumsr tribe who practised it to enter into a cove- 
naut to discontinue the horrid practice, which 
the covenant recognized to be condemned in the 
Brahma Bywar Purana as a great crime. After 
the conquest of the Panjab, by the British, Mr* 
C. Baikes, called a public meeting of the 
sirdars and chiefs at Amritsar ; the meeting re> 
cognised as the causes for killing their female 
children the expenses of marriage for dowers 
and for the exactions of the Bhat, the Bai, the 
But, the Bhand, the Nai, the Merasi and other 
beggars, and the meeting resoWed to dis- 
continue, and suppress the practice. Indeed 
among the many pressing measures of re- 
form stopped by the mutiny, was the passing 
of an Act, actually draughted, to prevent and 
punish the crime of female infanticide. In 
1866, Mr. Moore, a special commissioner, had 
made the most startling revelations as to the 
prevalenOB of tiie erine ii the Bnttee dii^iot. 

lonti;* He learned; or, ' Be rich.' The usuaL 
blessing of a mahomedan faqir, or of a maho- 
medan man or woman, is Jio-baba,Live my child, 
Jio sahib. Live sir. Jio bibi sabih, haarat 
Maryam ka says, Lire, lady, under the protec- 
tioi^ of the Lady Mary. 

INFEUNO. Bp. Argemone Mexicana, Ztnis. 
MiauNM bigamtna.— £iM», | U. Isolds,— Jtwil. 
Bang-mai-sah.... BtntM. | Iron wood Etm, of Buy 

Eatur IcoQDa. 


This tree (trows in the Konkans, Nepaul, 
Assam and Fegn. It is of smaller girth ifaao 
the 1. xylocarpa. but grows io a great height, 
and has a black wood. Like the I. xylocarpa, 
it is called Iron wood by the English io Pega 
and TensBserim, In native gardens it is an 
ornamental tree, with sweet scented blosaoma 
and affording a thick beau^ul shade. Its eeeda 
are polMnoos #lMa^tift«^fil)d§l§, notwiih* 


sliDduig which they are lold at a high price iD 
the buar, anil are used bj Burmete aud Karena 
n a eondiment to their preBerved fish. — Drs. 
Scxb, MeClMland, Mcuon, Voigt. 


INGA DULCI3— JTiiWe, said A, 

HimoM dulois — Awfr- 



ffima ohinta... ».Tbl. 
„ Chindnga ... „ 

MuDla Tamsriod* Eaa. 

Sweet lag* 

OarkopaUi iiianun...TAil. 

This small tree is from llie Philippines, now 
pown in India ; attains to 12 to IS inubes 
ia diasaettr, and resemb'es the hawthorn in 
general appearance. Ii was introduced, 
into the Philippine isUndt, but was a 
Htxicao tree, whuh the Spaniards introduced 
into the- Eaalern Ardiipels^o. It furnishes a 
hard wood. It is a oiost valuable hedge plant, 
paAqM the best in India, and ia now spuringlr 
used aloDf soma of the railway lines of the 
pcMnsobu The pulp of the fruit ia 6<Uble, Tods 
Burioasly twisted. — Dra. Voigt^ Oleghont in 

y jg J ^ 

XyUa dokbnforoiiat I Acada zjlocarpaiir*//d[«. 

Jjimboo HiHD- 

Erool of MALABA.B- 

Eruralu nurnm ...Tam. 

Halei KTerei „ !* 

T«ngadu Tbl. 

Eonda Tangedo. 

Bojs oi tL« Godavery. 

fnm-h^Ao BcRH. 

Tazool Cak I 

Jamfaay ,t 

Jaaba iiiara Cah.Mahb. 
BeCada swamimki vrik- 

Am. Cam !♦ 

htm wood of AitMun, 
Faitridge wood.. Ebo. 

This Taluabte timber tree ia remarkable for ita 
thick woody legonwi it growa to a Urge sice 
is a atatriy tree which bloaaoms dwring the hot 
aeasoD, at which period itia nearly destitute of 
foliage, and ia met with in many parts of South* 
em India, in varying abuDdance. It is abun- 
dant ia tite Walliar forests of Coimbatore, it 
is sdso abundant in North Canars, particularly 
between Sircee and Yellapore, and is not un- 
eommon in the aea board forests of the Bombay 
l>Raideney, south of Panwell. In Canara and 
Ssnda, it gj^^* chiefly above the ghats in 
SoopehandDandelee, where it grows large; 
and, thcv^ its tough and stroag wood is very 
ueftil in house building, it i« met with in 
the Godavery forests where it grows vvy large 
on the noantaios, and theie is much <rf it in the 
Vizagapatam district. Dr. McClelland says, 
that in the Soatbem forests of Pegu, it is a 
plenlifnl large tree, firteen to eighteen inches 
in diameter, very lofty and straight, and would 
afford exceUent spars for naval purposes, if not 
too heavy. ' It is moat plentiful lu Prome, 
ctpeeiaUy near the forks of the Tcnnsserim, and 
very abundant in Amherst, Mergui aud Tavoy, 
la the Prome forests, it is nsoally about 6 feet 
in givthi bat in all the other biuiches of the 

Teaasserim, itattaifls a larger sise, fraqoenily 
8 or 9 feet. Dr. Brandia says it is abundant 
throughout the forests on and near the billa of 
Britisb Burmabt aud is, there, a mngnifieent 
tree. The sap wood is attacked by while anta 
and decR\a easily, but it is very limited io large 
trees. The heart wood of full grown tiees is of 
a chocolate colour and isasaid to last as long as 
teak. This wood woidd be invaluaUa ti it were 
not for its weight. It is of e very superior 
quality, is dark coloured, very hard, aud dense, 
strong and durable, &c. It is used, however, for 
house and bridge posts, ploughs, boat anchors, 
iu the construction of carts for naves of wheela 
and for all purposes demanding great strength, 
such as crooks for ships—knees and bends, 
posts, piles, and bridges : it is excellent for 
railway sleepers and is recommended for handles 
of chisels, gauges, kc, but is too heavy for 
other ordnance purposes, A cubic foot weigha 
lbs. 60 to 66. In a full grown tree on good 
soil, the average length of the trunk t6tbe 
first branch ia fiO feet and average girtb, 
measured at 6 feet from the ground is 9 feet. 
It stlls, there, at 12 aunss per cubic foot. In 
the Bombay Presidency, the tree doea not grow 
straight to any sice, and there it is not availahlo 
for house or ship building. An inch bar, of the 
Coimb,alore wood, austsiiied lbs. ^0. It is one 
of (he Iron woods of the Arracan and Pegu 
provinces, the other being the L biftemina. 
Nails cannot be driven into it. . The hard 
wood is as impervious to white ants as teak 
and is even more durable in the ground, Na^ 
tives assured Dr, Mason that they had aeea 
bouse posts of this wood takaa op after having 
stood forty years, and that the part whiiA had 
been buned was aa sound as new timber. 
Mr. Rohde did not meet with it in the Cireara 
exceeiling a foot or 14 inches in diameter, and, 
then, always faulty in tbe centre, he thinks it a 
good wood for screens, framing tf furniture, 
linings of drawers, tool handles, and lierierally 
for all purposes, for which a moderately hard, 
strong wood, not liable to split or cast about, 
is required. In the Madras Gun Carriago 
Manufactory, it is used for poles, axie oaaea, 
and braces for transport lioabers, poles and 
yokes for water carta, cheeks, axle cases for 
transport carriages, light mortar earts. In 
Uyaore, it is used for furniture, shafts, plough 
heads and knees, and crooked timbers in ship 
building, and railway sleepers. It has been 
largely used on the Madras Bailwsy, the 
sleepers exhibit a very fair durability, and 
it has * been employed extensively for 
piles, transoms and walling pieces. In small 
scantlings, it is liable to split and warp under 
exposure to tbe westher.— Drs. Wight, 
MoOklUndi £randis, Htuon, Gib»(»i, and 
Oltghvnt, M OontervatorU Jieport Captain 



logii^it of ihe Exhihilion of 1863. Cdpt^tk 
Tuckl€ and C'doael MaUland. Report of Aminff 
Chief Enginetr, Madras Railtray, Seoordt of 
ihf. OantuUi7ig Eugbner, fin'intr«d through 
Mr, Elvfin and Captain Pnn'Ui-gagt. AinsUe't 
Hat. Mrd. p. 213. 

INGANi, or liijni. Oyjiie of manganeK. 

INJAS, a }ava woofl of a browniih red 
colour, nnil very briiUeiUseij; for liausehold furni- 
ture^ cabinet-ware, &o. 

IXGHILIKAM. Tam, Cinnabar. 

INGHULAM. Sans, Cinitabar. 

l^fQtlUt^Dl. Sans. Amvgdalua eom- 
munis, Tlie almondr 

INSHURU. Sing, Ginger. 

INGlNiGAliA. Singh. Strychooa potato- 
mtn, L. 

linen jacket ueed ns an artinle oT dreu by Bur- 
mana. — Winier's B'lrvta, p. 54. 

INUIVL Sfso. Sdyclmos potatoram. 

ING LSET.MEN. UiiuH. An •m4>iguoua 
expression adiipted by Biu-rnesf^ m a salve (o 
Ibcir pride, for use when cQniftelled to hold ia- 
fiercourafi i»itS ■ Hijcnitary wlio is not id their 
rtetr an anoiiiieiJ king. It m^iy Bpply to ttie 
queen nf EngEaiid or to theGoveroor General. — 

iNGLIS- Hind., a peiigione^r. The word ia 
a corruprian of " Invnliiis." 

INGOMAAS. S^e Doliclio!! bulbosua. 

IXGOT, H smnll! wt;il^i>alinped mass of 
tia, oopper, gold or stiver, &c. of an 
iadeltiiite size ntitl weight. About 40 infrots 
of tin ig^D to liie ton. lu aomc: cauntries injects 
ol the precioua metaU pagg eurrem, aa silver 
EH Ciuna. In BuriniiU gold nuLl »l<rer ii»gota, 
«f balfuii onnce wet^dl avoirdupois, form part 
of the loeal cui'reroy.— Siwiiiflni'* Diet. 

INGOULEIZ, an [cdviw^ ii9 banks and tra- 
velling eastward ortr tUe slv.jfps^ are to ba ob- 
served inQutncrxble tuimili l^I'm breadtti and 
hei^lit bnnlly credible. Tlic dilt'erent mounds 
in tliia iinmenae TPgion of thedead.Tary greatly 
in aizo ; uml, where oite of unuinal maf(iiitude 
presGTitg itself, it ia gcTieralty surrounded by 
several of sin.iller {limeiisions. There can be 
Qo doubt tbftt the larger tuiimli are raised 
over I he bodies of princes and licroes ; and the 
minor 5ort cov^r the Tcmain^ of the foilowera 
of their artnies, or of iheir state, llie expoBie 
'Occupied by luoniiiDienta of tlic dead, extend 
Tejularly to tLe very fartlieat ali-utch of sight. 
Herodotua does not allon* na to appro- 
prinle these r^'Riote refrions of sepulture 
to the cnsuaL circuiuaUnce of w:ir. He declares 
them re^iuirtr pliice& of iiilennetit for whole 
nations, eiikI paTtirularlymentiotis, that whea- 
erer llie SoythirvTie lost a Vin^, or a chief. tbey 
Msembled iu great muUlLudes to solemise hie 
obaequiea ; and, aftei mnking the toar of 
Mrtain districts of the kingdom nitb -the corpse 



they stopped in the ooaotiy of the Gerrhi, «■ 
people who lited in the most Jiktaiit parts of 
Soyihia, and over whose lands the sepiilcbret 
were spread. A large quadrangular cx.caviLltoa. 
was then aiade in the earth (in dimensiooa 
more like a hall of banqaet than a ^rave), ladi 
within it waa placed a sort of Yv-r beariag tlA 
body of the deceased prince. U.iiisors we» 
laid at various distances around hliu, and thf 
whule covered wiik pieces of wood and brsnohes 
of the willow tree. In another pnrt of ths' 
same immense tomb, were deposited the re- 
mains of one of Ibelate soTereign'a concubittei^ 
who had been preTiously 8traiii;lt.'«t : alao kli 
firorite servaot, his baker, oook, iiur^ekeepcEt 
and even the hortea themaelTCs, lollowed 
him to the grave, and were laid in tiic aamtf 
tomb, with his most valuable prupLrty. aai- 
^oTe all, a auffidrut number ofuiii^lcn gubleU*: 
This done, the bollow was soon fiKcd and snvr 
mounted with wrth ; each peraou present bring 
ambitioua to do his part in raiaiiig iIe pile that 
was to honour his departed lord. Aliaul tix, 
miler from the ancient city of Sardi^ 
near the lake Gygteus, is sliU b« 
seen part of the great tumiilus erected im 
memory of Alyattea, fatiief of Cirr^nje. It it^ 
described byHerodotus as of prodis^ii^us lieij^Hi 
iiBvinK a base of stonesj on whieLi tlin e clnaatgr 
of people were employed to heap up its cnor'. 
rootia bulk. In t)ie time (if Strabo remains 
were two Imndred feet high, and ilie circumfer* 
ence three quarters of a. mile. Several gther 
tumuH surrounded it. This form of sepulture 
may be found ell over the world ; t>nd, liow 
lasting it is^ as a monument, may bp ^iithtred 
from the date of this very mound of Alynttes. 
which eould noi have been erected muehle-sthak 
two thouBBod four hundred years njfOt AtyuKca 
having been oontemporary with Nebiicbadn»* 
Ear, the king of Babylon who destrov eti Jern- 
salem about six hundred years beron- i^ie birth 
of Christ, Probably the smaller liintuli. com- 
monly seen enciroling a large one, mny contain 
the bodies of certain self-devoted iiteiub>er3 ol 
thedeeeased greatman's family, who vet Hid nol 
oonsider themstlves high enough to slinre hu 
actual grave • or, perhaps, of bia innards, who 
held it their doty to follow their ninaier into 
the other world. And, as the fashion of cbese 
bamn immolMiont would, likely, preimil 
through all degress of rank, wc m^y easiljr 
account for the graduated sizes of oiher 
monnds which uodnlate these dismal deserlt, 
even to the very horison. In some parts, w« 
find tumuli in distinct groups wi.ic of each 
other ; and in other pincea they appt^^ir ati]<rlT, 
like solitary and silent wnt(rii tiiwi rs nt dis- 
taat stations — Porter's Traveh, Vol. 1. p. 
&om is to 90. See Burial ; Cuirn^ 

INQRACH, alto Yang, also T^^b of Kai^ 
gra. Fragnria rcMft; — Lina^ cS*^*" 



IX6JK0MANIIUS. See Ahrimin; Arieos. 
INOU. Ualat. AMifostida^ 
INeVDI. Tbl AtMfOBtida. 
INOUDl. Sad a TenuDaUa ntappa, Zirnt. 
INGUDI BADAH. Fruit of Terminalia 

INGUDI-TAILAU. TsL.? Almond ail. 
INGVGA GHfilTUr Tkl. Stiyehncs 

INQUVA, also HingupRtri cbetlu- Tbl., 
Ferula asaafoetida^ h. AdfetSda. This word 
it alao geaerall;r applu<l to uTera) kindi of 
Gardenia, some of whicb yMd a mediciaal 
pun, partienlarlj tbe Q. gainmifpra, from 
vUch iaproduoed iha reaio nlted Dikam«li. 

XNGWJBR. &SE. Ginger. 

INGf A. Tn.. AaaaToBtida. 

INUATON— P A tree pleatirul, of Akjrab. 
farniihing a moderate sized wood, not web 
■sed. Gd Cat. Sz. 1663. 

INIAME. Pol. Flax seed. 

INJANI, HiiTD. Oymbopogon iwarancuaa. 

XN-JGBN. BuKH, A large tree, comiQcn 
IB the upper prormeea of Barmab, flowers, 
amall, pinkish yellow, veiy fragrant, groitisg 
in clinters, and oelebnrted in Burman poetry. 
Gaodaaaa, is said to haro died near one of 
tkaa trees. — Maieelm, r. i,p. 192. 

INJI SHVKKU.Tax. Green ginger, ffin- 
gStcr (^Bdnalii. 

IKJ1 NAF. Ualul. Fibn of Mimosa 

INJIBAB. Bistort root. 
1NJIMUGA3S. 81KOH., BlryoknoB polato- 
mm.—L. ^ 

INJIN PEWOO. Bbem. White Injin. 
Akglo-Bubh. Found iu abundance all over 
tbe provinces of Amherst, Tavoy and Mergui, 
of a maximum length of S3 feet and mazimom 
girth of 2 cubits. It fa very light and perish- 
able and only fit for firewood. — Capiai* Jkmce. 

INJUBIN. A». Honey. 

INK, a Japanese long meastire, nearly 75 

INK, fiLACt. 

JAi Ink*, ^ DcT. 

Kncre, Fft. 

Kitte, „ 6iK. 

fteiAii, Gtm, Biii». fxaa. 

iadUortr*^.., 1% 

AtraaiantDni, Lat. 

Ibngn, ]Dawat. Mauiy. 

The ordinaiy iok of the Chinese, composed 
«f lamp black and glue, is sufficiently pore to 
be osed in tbe arts. There are lereral varieties 
of ink, such as prioliug iiik, writing ink, mark- 
ing inkp India ink, &c, composed of different 
isgredient^ gall-nuts, copperas, gum* &Dd log- 
wood,. aeeordiBg to tbe purposes to which it 
k be api^itd. The uUc of China is in small 
•Ura^ cakes, nadily diffusible in watei: . It is 
iMe of ve^ WDp black, prepared with » 

Vaalii,... ....Valbal. 

Tschemno^ Rtrs. 

Hari „ ^6iMs. 

TiDU,-*. St. 

Bisk, .,.„.Sw. 

Mye,„., „......TaM. 

Sira.......... Tel. 

peculiar glue, or jolly. The TamooU otovaioii* 
elly make ink with nearly tbe same mate- 
rials as in Europe, but that which is used by Ifaft 
writers in the Cuteberries is thus pr^^red. 
Fint, a burnt rise water is to be made in kfaia 
way ; balf a seer of rice burnt black is to be well 
boiled in a seer and a balf of water, till but one 
seer reinniDs then strain oS the dregs. To this 
seer of burnt rice.wateristo be added two poUama 
Komluirruek or Lar, boil them well together 
and strain off the dregs. Haifa seerofCarpoQ 
veruum or Lamp black and half a pollam of 
Vullam piain or guiA arabic are theo to be 
well rubbsd Into a fine powder, and gradually 
added to the decoction of Komburruckand burnt 
rice water, when the whole are to be rubbed 
tt^ther and w^ ahakeo, at different jotervd* 
for the space of three days. The mahoaMdm» 
thus prepsre their ink. Take of Lunp Um^E oAd 
gam erabio equal qnaiUitics and pound tfaoiB 
together into a very fine powder. This powder 
is then to be moistened with the juice the 
pulp of the Kiittalay or small Aloe, and w«tt 
rubbed at intervals for two days together, eftar 
which it is to be formed into little cakea that 
are to be put oa plaufcain toves, and dried i» 
the sun for uae« 

For a good writing Ink take of Nat gaUs i 
lbs. Sulphate of iron 18 oc. Gum Arabic 13 ok 
pound galls, and take 14 bottles «f water, of 
whiok takei and boil tbe ^lla in it for 8 hoor^ 
in n large pot, cool, and pour off the dear liquid 
and strain the remainder (careful and r^MtoA 
straining, is the great secret of saceeasftf 
ink making) — take the remaining, 1 of water 
and dissolve the iron and gum, b^ cloves u k 
to prevent fungi, make all to 1£ bottles of fluid* 
Strain cvtry thing well — ^ui'a. Mat. Med. 
p. 175. 

INK, BLACK, for printers, is made of Tamp 
blaclc, linseed oil, rosin, browa aeap, and a 
small quantity of indigo. 

INK BIAJK ia made with indigo. 


'Segapoo Uj6.,.T*X. 

Is prepared by adding s little waiter toSkeb 
pnogie (red cotton) luttooka d«o<|i, Tkl. idao 
by sleeping and afterwards boiHog chips 'of 
10(1 dye woods in vinegar ; that formed by 
lake ia not permanent, fied ink, is also made 
with brazil wood infused m vinegar adding 
Alcohol, alum and gum.— ,^u*'<, Mai, Med. 
p. m. liohde US. 

INKITKIUN. Abab. Amber^ 

INLAIJ) WOBK of Bombay, has best 
carried oa in Bombay since the oommeneement 
of the niueteeoth century having been otigfii- 
aUy introduced from Hydexabadia 8iud. It is 
said to have been uitroduced ii^ £ind about 
twenty years previously from Persia ; its oaiive 
soat irauppoHd t« ^. 9him2.^.1i!ie«<Bombay 
thcwoik &M been cirried to mt» Tb» 


ttMlb WORK. 


mjiti^rifiU ua^tl in tho work are 

A mineral green dye for dyciog tlie stag's 

Tin Wire (Kylaoenotnr) used in the oms- 
meaUl venwring. 

SiadBlwood, ebony and sappanvood used 
in' the frfttric work, und sioietimes entering in- 
to theornaDiegld teneer. 

iTory, do. 

Stag's ^011 dyed green with mineral 

Qlufli, for binding. Ahmedfibad glun b«ing 
£u above all other kinds, including 

tools employed are a wheel for drawing 
tiie tin wire inio different shapes for the pre- 
panitiaiL of the ornamental patterns »Saws 
of d^erent kind", files, ohisels, drills, planes, 
ind ■ square^ The only mystery ii in the 
]itirtion of the work whteh appears inlaid, but 
«bidb is D«t \tW' in the first sense of the 
fisrm. The psttenw are veneered on, and may 
ba applied to any flat or gently rounded 
cMaoOi The ornamental veneer is prepared 
1^ Binding tngeihei the rods of ivory, tin, 
sappan, ebony and green dyed stags' horn, of 
different Btii|i^j. These rods are usually three 
sided, nliiiJrloal and obliquely four-sided. 
Th?iy nrct nrrait^ed Bo as when cut across to ex- 
hibit iltliiiite pacterus and in the mass present 
either ttie H[>pearfince of rods or of thin boards, 
the latter being to beslioBd down into borders. 
The primnry rods are sometimes bound to- 
gether befure being alioed, so as to form more 
oomplex patterns* The patterns commonly 
foaad ia Bombjiy ready prepared for'nse are : — 

IH- Clinkra (i, e. wheel), the smaller being 
of tha diametciT of a four penny bit, and the 
oF fi s,hilliu^. 

Slid. Kutkee or hexagonal, being compoB- 
cd of obliquely four sided rods, of ivory, ebony 
or sandalwood, nni of ebony, tin wire, puttung, 
and green dyed stags* horn mixed. 

^rd. Trenkoonia gool {i. e. three-aided 
^6«er% a thvoe-tidod pattern oompoaed of tin 
wire, eboayi, ivi»7i puttung, and green dyed 
staj;*4 horn. 

itL Gool (flower), obliquely foar-sided, 
and ooiTiponTided nq last. These sre all for the 
centrnl iftmeer. Tiie border patterns are : — 

5iA. Teek'^p, round and varying in si«e 
from a Iwo penny bit to a largo pin's head, and 
uaed Tor Lbs central patterns as well as for 

6tk. Guadeerifl (plumb, full), composed of 
all the m^t rials Hied in this work. 

7th, Dkdani (<ue grain), having the ap- 
ptuHHM of ■ singl* row of tin beads set in 

m. WttaA 10th, Poree lehar, ' Sansoo- 
^iMHuuio/ raiieties of border 

ornaments not easy to distinguish froni one 
another by mere description. 

In 1860, about fifty manufacturers were* 
established in Bombay, six, hud been aetded 
there from periods varying from twenty-five to 
forty-six years. A few employ workmen, but 
the majority work for themselves, with the aid 
in many casKS, of a brother or son. The inlaid 
work resembles Tunbridge ware. — I>r, Bird- 

INOC.^KPUS. See Hemandaeem. 
INOCULATION, is stili praetioed in the S. 
and East of Asia. 

INSCHI or Inschikiia. Zingiber officinalis. 
INSCRIPTIONS. Nearly all that we know 
of ancient India, and of the countries on its 
N- Western borders, with their former con- 
querors and rulers, has been obtained by 
the investigations of learned men into the 
legends on the numeroas ancient coins fuunilja 
Afghanistan, the Panjab and India ; and from 
the inscriptions found engraved on rocka and 
pillars and in caves, in various places in India, 
in Kabul, and throughout the ancient empires 
of Iran and Assyria ; throoi;h Hadramaut and 
Oman, in several districts of Arabia, and 
through the north of Africa. These, with 
the more celebrated remains of Eirypt, prove 
that literature was cultivated in those eonn- 
tries at a time when Europe wns inhabited by 
painted or tattooed barbarians- In all those 
countries, inBcriptions which have been gazed 
at with stupid wonder by the descendants of 
the people who engraved Uiem and asaribe<l to 
the workmanship of imps and genii, have been 
at length explained. Blany curious facta in 
history have been made known by the coin 
legends and rock inecriptions, and among others 
the extension of a Maoedoqjan empire over a 
great part of norlh-Western India, and the con- 
quest of the island of Ceylon by a buddhist 
sovereign of India, three centuries before tb« 
Christian era. 

Not less interestinz are the inseriptiona 5m 
the ancient Persian language, in the Assycian 
or cuneiform character, spread through the em- 
pire of the great Cyrus, which are likely to 
throw an important light on sacred as w^l as 
profane history, llie clua to the discovery of 
the sense of these Persian records was obtained 
by Grotefend, Lassen and Burnouf, and partly 
aided by it, though much more by his own 
ingennity, Sir Henry Hawlinaon was able to 
decipher many of these anci^t historical 
engravings. The records on the rocks and 
piHars sad caves of. north-Westem India 
and in India itself, are in two diaractm* 
styled the Arian or Baetrian and (he hak 
or Bndh, The term *' Lat" has been giren 
because found on certain pillars (** I>at. 
Sansc. a pilUr"^, ^i\zMNjA!^^f^* ^ The 
UA or Budfa or early FilTiHianmr is the 




M tbe Arlao* bat tiie fonss of the letters differ 
from tbe Ariao, and lheletterBsre larger. Iq- 
■oriptioo* m theie ebaractera are engraved on 
rock* at Kapurdigiri ia Afghaniitan; at 
Ciitiaek, at DeUti on a pillar^ alao oo piUars at 
Allababad, Betiah, Mutiiali and £adbui. 

One Delhi pillar ia square with ita facea to 
tbe cardinal pointa. On each face ia a framed 
inaeriplion. Another pillar near Delhi, haa 
been ealled the pillar of VeroS} beouue it atonda 
on the summit of a lai^e btiilding^ supposed to 
have been erected by Feres ehab who reigned 
ia Detbi A. D. 1351 to A. U. 1388. It is 37 
feet high, ia a single stone, hard and round. 
Its drcamrerence, where it joiQa the building, 
is lOi feet, it boa a more ancient ioscrip- 
tu» and one with a more recent charaoier, 
below, in Sanscrit, to the effect that r*jah 
Vigrah or Visala Deva had, in 1169 A. D.^ 
caused this pillar to be ioactibed afresh to de- 
rlaie that tbe laid nya who reigned over tbe 
Sikambari. had aubdued all tbe region* between 
the UimaTat «nd Vindb;ii< Thia pillar was 
creeled to eiyoin the doctriDea of Buddha, but 
tbe reading of it somewhat differa from that 

of the othera Though resemblinir the Girnar i , * l - v. . 

in»^ipUonin general purport, theae inacrip. t •P^K*" ? 
tions differ considerably in the structure of I 

certain aentenwa. The Delhi Feroz pillar waa 
found In a temple, and both Mr. James Prinsep 
and Frufeasor Wilson have attempted trnnsla- 
tiona of it. In a work by Dr. George Moore, 
M. D. on the " LoatTribea" published in London 
ia 1861, the author mentions that he has trans- 
lated all these rock and pillar aj;id cave inscrip- 
tions, after tmnslii crating them in Hebrew, ami 
that thia one ia a lameotadon to the Almighty 
M ruin and caiamitj. 

Tbe aame Lat or Bud*h chanustera found 
on tbe pillara at Delhi, Allnhabad and else- 
where, are alao found engraved on rocks. The 
ancient fimlh alphabet is really the simpler 
and more el^nt form of tbe refined Sanscrit 

The Allahabad inscription is similar to tliat 
at Delhi but has (our short lines additional, 
which, according to Dr. litre's mode of 
translating, treat on Ruin, Vanity, Equality, 
and the Wrath of God. 

There ia a atone now lodged in tbe mu- 
Knm of the Asiatic Socuty at Galcatta, which 
was found at Bairath near Bhatn-a, between 
D^i and Jejrpor, and has au inscription in 
ibe Bodh eharacter. 

The same character is also found in two 
ioaeriptious at Junir, of which one is on the 
Kaaeh. ghat. It ia in keeping with the in- 
aeription on the Delld pillar and on the rock 
at Gimar- 

The Girnar inscription was supposed by 
Ifr. James Pnnsep to be in the Pali lanKaage. 
But Dr. Moore states that it is in Hebrew 
and haa alldsion to some calamity or catas' 


trophe. It ia aaid also toeontain the doclriiM 
of Sakya, and in the firat aection to 
mention of the Arab, of the Greek in the 
fourth aection, and of theOetae in tbe twelftbf 
as all iuTolred in the aame Iroublv. 

The Arian or Bictrian character is that 
need ia the inacriptiona at Jellalabad, Hanik* 
byala, and at Kapurdigiri on topea or tumuli 
said to be numerous for about 300 milts 

JellalHbad is in the valley of Kabul, and 
contains many sepulchral topes, which also 
occur at Daranta and at Hidda or Idda in 
its neighbourhood. Thst at JeUalabad was 
opened by Mr. Maason and the inseription 
makes mention of Kadipbea. 

Manikhyala is aitaated near Jhetnm, on the 
banks of the river of that name, called by tbe 
Greeks, the Hydaspes. There are many topea 
there, one of which is 80 feet high with a 
circumference of 320 feet, 

Theae topes or tumuli, it ia now admitted 
are only oairua r^ularly built, and thia mode 
of sepulture is supposed to be alladed to in 
ihe' " heaps'^' and '* graves" and "tombs" 

csirns are 

still found scattered ovi-r hU the northern parfs 
of Europe and Aaia and down to Cape Comorin 
in Peninsnlsr India. 

' According to Dr. Moore, the Arian or 
, Bactrian language in which character the in- 
acriptiona at Kapurdigiri, Jellalnbad, and 
lianikhysla are engraved, was the language of 
Afghanistan in the limes of the Kanerki kings, 
in A. D. 81) and subsequently. He states 
that this Arian language waa Hebrew, and 
the people of Afghaniatan used tho Hebrew 
in the period extending from the commence- 
ment uf Ihe Greco- Bactrian dominion to the 
cnmmencement of the third century of our era. 
It was employed, he says, with some Greek, 
in Kabul, Hamean, the Hazara country, Lag- 
mail and the Panjab ; waa the vernacular lan- 
guage of the predominant people of tbe Para* 
misan range, Afghaniatan and part of the 
Panjab, at least up to tbe third or fourth 
century of the christian era. 

The Kapurdigiri inscription is on a roek 
on the side of a rocky and abropt hill 
near a village of that name in tbe distriot 
inhnbited by the Tust^ye. It reads from 
right to left, is in the Arian or Bactrian 
character, and is nearly a transliteration of 
that of Girnar, and tbe mode of reading jf, 
waa discovered by Mr. E. Norris. The lan- 
guage, he aaysi waa in use for several centQ- 
riea throughout that extensive line of country 
over which the Seleucidtc and their sncoeasora 
held dominion, — that ia to say, from the Para- 
pamisua or Caucasus^ to'they isfipet^p^tf^of the 




Pkitjib, including all Bactrii, Hindu Kush 
and A^iAuiitan* 

- Dr. Moore sanu up his observfttions by re- 
maining that ftt least two clasaes of people 
employed Ihe tankage expresied in this cba- 
taeter, the one using the Ariaii or Baotrian, 
of Itamian, kapurdigiri, fco., the other using 
the Budh or-Lat character, found on the Giroar 
rock and oo the pillar and in the cave temple 
iiiscriptionB : that theie two cliisaes of people 
aeein to be the Gebe and Saks, the so-called 
Arian character beioK-tbat used by the Gets, 
while the ^o-called Lat character was that of 
ihe Ssltee. 

IiiscriptioiTS on stones and on copper pUtea 
have also been met with all orer soutltem 
India, but fear of ihem are of a date prior lo the 
year 1000 of our era and the liirK«r portion 
are much later. Some give valuable facta and 
the Hamea of ^infta, bni the bulk of them re- 
cord matters of little inportanoe. 'the Lat 
character ooours rarely in the southern part of 
the peninsula ; still it is ihaouly one used on the 
sculptures at Ameravati, which have been des- 
cribed by tht) Rev. Mr- Taylor, and Mr. G. 
fergussoa and while ia charge of the Govern- 
ment Central Museum at Madras, we dispatched 
a Ur^e collection of its marbles to Enttland. 

An extensive -coltection of inscriptions waa 
niiiile by the late Colonel McKenzie, Surveyor 
Gi'iKjul} which also, the Udv. Mr. Taylor dea- 

Ill Malayala, as iu other parts of southern 
liidifl, inscriptions occur, in various ancient 
cliariielfra as well aa in modern lettera. The 
translation of the copperplate grant to the 
Svriiiii christians, which is stHI in their posses- 
sioir, made cousiderabte noise, somQ years since. 
U nill be found in the Journal of the Madras 
Literary Soriety. 

Compared with other nations, the use of 
letters in India, is recent. Though, as Profea- 

'sorMuliermeutiona, weread in the Old Tes- 
tament of writings, engravings, pens and books 
— in Kxodus xuv, xxv. Ifi; and xxxii, 

' 15, and 16 ; at least ISOO H. C. ; in Jobxiit, 
26, xix, 23 and 24 ; perhaps alrout the same 
age, and subsequeutly in Psalms xl, 7 ; xlv, 
1 ; Ivi, 8, and Ixix, 28, and in rroverbs iii, 3, 
at least 1000 years B. C— The first auiheiiti' 
cated iascriptioDS in India are those of the 
third century before 'Christ, enj^raved at Ka- 
purdigiri, DhauH. Girnar, &c. In the ten books 
(Maudala) of 1017 hymns in the Rig Veda, 
the art of writing is not even alluded to. At 

*the titae when the sont{s of the Rishis were 

. collected there is no allusion to writing mate- 
rials) whether of paper (papyrus) or bark (liber) 
or skini, nor ii there any allusion to writing 
during the whole of the Brahmaua period of 
Vedio literaturo. Even during the antra pe- 
liod all the evidcuoe obtiiiDed from them, nut 

l«ada to the MpptfaiUon that though the art of 
writing then began to be known, the whole 
literature of luiHa was still preserved bjoral 
tradition. T4ia statementa of Megaathenes and 
Strabo and Neardma, kowevar, ahiiw that iu 
their times, the art of writing was known in 
India, and that It waa practised before the time 
of Alexander's eoutpiest, nevertheleas the origin 
of the Indiiin alphabet cannot be traced back 
much beyond the date of Alexander's invasion. 
IheLalitavistara, however, one of the canonieal 
books of the buddhists, describes Sakya Sinba'a 
entry into the writing school (U-pi^la) nitd 
alphabet that he is described as learning is the 
-common Sanscrit alphabet. But in the times 
erru of Nearcltus and Megaathenes, letters do 
not seem to hare been a vehicle of literature. 
Neardiua dncribea ibe people as writinic oik 
compressed cotton, Hegaatfaenea aa making 
inacripiiona on milestones, and Ginti*i« aaya 
they wrote on the soft riad of trees. The in- 
scriptions generally supposed to have been «n- 
eraved by Asoka, three hundred years before 
the present era, with a view to promulgate the 
doctrines of Haddha, are therefore the oldest 
literary remains of l-ndia but areiipwarda of a 
thousand years later then the era wlien the 
tableta were engraved on mouut Sinai 

I1ie following Ja « list of aaeient inacripiiona 
published in tlie volumes of the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, from January, 1834, 
to March 1841, compiled by Lieutenant Colonel 
W. H. Sykes. p. b. 8. (Journal E. A- S. Vol. 
VI. pp. 482) broujtht up to the end of 1854, 
by Bahu Bigeudralal Hilra, 

1. AlUihahad Coluvm. 

Language of Inscription.— Sanacrit, Init not 

Date. — About A. D. 800, from the character 
of the inscription and ioteniat and extraneous 
evidence. Many of the letters are identical, 
and have the same phonic value with the Tibetan 
alphabet, adopted io the seventh century. 
Many letters, eight consonauta and three 
vowels are wanting of the modem Deva Nagart, 
and sfanilarly in Tibetan. 

CltarHi^er used in inscription. — Deva Nnjcari 
in transitu, identicid niih that of the Gayn 
inscrip'.ion,flud also, like Mr. Wathen's iti?crip- 
tious from "Qujariit, anil that ot Mahabalipur, 
which WKS of great Udc in deciphering the pre- 

Religion; or Dtvinitiea or Saxes mentioned. 
— Siva, Ganesa, Brahma, Varuna, Vishm-, 
Kudra, Chandra, Ai£oi, Nandi, Kama, Garuda 
Balarama, Indra, Kuvera, Yama, Gaodharvas, 
Nareda, Arjuna, Pandu, Bhisbma, Gauga. No 
mention of Tantraa. 

Kings or Princes meutiooed. — Gnpfa, father 
of Ghatolkacha. father fiT/tUTdfagupia, who 
isnatenul zrMm%PuSSitMAv»iot 




Kaamn Disvi who » Ihe rather of the King 
of King! Samudra Guptii. 

Renarka.— This inflcri)>tioR of a eadra fa- 
nulv is engmveil npoii » piHar which- had been 
pRTtoiisly raitpd in honour of bnt^hiMn, and 
bore a buddbtst inamptimi upon ii. Dr. Mill, 
the tranalalor, fn eomeqaenco of numeroot 
laeoiue, was ohli^ed to aiipply tho amae oc* 
cutonaHy. The ehmraeier is that of the Deva 
Na^ri in transitn, and approaches that of the 
Gaya inscription, whicb is known to be of the 
ateventfa ceotury. A fftlleii kiiisr, Sflnnnlni 
6upta, by means of his abte minister, Oiri 
KsUa Baka, mtorfs the fortunes of his houee ; 
bat it is ooly his father^ Chaodra Gupta, and 
himodf. who actoally ettaia royalty. Mr. Mill 
»ys that Bmhmans hare that honor as spirilua) 
BttpcTiors, which wo find assigned to them 
is the Bamayana aud Mahabharata— net that 
exemive anperioriiy and extnifagant bom^ 
which in anbsequetit ages they claimed from 
princes ; the Knhman hen contrtbntes to the 
honor af the king, not as in some later insoip- 
tions, the king to the honor of the Jtrshmans.— 
Voi. HI, p. 283 m6 999— Vol. Ytp. m. 

3. Oujein. 

Langnage of Inecription.—- Jain hnoripMon. 

Date.— A. I>. S7I, but if the Jain era or 
Uaharira be intendeil, the date is B. C. 106. 

Character used in lnBeription.--Old eharae- 
ier, bat iiitelligiUe to the Jains. 

Beligton - or iMtinllies or Sage* oentioiicd. 
—Not mentioned. 

Kings or Pirinoet mentioned. — Ghandra- 

Bemarks. — The Mahabharata is aUnded to ; 
Nepal and Assam mentioned : and Dbananjaya 
was ruler of the north country. 

This is an inscription mentioned by Qui. 
Todd, bnt not published : it was obtained 
from Jain authorities. The character required 
a ker, but wb9 known to the Jain hierarehs. 
Kint Chandra Gupta reigning at Oujein is 
nnapected.— r. H. A. 8. Vol. 1. pp. 140 
OJKf 211. 

Bnt Chandra Gupta is also the name or one of 
the Chohan prinees of AJmeer, grandson of 
Manikya Rai whose date ia Axed A. D. 
a«d bia descendant. Prithq Bai, was the last 
Hindu King who reiftned in Indraprestha, or 
Delhi.— Vol. III. p. 342. 


6. Bahra, 

c Jiediak. 
langnage of InscriptfOtti^Pali. 
Bate— 315. B. 0. 

Oharaeter used id InsoripUoii. — Old Pali. 
Bdigion ; or Princes or Bages mentioned.— 

Kings or Pyinees BWRtioiMd.-'PUdaBi, or 

Bemarics. — These are notices, by Mr. Hodg- 
sen of Nepal, of three tall pillar^ or cohimns, 
in north Behnrj. two of the pillars surmonnted 
by a lion, and each having an inscription upon 
the shnfi. whieh was unintelligible at the time 
Mr. Hodgson wrote, 24th April, 1834. The 
Bettiah inaeriplion is precisely the same an 
that of Delhi and Allahahad, Ko. l—VoU III. 
p. 483. yol. IV. p, 12ft. 

4. Sovcki. 

Ltnguages of Inscription. — FaK. 

Date B. G. 40 P but the SamTst 16 nay 

not be of the era of Vieramaditya. 

Character ueed in Inscriptions.— Betswen 
Allahabad No. 2, or Kanouj Nagari and Delhi 
Lat, or old Pali. 

Ueligion ; or Dirinitiea or Sages mention- 
ed. — Buddhist. 

Kinffs or Princes mentioned.— Obsndagutto 
in Pali ^ €%andra Gupta in Sanskrit. 

Reroarka,— Very nnmeroua inscriptions are 
upon the basement of a prodigious ohaitya, 
or relic temple, of an hemispherical form, 
bnilt without cement^ whose ciicomrerence ia 
534 f&et, and fallen as it is,, its- height is still 
Its feet. There are three gateways, each 40 
feet high. Chpt. Fell thinks the date to be 
samvat, 18, or B. C. — ? The splendid bas re-^ 
liefa represent the dedication of a ohaitya. 1'he 
Emperor Chauflagulto buys land for the Bud- 
dhist temple, apd pays for it in dinars • and 
killing a Brahman is not so great a crime by 
five-fold as the taking away the land fVom the 
ten^te. It is to be obaerted of the fij^raa 
making offerings to the ohaitya that their ap- 
pearance is exactly that of moat modem Hin- 
dus ; dressed in a dhotee round the h>uis and 
tliigiis, and mhid from, the waiit upward^ with 
a tiirband upon the head.— ToZ. III. p. 488. 

5. Iron pillar at Dd/ii, 

Date.— dale, but scarcely earlier than 
A. p. 800^ the chnracter. looking more moilem 
than Kaoouj Nagari. 

Character used in fnseripUon. — Many letters 
^rce with the Kanouj Kagari but the genera! 
aspect ia more modern. 

Beligion ; or Dirinities or Sages mention- 
ed.— Vaishiiara, but uo inrooation or ntmu 
of Gods. 

Kings or Prinees mentioned. — Prinoe Dha- 
va, an usurper, at Hastinapnr, 

Bemarks. — The inscription is punched upon 
an iron pillar, and the only thing remarkable 
in it is the mention of the Bactrians called 
Tallekhns, being still in Sindh. From the 
compound letters used, insoription must tfe 
long after the fifth oentary. - ToE. III. p. 
Vol. Yll. p.. 629. 

6. Aarli neetr Poona. 
language of Inscription. — Sanskrit, 
Numerous inseriptions ir 
Langni^ of Insei^i 





Dflte.— B. D. 543, by Dr. WiUon, but if 
the B«HTabaiia era be iateuded, then A, D. 176, 
Dr- StereDBon. 

Character ueed in Inscriptiona. — Slightly 
modified Lat. 

Belifcion, or Divinitiee or Snj^i mention- 
ed. — Buddhut ; tbe invoctitiun ia to Uie Triiid • 
no doubt meaning Buddha, Dkanua, S^nga. 

Kinffs or Princes mentioned.— Dr. Wilaon 
says Vijara. Dr. SterenaoQ, ArodbHUa, lord of 
India, Qarga, ruler of the Shake. 

Bemarks.-^Tbeae are some of the numerous 
Buddhist inscriptions in the oave temple at 
Karli. Drs. WilBon anil Stev«nBoii are not 
quite agreed about the readini;. t^arga, the 
*' ruler of the Shake" (Sakyaa, B>iddi<a's tribe) 
ia mentioned. Ur. Bteveoaon mistakes the 
laoffuage for Sanskrit, which Mr. Priniep 
provea to be Pali, from copies sent by Col. 
Sykes. The excavation of the temples, and 
gifli bv individuala in aid, are meutioiied.— - 
Vol. Ill, p. 499. 

7. On imaget of Buddlta from the temple 
of Sarnath at Benares, ajtd on an image from 
Bakkra, in Tirhttt. 

Langoage of Inscriptioii. — Sanskrit, but 
not pure. 

Date.— .Uler A. D. 800, and that of 8ar- 
nath, probably of the eleveulh century. 

Character nsed in Inscriptioii. — More mo- 
dern than Kanouj Majjari ; a[)proachiDg the 
modern character. 

Beligbn ; or Divinities or Saj^es mention- 
ed, — Buddhist. Tathagala, Sramacaa, Bud- 

Kings or Princes mentioned, — None. 

Remarks. — These insciiptions upon images 
of Buddha, althou^ch in ii comparatively mo- 
dern form of the Deva NH<{ari, the Brahmans, 
of Benares oould noi rend. They contain the 
quaint compendium of Buddhist doctrines, 
commencing with Ye dharma hetuprabhaVa, 
&c. ; but tho Sanskrit text of Uie moral 
maxim has not been found in the Tibetan 
Pragna Faramita. These are the first Bud- 
dhist iuficriptioiis itr Sxnskiit met with, aud 
they are most remarkable, showing at their 
late date that Sanskrit was still imperfect! 
The mounds and ri^raains near Bakhra testify 
to a former Buddhist city. From copper- 
plate inscriptions fouud near Sarnath it u 
.oonjectured the Buddhist temple was erected 
by thd sons of Bhupala, a rajah of Gaur, in 
tlw ^venth oentury. The image and iuaortp- 
lion wodd probably be of the aame date, and 
the charaoter of the insoription corres- 
ponds to that date — Yol. 17, p. 135, 181, 
211, and 713. 

8. X/naridKmoiaML, 20 miUt north q/ JBaih' 
rOj in tight of tie Oandat River. 

Language of Inscriptioa. Sanskrit. 

Date.— About the date of the Bakhra 
image inscription. 

Character need iu loscription.—- Sama as 
Sarnath and Bakhra character. 

Ke%ian ; or Diviuitiea or Sages mention' 
ed — BrahmauioaL The ATaiara. The Sakta 
hynn of the Big Veda mentioned but uo invo- 
oation or Hindu gods named. 

Kings 01 Prinoea mentioned. Cbaodza* 
datia, son of Suryadatta. 

Bemarks. — The insoription is imperfect* bui. 
Dr. Hill says that the ever-living Chandra- 
datta was bom on the Sunday appropriated 
to the reading of the Sakta -by hia lather 
Suryadatta. The Sukta has for one of its 
verses the holy " gayatri." 7ut. IT. p. 12tt 
asd 286. 

». The MOHHteM temple ofKareha of Sis- 

Languages of Insoription.-- Gnmmatieal 
Sanskrit, but with soma unnaual terms, and 
some inexplioable words. 

Date.-BRetedA.D.961,fini8faed A.0 973. 

Charaoter oaed in Inscription. — More ibo> 
dem than that of the Kanouj Ueva Nagari, or 
Allahabad inscription, No. 2. 

Beligiott ; or Divinities or Sages mention- 
ed.— Mythology of the Puranas, Siva. The 
Framahtea Munies, and Taties arn called 
immortal. lodra, Kama, Nandi. The Napas, 
Rama, Bala Bama, Viahnu, Krishna, Sanibho, 
Visvakarma. The portico of the temple ia 
jtraeed with the presence of Gayn, the holy 
Asura. Gayatri is called the wifie of Brahma. 

Kings, or Princes mentioned. — Gavaka of 
the Cbauhan family, A. D 800. Chandra Kiya, 
Ids son, A. D. 830. Gavaka, his son, A. D. 
860. Chandra, his son. A. D. 890. Tskpata, 
his son, A. D. 920. Sinha Baja who appear* 
to have lost hia kingdom of Sbakavali A. I). 
961. Vigraha Baja of the Solar race not related 
to Binha Baja, and probably of Kanoi:|j. 

Vakpata appears to have had a hoatile op- 
ponuit, Tantra Pala, whom he defeated ; his 
yonnger brother was Dnrlabha. Ajaya Sri 
Baja gives grant of village. 

Bemarks. — The inscription is st a tempi 
of the Ltnfia (Siva), aud Dr. Mill says " thi 
ofaaraoLer furuiahes a, definite standard fn» 
whidi the ages of other monuments, of aimila 
or mora remotely membling oharaotera, 
be inferred with tolemble aeeuraey-" Tbi 
temple was built to commemorate the dealnie< 
tion of the Asura, or demon Tripura, who hat 
expelled Indra and the gods from heavoi 
and, on the mountain, Siva was felicitated h] 
the gods, whence the name Harsha (joy) 
The princes are bnt donors and benefactors 
the Bfafamana are represented as the res 
builders ; their spiritual genealogy is traced 
one of then is made an inoamation of Kandi 
siuilar in spleoidotQ^iai^the ^;tfai^d<tity hiaueU 




•na tbey m callad Loidi of tbe Earth." 
Indra is called Ehmta in tko iDBcriplioD*. 
Sin is ideotified with hia phalUe embleia, end 
be is alao caUed the eiffhk formed one. Xbo 
sandal-wood vt Mal«bar nuntioDed. Nudity, 
cktted hftir, ud tmhu, ebaneterisa the Brah- 
aaa teaekere. The lereDues of numeroua 
TiUagea are (civen for the rapport of the temple. 
Ik ia aingtilar that Qenapati, the «on of Siva, 
is not mentioiied ; Metniaf^ to indicate that 
hia worship waa not vet established. Vol. IV. 
p. S67. 

10. Bala&ki^ in OufortU Copper plait*. 
Character ated in luscriptioa.**Be8eiuhleB 

Dr. Willciiia'e Gaya inaeiiptiona of eleventh 
oeatu^, but near Kauouj Nagari of «%hth. 

Religion or Divinities or Snftes meiitioDul ■— 
Ko iavooHtion to the gods. Mahesvara, Menu, 
Dbnnna Bqa, or YudbiaUiira, Bbi^viiia (or 
Vishnu) Sniya. Sevara (or eupid) Kuvera, 
Ganju. SlababharatK, isquoied. 

Kiogs or Prinoea meotioned, — Generals, 
Bhatarka. Dbara Sena. Maharajas, Drona 
BinhA. Dhniva Sena 1st. Dhirapsttiih. Grifaa 
Seoa. Sriflhara Sena Ist. Biladitya Ist, 
Obaragriba Ist. Sridhara Sena 2imJ, Dlirava 
Seoa Snd, Sridhara Seba Srd, 9iUditya, 
Two Princes. Charagriha 2nd, Sil«dilya, 3fd 

Uatc—A. D. 32S. 

Benarks. — These are grants of laud to 
Bribman priests. Ur. Watben, like Mr. Priii- 
aep, refera the modern Deva Nagari, through 
various ohangea which be ahows in inserip- 
Uoua of different scea, to the old Pnli, Let, or 
column diaraeter. The era uaed in tiie inserip- 
lion is the Valnbhi era, oorrcBponding to iha 
S73th of Vikramditya, or A, D. 3l». Balabhi, 
or Balbarra. is Tepreaented to h^ve been des- 
troyed under Siiaditya Srd, A. D. 524, by a 
Baetro-indian Army ; it is supposed to be tbe 
BysBDtinu of Ptolemy. In the first inscrip- 
tioa, Dhruva Sena is a follower of Bhagavets, 
and Dbarapattak of tbe aun ; all the rest wor- 
ifaipSin. The Brabmana are not apokanof 
with way reaped or veneration, aa tbe grants 
nmply aay, 1 give to sndiand such a Bnhman. 
Very oonaiderable doubt ezista with respect to 
tte acearaoy of tbe date of the inscription. 
The cbaracter conespoods to that of tbe eighth 
eontnry. When Huian thsang waa at Balabhi 
u the seventh oootuiy, (here were 100 Budd- 
hist monasteries, and 600 Buddhist priests ; 
smI tbe klB& eltbough a Kahatriyn, waa a 

11. Simdkapwa Ccpper'pUttMmmekd^aetd. 
I>nte.»A.D. 6&»P 

Kinga or Ptinees ineuUoned.^Siladitya 

IS. atom tlai in ihe/wt oj Cftwur, sear 

Langn^ of Inaaiption.— Sanakrit, and 
soBKotkHiofitbeiDg ungrsmmatkat. 

DAte.~A. D. 1333. 

Cbaracter used in Inscriptions.— Modara 
Dcva Nagari, very slightly altered. 

Beligion, or Diviuitiea or 8«ges mention* 
ed. — Opena with n aolutation to Oaoapati, 
Shambhu, Bbagavati (tbe goddess Anna 
Ptuva Devi). 

Kings or Princes menlioned. — Devaka father 
of Devana, father of Chandrtigana, elder 
brother of Svami Kaja. 

Keiiiarks. — Tbe inscription records tbe at- 
tacks on tlie fort of Chunar by Mahomaed 
i^hah, Emperor of Delhi, dvfeniled by Swami, 
a Baja of Benares, wiio tc^ether witli his 
progeuitors, are unknown in bist"ry. Tlie 
inscription is valuable as showing the atate of 
tbe Deva Nagari in tbu fourteenth century. 
The inTOoation to QanspHti shows tliat bis 
worship waa now eatablisbedi which probably 
weamitibe caas at the. lime of the Har^a 
ioaeriptioo.— Yvl. V . 34 1 . 

18. (7a»M OA Adymia. 

Lauguage of Inscriptions. — Pali ? 

Dale. — Not mentioned- 

Characier used in Inacrtptione.— One re- 
sembling Balibbi and one ia tbe Seoul pa- 
rallelogram beaded cbaracter, whid la of the 
elevemh and twelfth ceotuiies. 

Keli^ioQ, or Diviuitiea or Sagea mentioa- 
ed — Buddbist. 

Kiiit(a or Princes mentioned — None \ but 
the aculptuies and paiutiags evidently repio* 
BCBt royal peraooagei and royal duiugSL 

The first is oue of the uumeioua ioaaipkioiis 
in the Buddhist eaves at Adjmita, and ia el 
interest from tlie cl>araoter resembling that 
of Watben's Balibbi iiiscriptiou, which with 
others sbow ilie gradHtions of the cbaracter 
upwards into antiquity. The caves are re« 
markablc for their paintings as well as sculp- 
ture. Capt. Gresley says amongst tbe paint- 
ings there are three Chineae figures I— 
Vol, p. 556. 

l4. Piplianoffor in Bkopal^ on copper plata. 

Language oi Inscriptious.— Sanskrit. 

Date.— A D. 1210. 

Cbaracter used in inaeriptioDs. — ^Dera Na-- 
gari, little altered. 

Religion, or Divinities or Sskcb mention- 
ed. — Instead of the usual ' Hindu invocation, 
it is to Virtue. The snake Sheaba, Parssu- 
Bama, Bama, Sita, Yudhishthira, Bhima, 
Eansa, Indrai Saraswati, Sambhu. 

Kii^e or priooea mentioned. — Baja Bhoja 
Deva, son, Udayaditya. Naravarma. Tasfao* 
wma, 1 1 3 7> A. D. J^aynurautt 1 1 43, 
A. D. Viadbayavarma sou Amaahyamms, 
son, Aijuna, living. 

The inacriptifHi waa communicated by Ur. 
L. Wilkioson. It gives away the revenuea of 




qQent reference to the heroes of the poemi, «nd 
the fibaenee of the niaat reverential notiees of 
the now popular Hindu i^odfl. Firearns in the 
thirteentl) ceotury eoatd not hare been iiaed, 
for tbo S(icceiae» in war of the prinoes ar« 
oviiur to fli|thts of arrowt. Bubhatavarna ap- 
pears to hHVe destroyed Patsn in Giijant Ttw 
larm Pergannah hsing uaed, the Uahomedane 
mntt have preriausly arranged tha dieirieto. 
The eapitiil of the Prinon vat Mandu nr 
Oiijein.— roi. V, p. 877. 

l&. Asirffar, a fort i» Kcmde»h con m seal. 
Language of InsoriptioDt. — Sanskrit, bat not 
quite grammatical. 

Date. — Tenth or elerenth century, by the 

Charjieter used in Inseripiion*. — Dera Na- 
gari, resembling tlie Gaya or Gonr, approaob' 
iiig AlUliabad No. S. 

Beligton or Divinities or Sigea menUoned. 
~Tb«e is not any invoeali'in, or any meotion 
of gods, but only nrania ; but there is a bull 
oa the seal, and two men, one with a sceptre 
and axe, aud the other with umbrella and 

Kings or princes mentioned. — The great 
Kings Hari Varms, son, Aditys VarmA ; do, 
Isvara Varma • do. Stnhs VHrma ; do. Kharva 
Varms, who is called King of Kings. 

Bemarke. — Mention is made that the Rajas 
Aditya Varma and Israra Varma were married 
to the eldest daughters of the Gupta raeetwhieb 
nay be that of the AlUhabad insortutiooa and 
Kanoti] coins. If so, the Ueva Kaxari of the 
iBteription wonbl conRnn the belief of the 
Qaptaa being of the ninth and tenlb centuries.' 
The Rajas were probably Prinoes of Kandesh — 
FoKY. p. 483. 

- 16' Barah'it and Gopeavara in Gark«al^ 
upon two bronge tridents ntpeeiwdy twenty- 
crte and tixUru fett iigA, 

LinguHt[« of InscriptioBB'— Semi-barbar- 
ous Sanskrit. 

Date. — Sot mentioned. 

Character used in Inscriptions. — ^The oldest 
inscriptions approaching Allahabad No. 2. and 
Uifl others nearly mod«m Dava Nsitari. 

Rdigion, or Divinities or Sagea mentioned — 
No religious invoestion bayond Bvastisir, and 
tio mention of Hindu gods whatever in the 
more recent inscription on the Gopeerara tri- 
, dent, the invocation is Aura SraSti, and the 
spot is called sacred to Mahadera, 

Kings or Princes mentioned* — Names not 
made out iit the old inscription ; but in the 
recent Sanskrit inscription from Oopesvara, 
the name of prince Anio Mall occurs. 

Remarks. — The tridents with their inscrip- 
tions are instructive : they are precisely of the 
form of the trident on the Indo-Soythie coins, 
with the aze attached to the abaft i the oldest 
ii»criptioiu--wbieh, however, from tht form of 

tlie Deva Nsgari, eannoi be before the seventfir 
eentury— are in relief npon the shaft, and make 
no meatfon ef Mahadeva or Hinduism ; but 
the more recent are cut into the trident, which 
must have been taken down to admit of the 
incision. In one of these is the Aum and the 
nana of Mahadera, wWch bad im asaoeiation 
originally with the tridents. The facta 
strengthen the inferenee tbat the trident on 
the coins has nothing to do with Hindoism.— 
Vol, V. p. 547 and 485. 

17. Harhurermi and other plaeee i* Ceylam t 
vmneroiM rock imaoripUone. 

Languagcof Insoriptiona.—Psli. 

I>ate.— From 104 B. G. to twelfth century. 

Character used in Inaoriptions. — From the 
list to the modem Taasnl ebanttter. 

Beltgion ; or DiTintties or d^jci mention- 
ed.— Buddlnat. 

KIngo or FriBoea mentioned, — Not slated. 

Bemarka. — Sir Wilmot Horton says, there 
are thotwanda of these inioriptions in Ceylon 
and they exhibit the Deva Nagari in all ita 
transitions. The ineeriptions would appear to 
be much defaced, and little is yet made of tliem. 
—Vol. V. p. 664. 

1 8. AiijvMta MSM SN Kmidnh ; snwraZ im- 

Language of Inscriptions.— Pali. . 

Date..— Before the eighth century, A. D. 

Chsracter used in inscriptions. — Interme- 
diate, between the Lat and Allahabad, No. 2. 

Religion ; or iMviniiies or Sages mentioned. 
— Buddhists ; one of the inseriptiona oommen^ 
ing with the formula, " Ye dhama.'* 

Kings or Prinoes mentioned. — Not stated. 

Remarks. — Th«se inscriptions appear to he 
of different ages, from varutions in the charac- 
ter; bnt owing to mutilations, Mr. Prinsep had 
done little with them. One of them is in tite 
Seoni pnrallellogram headed characters. It is 
very curious that the figures of Chinese are re- 
presented in the fresco paintings in the eaves. 
The paintings are admirable for their spirit and 
variety of eubjects. — KoJ. V. p 556. 

1 9. Nagnrjvna Gate, Buddha Qa^ niwKr- 
OHS inscripiioiu. 

Language of inscriptions.— Sanskrit ; bnt 
requiring tin aid of a Pali scholar to banslate it. 

Date.— Samvat 7S or 74 of the G»pala or 
Rhapala dynnsiy of Ganr, etHmsponding to 
1197 A D.or lUOP 

Character used in Inscriptions. — Gsur alpha* 
bet, the immediate parent of the modem Ben- 
gali, and like the Harsha. 

Religion ; or Divinities or Ssges mentioned. 
—•Salutation to Bnddha,Uahvira Swami,Sahas- 
rapada, the treasurer of the raja, is called a 
conscientious Rodhiaatwa. 

Kings or princes menfioned.— Asoka Chan- 
dra Deva; bis brother, pififiTp^l^KpiQwra, ud 

Sri Hat LakshmfMi'M 



ftcmarlcs. ^Thii inwripUoa ii of eonahler- 
«b1e importance as, by its ern of 73, it eonfinias 
Mr. Colebrooke's correctinu by a thousand years 
of Dr. Wilkiii'a dat« of the G^ya inscription 
trtnalated by the tatter. It is of great import- 
auccj also, as it distinctly shows the Buddhist 
impressiou in those days, of what Nibutti or 
Nirvana maant, namely — as expressed in the in. 
Bcnption — "the nbsoTption of bis (the wriier's) 
aoal in the Supreme Being,'* disposintc at the 
qneation of BncUihist atheism. The inscription 
ifaowa that theBudilfaists bar! atill a hold in India 
in (he tweKih century. It waa recorded by 
SSabaarapada, the treasurer of the Kaja Dasarath, 
KamaTH. The Princes are not inet with in 
Hindu history.— foi. V. p. 660. 

20. Nagaymna^ at Gaya. 
Iffinguage of Inscription. — Sanskrit. 
Date. — Eleventh century. 
Cfasracler used in Inscription. — Gaur. 
Religion : or Divinitna or Sages mentioned. 

— Buddhiet. 

Kin^ or Princes mentione<f.— Yagna Vannaf 
aud his grandsou Ananta Varma. 

Remarks.<*-Tfae cavje catted Nagarjiina. after 
a celelMrated Buddhist patriarch, is said in tlie 
inscription to hiTe Wn excavated by Anauta 
Tanna— ro/. Y.p. 657. 

21. On imagetvf Buddha at Vajfo. 
I^nnjEuajte of Inscription. — Not stated. 
Date. — Nut stated. 

Character used iu Inscription.— Not stated. 

Heligion ; or Divinities or dHges mentioned. 
— Buddhist. 

Kinije or Princes mentioned.— Bnja Tijayo: 

Kemarks. — By the intcriptioB on the images, 
one of them was raised by the Rajah Vijaya- 
UuidTa,and the other by Jftgaaen and Kumara 
Sen, aona of Punyabhadra, private persons. 
The Brabmans now caH a fignre of Buddha — 
of course a male~and with the Buddhist text 
** dharmabefu," kc, upon it, tiie Hindu 
gtxldeas Saraswali \—Fol. V. p. 1S8. 

22. Oil a atone at Buddhn-Oaya. 

Language of tnscTiption- — Sanskrit. 

Dale.— Samwat lOOS or A 1>. 

Character used iu iDscription. —Allahabad 
No. 2. 

RelifOon ; or Divinities or Sages mentioned 

Kings or Princes mentioned.— Kot stated. 

BeiAarfcs.— The insoription is ^»idt by Dr. 
Wilkina, to support that the lempYe of Bud* 
dfaa, at Btiddba-Oaya, was built by Amara 
])eva, the author of the Amara Kosha : but 
it must mean restored, as it was srcn before 
Amara Dcva*s time by Fa-hian.— Fot. V. «. 

23. Oh a atone at BudJha-Gaya. 
Language of inscription,— Burmese. 
Date.— A. D. 1309. 



C%ancter nsed In Inscription. — ?ali. 
Heligion ; or Divinities or Sages mention- 
ed.— 'Buddhist. 

Kings or Princes mentioned. — ^The Burmese 
King is mentioned. 

Remarks.— The Burmese inscription says 
the Chaitya, or temple, was lirat built by 
Asoka, S 1 8 years after Buddha, or B C. 325; 
often restored and fi'ially restored by the 
Burmese Envoys. A. D. 1305.— ro^. V. p. 

34. SHtari Lat or Pillar^ GJuuipw, 

Language of Inscription .—Nut pure San- 
slcrit, nor easily intelligible. 

Date subsequent to Allahabad No. 2 ; and 
Dr. Hill saya, not earlier than- Charlemagne 
in Earope, A. D. 800, if the Onptas be those 
of tbe Furanns. Moreover, the mention of 
the seetarifU worship of. tbe lUiagaTala and 
Tantras makes tbe date comparatively modem* 
Obaraeter used in lawriptioo. — Same as 
Allahabad No. 3, or Kanonj Nagari, with 
numerous mis-spel lings. 

Heliiiion ; or Divinities or Sages mention- 
ed.~No invocation. Indra, Varuna, Yama, 
Krishna, Siva, Site, the Tantras, Devaki, the 
mother of Krishna, Budra ; but loads of 
forest timber are ocdiected for the eoinpletion 
of sacrifices for Indm, Yaruna, and Yaron 
only i and not fur Siva or Vishnu, 'fbete 
Ust, therefor^ msy have had honour, but not 

Kings or Princes mentioned.- The greet 
King, Gupta. His son, do., Qbatot KMba: 
do. King of kings, Chamlfa Oapta, do. King 
of kings, Samudra Gupta, do. Chandra Gupta 
2nd : do. kumara Gupta, do. Skauda Gupta a 
miuor, Mahmidra Gupta? 

Kemarks.- This inscription, like that of 
Allahabad, No. is intruded on a Buddhist 
column, and is subsequent to it, as it carries 

on the Gupta family from Saraudra to the 
boy Mahendra. Chandra Gupta 2iid^ and 
Kumata Gupta followed Vishnu worship, 
but Skanda Gnpta attached himself to the 
opposite doctrines, now so prevalent, of the 
mysterious and sanguinary Tantras. Skanda 
Gupta WHS dispossessed of bis kingdom, fur a 
time, by a treacherous minister. This wss the 
case, when the Chinese traveller, Hnian-thaang 
reachwl Behar, in the sevrnth century, sod he 
may refer to the event mentioned in the in- 
scription ; buC he calls Hia king hy a nsme 
eoNslrued to be Silsditya, Hnd no king of this 
name reigned in Behar ; nor nearer than iu 
Gnjerat. The Gupt s, |irobably, succeeded 
the buddhist kinga of Btlar. The absence 
of the insertion ortheTantms in the Allahabad 
inscription, and their intertion here, would 
seem to Indicate lheizp«j^odji of vJheL<4iriKin, of 
this worship— f'o/. K-i). 661, 



IS. SicfUi 9lab in, ihcttateum of the Asia- 

LanguBi^e of iiiKcripLioit.— Not Sanskrit ; 
uQg,T8iniDaticBl as to be scarcely iotelligi^ 


Datb — N^o (fate, but (i^Eer, eteventh oentary, 
frCHU tha cliaincter. 

ChafAGtttf used in Inscription. — Dera Na- 
^ari of the HftTaha iiiacrlption nearly. 

Reli^ioii, or DivinUics or Sajces mentioned. 
— Invocition to Krigltuflj hb son of VMsu-Deva, 
>fnrAyfliifl, a« Lord af^lW(^'«Dd Creator, Vedas, 

l^illgs ori BriowB msnUoiied.— None men- 


ItBm.irU ' — Tlie inscription defines tbeboun- 
tlfiriea of ifliicis, apparently beloD^ng to a 
leniplo gf Vishnu. 'Hto inwription is only 
Taluible as abowin^ the TAriation in the form 
of tba laUert, Ich, vb. and a.— To^. V. p. 

36. Seani^ in tin ^NrhiuUa or Ntrmada 

lAub'iat, on five Capper ytata, 

Lnngm^e of Ifiacriptions. — Questionable 
fluekrit. ot'tcTi unintclliirible. 

Date.' — Tli^bteenth year of Pravara dham- 
niirjijviL fjiiiiivHt, alQtt^Sl #ti. after Hahendra 
Gupta of KuTioitj. 

Char,ict<;r iiawl in Inaoriptioa, — Allahabad 
^o. 2, with Bu npeii p>irHllelDgrani at the head 
4f each JetEer. 

Bdigion ; or DivUii^ or Sages mention- 
<'d. — Mq juvopati<Wt BtfUirava, Sivalinna, 
JUbuvva^ Yadliistlitn, Ifllhnu, Sama Veda. 

XiB(C» M Pflnoea mflufcioned. — Hajas Pra- 
wft Sena, Sri Rndrn Sena, PrithiTi Sena, 

Kudrn Sifna Siiil : Hr!iv!ir!i Sena 2nd. 

Remarks. — None of the, princes are known 
in liiEtory ; but tht; inaciiption adds another 
Oupta (D''Vn> who h called " Purnnionnt 
Sovfici^'n, ' nil I wlinge fiauithler was the rao- 
tlier or Hu'lr>i Seii;i 2n<l. Ttie Deva Nagari 
is curious, littvin^ hii opc^ii parallelosram at 
the head of ench ktter. The Vikramaditya 
era not used in tbia ; nor commonly in early 
inscriptioQi. Gires a rillon to a Brahman, 
btit vitbout any eulogy of Brahmans. Beitar, 
or forced labogir, ia meatianed. Similar Deva 
Jfaijari ia met with at Chattisgadi. — FoL F. 
p. 727. 

27. x%ib in iltc MiiSBumof the Asiatic 
Socicti/ of SftJi'jnJ, 

Linii;iJ!im; n[ Tnat^riptinn — SfinsTcrit, but 
epar^cly int^-tlijiiblt'. 

Date.— SarnvTi ! i^^i:^, ^ A, D. 1035. 

Characiet uRf^iUii ruaenption. — Deva N«- 
gari, or Snrnntii in^riptto^ 

Rtftigioii ; or DivgoCili^ar Sages mentioned. 
— Not mentioned^ 

Kini^s or Frinqeq m^nliDned. The great 
Xhs Yaao Fali^ 

ISemarka.— Yaso Pala, as king of Delhi, la* | 
snes orders to his officers, but for what p«i>>l 
pose ia not made out. — Vol. V, p. 731. 

28. On a slab at Warra^ in the KonkoM, . 

LsDgiiage of Iiisciiptioo.— Not mentioned. 
Dale.— None. 

Cbamcter used in Inscription. — Saurashtia: 
coins, and long tailed Dera Nasari. 

Uelii^ion } or Divinities or Sages nirntio4> 
ed. — ISo gods mentioned, but there ia a tri> 
sula on the slab. 

Kings or Princep mentioned. — None. 

Keraarks— The inscription is a fragment, 
and cannot be fully translated ; but Mr. Prlnaep 
says it maybe as old aa the. Gujarat coina 
with Greek heads upon them. I'be trisul, 
without the mention of Hindu gods, would 
seem to indicate that it is not necessarily aa 
exoluaive emblem of SiTa. — Vol. V, p. S40. 

29. Slab in the Jfuseum of the AgioHe 
Society, Bengal ; from. BhuhanegwaTf Oritatt. 

Lan^ua^e of Inscription— Qrammatieal 
Sanskrit, with double raeaiiioKS. 

Date.-^Samrat 3^ of the Gaur era. A. D. 

Character used in Inscription. — Qaur, or 
Harsh a. 

Religion ; or Divinities or Sages mentioned.— 
Invocation " Om Vasu DeVa, Krishna. 
Kari, Kamala, Sarn&wati, Bhava, Brahma, and 
Siva, Mahasa, Qaruda. Bhaktis, Lakshmi, three 
Vedas only named 

Kings or Princes mentioned.— Private family 
one of whom, was minister lo a raja Kari- 
varma Dera. The rajahs of Banga and 

Beraarks. — This inscription dAlicates a etone 
imHge of VishnUf ami is in praise of a Brahman 
and his ancestors, for buildiag a temple, and ia 
full of Puranic fable. One of the worthy 
Brahmans, Bhava Deva, iffiya 100 damsel^ 
" brieht-eyed/' to a temple. The sea of 
Buddhism ia apoken of, and Bhava Deva, the 
Brahman, as rqual to the Omniscient, and 
skilful at annihilating the opinima of heretics. 
- Vol. n. p. 88. 

30 From ilifi ruina of a magn^icmA 
Suddhist OluiUya at AmaravaU {Oomra- 
waii) in Serar ? Mvieum of A, S* S, m Atanu- 

Lauguagfl of Inscription — Sanskrit, but 
neither pure uor of correct orthography. 

Pate. — Not mentioned, but of the transition 
period to modem Deva Nagari A. D. 600, to 
A. D. lOOO. 

Character used in Inscription. — Ceylon, 
Seoni, and Andhra, pnssin}!; to florid Soulheni 
Indian, and has much resemblance to that of 
some of the rock inscriptions at Hahabalipnr. 

UeligioQ ; or Diviniti^or Sagefi jpentioned. 
Bnddhisffl iscatf^lWkht^adygrtWTing and 




the rery uedlent relii^ion of Ihe people wk{ch 
it ia hoped will eoJnn for ever. 

Kioge or ftinoee nmtioned. — ^Not made 

I Remarks. — The inscription, whieh it im- 
' perfeet, lefert to the foundation and eodov- 
Bunt of some Buddhist institution. It says, 
" plaee ia not to be giTM to the disputer of 
Bnddhiw \" uTertheleaa praiKa Uiose who 
nUeve tte goeat and the Bfahman, and eon- 
ndera iajaries to the goda and Brahnans as 
grest sins 1 ! At the date of the inaoription, 
itierefore, there was not anjr hostility betwi-eo 
Buddhists and Brahraans.— KoI. VI. ji. 218. 

31. Slab in Museum A. 8. B. from Bhu- 
banegwwr. Oompanion Slab qf tie one before 
noticed from the game place* 

Langsage irf Inscription.— Polished Sanafcriti 
and eieeedingly inflated. 

Date.— A. D. 1174, is the date of Aaiyanka 
Bhiou's aaoeot of the throne, in the aoiwls of 

Charaeter used in InseripUona.-— Haraha, or 
Shetwaiti, almost modem Den Nagari. 

Beligion ; or Divinities or Sagea meutioaed. 
— Salutation to Siva, and Qaataou ia ealled 
the chief of Sages, Indra, Vishnu, Brahma, 
Bama, Kamadeva, Aaauta. 

Kings or Prinoea menlioaed.— An^anka 

Bemarks.— This prinoe was celebrated in 
OrisM and endowed Jagaunatha. He bad the 
mtsfortuiie to kill a Brahman, and raised numer- 
ana tem^ea in expiation of hu offmee at one 
of which was the sldi ; and the slab led to the 
identifieatinn of the pteeedii^ at Bhubaneswar ; 
but ^at inseription was Vaiahnava, this Saiva. 

— roi,vi.^. a?7. 

S3. AmcA*, near Bhilech SAopal, on the 
Buddhiet tem^ Cfateway. 

Langnage of Inscription.— Sanskrit prose. 
Date.— Ssmvat 403, or 1008 or 18 P The 
SMue, Samvat 18, is mentioned in the inserip- 
tion at Brahmeswan, but the charaeter is of 
the tenth century. 

Charaeter used in Inscription.— Bvidentlj 
btcr thkn AUahsbad, No. S. 

Ket^ioa ; or Divinities or Sages mentioned. 
— ^Buddhist. The uiseriplion ia aildressed to 
tte Sramanaa, or buddhiat prieata, and saluta- 
tion is offbred to the eternal goda or goddess. 

Kif^p or Piinees mentioned. — The great 
emperor Clhandiagupta, ealled by his subjects 
0eva Biga or Iwlra. Possibly Chendragupta 
Inri, of the Bhitari eolamn insoription. But 
he must hare deserted the religion of bis 

Bemarks.— The inseription records a monmr 
eontiibution, the ot^n being catted ''Dinar, 
aad a grant of land by the freat Bmperor 
Ghaadra Gupta, fw the embellishing of the 
diilya and (he so^ortof fire Buddhiat pricits 

fdr erei^ snd it records the remnrkabli; fact of 
tbo purohiise of the ground by the Emperor for 
the purpose at the ieital ritte. It is uncertain 
whether the Samvat in the inscription is that 
of Vikramditya ; it is much more likely to be 
a Buddhist family era. It ia said, whoso 
diall destroy the structure, his sin shall be as 
great, yea five times aa great, aa that of th« 
.mnrdrr of a Brahman." So that the Brahnan 
was at a discount of Sve hundred per oeat co ni- 
ps red with the Buddhist chaitya 1 From the 
corruption iiidieated by the salutation of the 
EtemnI Gods and Ooddesies and the alphabet, 
used, the inscription is probably not older than 
the eighth century.— Fo/. VI, p. 4ft*. 

33. Second inseription diito, ditto, on the 
Buddhists temple at Sanchi. 

Lsugunge of Inscription. — Ditto. 

Date.— Numerals unintelligible. 

Characler used in Inscription.— Ditto. 

Religion ; or Divinities or Sages mentioned. 
—Buddhist. Mentions the holy m one aery of 
Kakonada Sphola ; and the four Buddhas are 
thrioe named ; and images of four Buddhaa axe 
in niches. 

Kinits or Princes mentioned. — Not mentioned. 
BemarkB. — This inscription records that a 
female dev»)tee, Hariswamini, to prevent beg- 
ging, caused an almshouse to be e/ected, and 
money was given for the lamps of the four 
Buddhas ; so that, at this period, as Fa-Iiian 
states, more than one Bwldha was worshipped. 
The nnmemls of the data are not underaiood. 
— Vol. VII. p. 469, 

34. iMenptimu 8 lo 39, o» iA« BuiUmi 
temple at Saneki, 

Language of Inarriptiona.^ — Old Pali. 

Date. — Ditto, but before the fifth eentnry. 

Oharaeier used in Inaeriptions. — ^Tarymg 
from Lit to Allahabad No. 3, or Gaya* 

Religion ; or Divinities or Sages mention- 
ed.— -Gifis to the chaitya recorded. 

Eitigs or Princes mentioned. — Kot men- 

Remarks-— All the iosoripUona are in the 
ehardcter before the Allahabad No. t, or Oaya, 
therefore before the eighth oentury, and they 
are of different ^ea : they record small gifta 
by Buddhiats to the chaitya— parttrnlariy by 
different eommuniUes of Buddhists from 
Oogein ; and there Is a regular progression in 
the form of the letters, from the simple outline 
to the more embellished type of the second 
alphabet of Allahabad.- m VI. ^ 461. 

S5. Column* at D^i,Allakahad,Jiatfiai, 

Language of Inscriptions. — Pali, but of an 
old ohanioter, between PhH and Sanskrit, 
possibly the original of both. The plirase- 
otogy ahnple and alraightfwward, opposed to 
Sanskrit hyperbolieal enlogy>Md' extr^TSgmit 
exaggeratioik Digitized byXjOOSlC 


I by' 


Dale.— the Mofaawinsol the foarteentb 
year of Asoka'a reif^ii eorrespondi to the 332nd 
year after the death of Buddha, and tberefora 
to B. C. 31 1 and the iosoription being in the 
27ih year of his Kign, the date is B. O, 298. 
The Dipawanso saya, Awka was inaugunted 
218 jean after the death of Sakja, therefure 
B. C. 320. 

Ohaneter used m iBsertptioDs.*— Lat, or 
oldest form of Den NsKarif which latter is 
dedaeible from it, letier by letter through 
successive nf;e^ excepting the new or addi- 
tional Sanskrit letters. 

Bfli^ion ; or Divinities or Sages mention- 
ed. — Buddhist, of this there can be no doubt 
flrom the injunctions to teach, '* Dhanna" 
under the sacred tree, and turning the wheel 
of the law, the mention of the ascetic disci- 
ples ; oertaiD dogmas, and the obsernmce of 
the three holy days, monthly, mentioned by 
Fa-hinn, preachings, See., and Babhana or 
(Bmhmans) are to be oonrerted, and Und- 
ne>s and condesoension shown to Brahmans 
and Sramnns. 

Kings or Princes mentioned.^^Fiyadusi or 
Asoka, emperor of all India, identified as 
Asoka by the Hon. Mr. Tumour, froja the Pali 
Dipawanso, which states that he waa the 
grandson of Chaudagutto, and viceroy of On- 
geio.^. A. a. B. Vol. VI. p, 791. 

. Bemarks.— The inscriptions are the same 
on all the eokuina. Five hundred years ago, 
the author of the Haft Aklim, Mahomed 
Amin, said the oharactar was uaiotelligible' to 
the learned of all religions. No images of. 
Buddha, no temples ot relics mentioned. But 
Dharma (the doctrine) is to be taught under 
the sacred tree. The chief object is the in- 
terdict of the slaaghter or destruction of any 
living oreature, an4 the abolishment of torture 
in punishments, and the panishment of death 
for criminals, and the eserapting snimats from 
work on the stated days. But the days, 
8th, t4th, and 16th. of the moou, do not quite 
accord with modern Buddhist practices. The 
name of Buddha, Ootsma, or Sakya Muni, 
sot mentioned ; but the expra^tiioa, Sakatiim 
Kachhato, whitiii Mr. Frinsep aupposea is iit* 
tended for Sqgatam GIsehhato, or Sugato 
(well come) 8 name of Bixildlia ; and the ia- 
aoriptions have frequent references to the acts 
to be done under the holy fig-tree, Buddha's 
!Ficu8 Indies. The inscription 0|>ens in the 
twenty-seventh year of the king, Deva- 
nampiya Piyadui*s anointment. Asoka dis- 
tinctly says, the object of his doctrines is to 
increase the mercy and charity, the truth and 
puritr, the kindness and honesty, of the world. 
The King, saya he, prays for those of every 
oreed that they, with him, may attain eternal 
salratioa. Xhu is not atheism. 

3^. Th« <A<m sioM psUor at HdkL 

Langua^ of luscrl ptiona.-— Sanskrit. 

Date>-Sftmvat IS»0, or A. D. 1168. 

CharHCter used in Inscriptions — Almost nx^ 
dern Dsva Nagari. 

Religion ; or Divinities or Sagea mentioned. 
— Hinda. ■ 

Kings or Princes nentioned.— Vaeida Devit- 

Remarks. — This inscription waa eat upm 
one of the old lata, or Buddhist oulumne, to re^ 
cord Veaala's netorin, but lot against tb»- 
Buddhiste, beeauae they were gone. — TbI. VI, 
p. 576. 

37. Slah^om Kwffoada, in Ca»ara. 
Language of Inaoriptions.— Canarese, but 

invooation Sanskrit. 

Date.— ZatiTafaana 90», A. D. 987 ; and- 
there is an era of the family Madimal, 710. 
corresponding to the above. 

Gharaeterused in Inscriptions, Hala Canara- 

Beligion ; or Uinnities or Saiiea ■cnlioned. 
—Invocation to Siva as Swayambhunatb, Pap> 
baft^ Saaibhu. 

Kinga or. Princes mentfoDed. - Ifaefaoaai 
Deva and his eon Boohwaa. 

Bemarka.— The iasoripcion is remarkably 
adiertiug to the date, for the terms "suppresaar 
of the pride of the Daityas," applied to Sanbhis 
(Siva), having relation apparently to the exter- 
mination uf the Budhista, not long prerioualy^ 
by tke^daivas. Tbe inscription givee landa fo 
a temple of Sambhn, and houses to the native 
pxiaathood. Nni a word about Brahraans, and 
the menlioQ of '* native priesthood" would suews 
to ooulirm the belief of the modem iniroduetioa 
of the Brahnutns into Smthern India. — VoL, 

38. Fort of Kalinjar in BundUkund, on m 
black mnjtrbie a2cUk 

Language of Inseriptioes.— Sanakiib 
. Date.~A. D. 1246 ? 

Character used in Insoripttoae.—Peouliar 
elongated and narrow Dera Nagari, not unlika 
Seoni, or the Lower Kanouj coins. 

Religion ; or Diviuities or Sages mentioned* 
— luvooation to Siva* Sambhu, FarbiUe, Uanga, 
Puraiiic imagery. 

Kings or Priucee mentioned.— Pannalik, or 
tbe Milleki nijas of tbe mussalmaa hiatorians. 

Bcmarka.— The inaraiption is OHitihited. U 
was trom a temple of Mahadeva. The Bijft 
was defeated by the Delhi monarch, Mahomed 
bio AlUmsb, A. D. 1S16.— Fuf. ¥1. ^, 665. 

39. 6umt, OiUtackf oa Coj^t^-pLaU. 
Laogaage of InaeripUoos*— Uiztum of Saa- 

sktjt,;Uriya and Tamil 

Date.— Nalgulliera Samvat I ; unknown, bub 
tbe writing is after the teeth oentwry. 

Character used in InseriptioiiSi — Oaur or 
Bbubandswar of tenth oentnry. 

Religion \ at Diviuities or Sages mentioned* 
— InvocidMa t0 JUa,. ^LamafO^gis, Scqoag. 



Tfce Yai«r - Veda and tin Shtima Saitn 


Kulau of the BbMnjamalU family, or Sri Netri 
Bhrtija. grandton'of Shatra Devi^ Mtt of flana 

Jfemirka.— This iiuoription gives a village 
to a Brahmau, raaembtinK tbe god of the Bbaa- 
ja mouuUin. It concludea with the usual qao- 
(atioR from tbe Dhanoa, that he jvJto disturbs 
the grant, and all his aBcestora, riiall b^me 
loathsome nafcgota ia dunfc. 

40. Buddha Qaiya 7a^t«daavefn,or Nafta^' 
jfun. Other iiacriptim* itoeuiy-tArae. Iwtarip. 
No. 1. 

Ijan^aire of InMrtpiwns.— SanskriL 

]>ate.— ^iur Allahabad No. 3, and of the 
ninth or tmik contury. 

Cbaraeier used in inacriptiona.— Gaya ; and 
^iffora iltfchtly fnm the GujanA alphabet of 
Watfaen, baring many compound lettera, and is 
therafora owia modarii than it. 

BeUvun ; or Diviaitiea or BagM mentioned. 
— Devi Mabeabaaura The inafie of Kaiyayni, 
is placed ia this aaran of the Vindhya mouu- 
taina, so- that this part must have been eon- 
aidrred pari af the Viadhyab 

King* or Frincea meiitiQned.-*y^aa Varma, 
Sardnla Varma, An^a Varma. 
' BaaMfhs'- Tliia is the iosnri^ion translated 
by &r. f Williiaa, but subaequently more lite- 
laMy done by a boy educated in the Baasorit 
College at Calcutta, TIte io*eription given tbe 
Ttlbge.ef Pandi to Devi ; but tbera ia not a 
vord about Btthmana, nor Puranie fablaa, 
nnleaa the word Bfahiahaiiura inplieaiu— Fe^* 
VI. It. 671, 

AI.BudtnaGava, VawUeS eawriit w Nayar' 
juni. Other inscriptions 16, iracriptiotl Fo, 1. 

Language of Inscription. — Sanscrit. 

Dote. — After Allahabad No> 9, and of the 
ninth or tenth century. 

Otaraetar seed in lascriptions.-^-Oaya ; and 
dHTert slightly from the Qigarat alphabet of 
Mf. Wathen, baring many compound Mters, 
aad ia therefore more modem than it 

Beti^ton ; or Divinities or Sagea mentioaed. 
—No god« mentioned. 

Kings or pfineea meiitioned.--'8ardlittla 
Varma, Krishaa. 

42. Budda GayOj Vaulted cavern or Ifapar- 
Juni. Olko" iaseripiipnt 16 and 17. 

Langoage of Inscnptioa.: — Sanscrit. 

Dala.~After Allahabad No. 2. aad of the 
laath or t««tk eentury. 

Chaipetar nfed ia in9crip(ioni.i— Gaya ^ and 
differs iliKh(iy Irom^ tbe Oiyivat alphabet of 
lir, Watjlienl. having iqauj conpouftd letters^ 
Mid ia.tharefof^ sR^re jmod^rn than it. 

B(4ijf;ioi« ;: o; piviflitiet or Sagea maatioiied. 
— ^ gqda ve»U9|wd» Twiia. 


■Kinga or princea mentioiied.* 8oD of Anaita 

Bemarka. — These inscriptions, in the same 
character as the preceding, only contnin 
praises of the Varma priuces, who, Mr. J. Prin- 
aep thinks, were of the Gupta family. They 
are alt m the Buddha cave of Nagarjuna. 

43. Budda. Oaya, VanUed aaem, or Sagar- 
juni. Other imeriptioM 2 and 3. 

Language of Inscription. — Old Pali. 

Date.— B. C. 280 to B. 0. 247. 

Character used in inscriptions.— Old Lat. 

Heligion • or Divinitias or Sages mentioned. 
-^Buddhist, Buddha, Ascetics mentioned, for 
whose use the cave was formed. 

Kings or Princes mentioned. — The beloved 
of the gods, Daaalathaaa, in Pali, Dasaratha, 
in Sanscrit. 

Remarks. — The title of raja not appIierT* 
but the terms are " immediately upon his re* 
ceiving regal anointment." These inscriptions 
are of (treat moment. In the Puranie propheey 
Dasaratha is placed next but one below Asoka, 
and the character and language make bion near- 
ly the coDtemporery of Agatbocles in Bactria 
and Mahasewa Suratitsa in Ceylon. The iu- 
scriptions record that the Brriiman glrKa cave 
and the milkmaid's cave were ezeavated by the 
Buddhist ascetics, and devoted to them in per^ 
petuity by Dasaratha, who, like Asoka, is called 
<* Beloved of heaven." The Mitraa of the 
Siinga family are identified horn these caves, 
and from coins. — Vol. VI. p. 671. 

44. BuddkaQaj/a, Vaultfd cavern or ' Nagarm 
Juiii. Other iater^tioiie 4, S, 6, s»< 
etvding all tie remaining to Ifo. 23. 

Language of Inscriptions'— Varioua. 
Date. — Various. 

Character used in inseriptioiu.— Various, , 
but none of them Lat. 
BeliKion ; or Divioitiei or Sagea meDtioned. 

— Vnrious, 

Kiog^ or Princea mentioned.— Hone mail", 

Hemarks.— The remaining inscriptions are 
all short, and in every variety of the Deva Na- . 
gari, from Allaliabad No. 2, to modern Deva 
Negari, and nutice the Buddhist Bo-tree oc 
Hindu images subsequently introduced. — Fol. 
VI. p. 671. 

45. An iiucrmtioH on a seal jSri Vaii («r 
BAati) Kkuddah fivm Ougein. 

Languge of Inscription.— Sanskrit. 

Gharaoter uaad in Inseriptiotk — Saotashtn 

Beligian ; or DiTiniiiaa or Sagaa nenlioiwd. 
—Not mentioned. 

£ing8 or Princes meotioDed.— Sri Vati (or 
Bhati) Kbudda, upoif a teay/^j^j;eiii. 


46. BareUlii! VUlage of lUahala*. At 
the ancUiU village of Maguta, district of Bhu- 
ghana, on a ttone tlab, 

LauKuage or luscriptions.— Sanskrit verse 
the lan^jua^e and poetry superior to any tiling 
of tlie previous date, seen by the Sodely^a Pan- 
dit, Kdmalakanta. 

Date — Samvat, 104S ; A. D. 992. 

Character used in inseriptioiii. — In the 
Iiiscripiioit it is oallrd ihe Kalda, and is mid- 
way between tlie Deva Na^ri and the Oauri. 
Some of the vovrel inflections iranting. 

Religion ; or Divinities or Sages mentioned. 
— Urnhmanical : Ananta, Ravana, Lukshmi, 
Iiidra, Uama, Siva, Gunga, Iswara Madbu, and 
Sambbu, Parbati, Devi. The Vedantaa men- 
tioiieci ■ 

Kings or Princes mentioned. — Tbe rounder 
Chyavao, a Maba rishi, ton Vimvarma, son 
Marsebuida, Faratapa, brother^ Ualhaua, son 

Bemarks.— Tbe inicriptioa dedicates a tem- 
ple 10 Siva and Parbali by Lnlla, whose Others 
are all of the royal raw of Chhindu. Tbe in- 
Bcriptioa iufluted and highly poetict and ilie 
laugunKe polisbed ; nevertbeless, there are 
variations iuspelling and inflections from modern 
Sanskrit. The inscription was found at a tem- 
ple in the jungle, and there were the appearance 
of the ruins of a town about . A gift of villages 
and Wees to Brahmaus. None of the names 
occur in Hiadn works, although tbe petty 
princei are called masters of the world. — Vol. 
VI. J/. 778. 

47. Mvltaye ; Baiioolf near the source of 
the Tapli river, Copper plate grants. 

Language of Inscriptions — Sauskrit. 

Date. — Mr. Ommaneysava A. D. 1573, Hr. 
Friosep aays A. D. 709 or 909 ; but the cha- 
racter is rather that of 91)9. 

Cuaracter uwd in Inscriptions. — After the 
Allahabad No. 2 and Qujurati, 

Religion i or Divinities or Sage* mentioned. 
—"So inrooation* bat limply Svast), yyasa ; 
and the donor prouounoes himself h firm 
Brahmanist, and a firm Bbagavata, or disci^jle 
of Vishnu. 

Kings or Princes mentioned. — Sri Darga 
B»ja, son Qovinda Raja, son Maswaulka Uaja, 
eon Sri Nanda Raja, Sri Yuddhasura. 

Kemarks. — The EUja Yuddhasura, of Rnlitore 
imput origin, gives a village to Brahmans ; but 
the inscription is remarkable for the absence of 
the display of Paranie gods and goddesiet. The 
uauai threat about resuming lauds is quoted 
from the Veda*. Tbe inscription ia otherwise 
curious for using tbe era of tbe Buddhist Sali- 
vahana. None of tbe princes are in the lists of 
tbe Garha Handala Bi^as.— Fo2. TL p, B69. 

43. Uundaf near Attock, oh the Indus, on 
marble Siah* 

Language of IiucripU(Hn.«-3aMkrft aked 
with Hindi. 
Date.—- Smnth or e^th eenliti; probaUy, 

or later. 

Gbaraeier used in Inicriptiom.— Dera Ni^ 
gari in transitu. 

Religion ; or Divinities or Sages menthned, 
—'Deva, the husband of ParbatL 

Kings or Frinees mentioned.— Not made out. 

Remarics. — Too mtitilated to be usrful, speaks 
of the ehief having bJand ipeeoh for superiors 
and Brahmans, and talks of his kindly anil 
priestly rule. The flesh-eating Tunisboas (Turks) 
mentioaed.— rol. VI. p. 879. 

49. Kalinjar, in Bundlekund. Stojie Slab 
in the Muteum of the Aeiaiie Sodety 

Language of Iiisoriptions — Sandtrit verse, 
but language and poetry of low eatunate. 

Date — &. D. 1388; Samvat JS46. 

Obanoter used in lusoiiptioB.-— Bundlaknarf, 
Devs Nagari. 

Religion ; or Diviuities or Sages mentionad. 
—Deva as Vishnu, Lakshmi, and all the Avatara 
of Vishnu, Ganapati, Rama, and. Ihe Rakhshaa. 
Kashyapa is called tho first cnmundar of tha 

Kings or Priaees mmtioned,— Family namea 
of chief, the last of whom, Nands, married 
daughter of tbe king of Ougein. 

Remarks. — The inscription is fuU of poetical 
and labored images, bat the Sanskrit is bad, 
sad KamaUkanta, who translated it with Ifr. 
J. Prinsep, protested against Mr. Pnnsep re- 
taining the original errors of tbe text. Thn 
insoription was recorded to dedieate an image of 
Vishaa.^Ko2. VLp. 881. 

50. AUakdbad colmnni hucriftion S. 
Language of Inseriptions.— Mot pure San- 
skrit ; aevi-nty liues metrical, the rest prose. 

Data,— Ssvauth ot nghth oentuiy. 
Oharaotw need in Inscriptious. — Allahabad 
or Gaya. 

Beligion ; or Divinities or Sages meutioaed, 
—Five lines wantinv:, Dhanada (Kuvera), 
Varuna, Xndraand Autaka (Yarns) Vrihaapati. 
Tumburu Narada- Tbe Ganges coming from 
tbe hair of the Lord of men (Siva) noticed. The 
Sbastras, so far from any of the kings being 
made to worship Hindu gods, Samudra Gupta 
is said to put to ihaaw ludra, Tama, Kuvwn. 
and Varuna. 

Kings or Princea mentioned. —Sri Gupta aon, 
Sri Ghatot Kaoha, aon Chandra Gupta, son 
Samudra Gupta, son Chandra Gupta, tiieaeecMid; 

Bemarics,— This is the last revised read- 
ing of new impression by Mr. J. Prinaep. 
IMie eolumn was raised again by the dewan 
of Chandra Gupta SnH, probably. A earioua 
thing in the insoription is the use of ka, the 
prototype of tbe modern genitive ugn in 
Hindi. None of [thez.uniner«ttsvj|^^ nsmed' 



*n net with in the Purann, and few o( tha 
OMuihta eren. No mention of Arahmau 
vhataver. The poet DbniTa Bhuta ealla him- 
■elf the ilava of tke foet of the |cnat kiny iihI 
hope* it will ba aresptible to tke deiren 
Hari Sena. It is profoMed to be CMOUted by 
tbc alsTe of tbe feet of tbe wpnme aovereifni, 
tba criminal aiaigiatrate. Tata Bhatta.' Uim 
tbe terma Sbahan Sbabi, kie« of kintes, vbwh 
apptiea to tke Saasanian dynaity of Persia, 
exiiuet in the leventb oeatuiy. The SoyUtiant 
aad Huns mrntiwied. By this inseription 
tlie power <rf Brahmamsm was plainly only 
incipient.— To'. VL p. 970 to 980. 

61. Jimir a»d Karl* eavta and other 
fUtxa in Dteoa-n- OoUteUd Ool. Sgia, 
«e» ijuer^UoHt. 

IwtKnage of InscriptiooB.^Uld Pali. 

Date.— Seeoud to thurd ceoturj before 

Character nsed in Insertptions.— Old Lat, 
but not so <M as Delfai Lai oharaeter. 

KeKgion or DiriniUea or Sagea mmUon- 
ed. — Boddluat. The inaeriptiona Mrzata 1^ 
wl»m Ibt eaves were anaTaicd, and for what 
olqeeta. That st Kurii is for for^n pilgrims 
the fcnat Chaitya eare euaratioo at Janir ia 
for the eomfort of ibe attendants at the tem- 
ple, &c. 

Kings or Princes m'entioiied. — Dharauka 
Beni is called the author of the )00 oaves at 
innir, but is not called King, Vira fienaka 
cKaavatad the Dehgope temple. Sulisadatta 
is ealled Lord of the City of Thaka. 

Banarka.- — Tbe eurious iaet oonnepted with 
thcae aavcn iaaeriptiont, ia the mulUtndinoas 
cave toBplea of the Ui^kan, is that tbay do 
not raeonl positivdy the titles of any prineea, 
nor naaa Samanaa and others of Ue priest- 
hood ; bat it most be bonu* in mind tut the 
moment » prinee became a "Samana" he 
abandoned 1>U titles. The inscriptions are 
rvsurkaUe, also, for having [initial or final] 
msny oi the enbleniB on the coins, Nos. 8, 
13,34. S5, and S6— Voum. JiL A». Soc, VI, 

464— ^oi. VL p- 664 and 1038. 

5S. Udapaffiri and Kftom^n codm in 
Ctdtmek 6 miUt votA of Bhubemawar^ Nume- 
nw* itueripiitB§. But IA« more vtodem m- 
$cnplioju on ike tame rooka me 8an*krU. 

«. Languas!* of Inacriptiotts. — Old PaK. 

Date. — Before the seeond or third ontary 
before Obriat. * 

Gharaeter used in Inscriptions.— Old Lat. 

Iteligion or Divinities or Ssfces mentioned*^ 
Baddhiat Arhantss, or Bmldhist saiuti. Gota- 
ma ? and Buddha is understood. 

Kmgs or Princes mentioned.— The mighty 
sofcreigB of Kalinga, but act named. Prinoe 

Kenarka.— ^ves are stated to be excavated 
tqr Kali^a B»jas. Pire the embtons found 

oh tbe Baddhist eoins are met with in these 
inscriptions of the formsi 9tb, 6th^ 86th, 8ih. 
and a new form of tin bo>trw> — J. UUAt. Soe* 

ra. VI p, 464) 

The moment an a|^roaoh to modem Deva 
Nagari is seen, there is an asaociation with 
Hindttitods, and not before— Ksl. VI.p. 1072. 
b. Language ctf Inscriptions.— Sanduit 
Date. — Some of fifth or sixth oentury, A. D. 
One of the tenth eentuy, Samvat 9, whii^, if of 
the Oaur ent would be A. IX 118S. 
Gharaeter used in Itlseription^ — Kntila. 
fieUgioo ; or Divinities or Sages mention- 
ed. — Brahmanioal, Holy asoetioa, Prabhaswara, 
or Jagaunath. 

Kingaor Prineea mentioned,— Nona men- 

Bemarks. — Tbia inscription of tbe tenth 
century, in Sanskrit, speaks of an eqnitatde 
prince faaviag the cave excavated within the 
holy preeincts' of the Lord of Gods (Jagan- 
nath,) for the holy asoetioa. In the tenth and 
elaveoth esntnriea, therefore, Jagannath sras 
worshipped^ Tol. VL p. 1075. 

63f £%atufytnroeik M Oiittaek, w amekiU 
katgdom of Eaimgeh 

Lsnguage of Insoiptions. — Old Pali. 
Date. — The great inseription is af^er the 
B^ Dasalath, 2nd of the ti-aya inscription, 
but before the Juuir inscriptions, therefore 
third or fourth century before Christ. The 
year 1300 is twice mentioned in words and 
if this be the Buddhist era mentioned by Fa- 
Uiaii in Ceylon, then the date is A. D. ^16, 
Character used in Inscriptions.— Old Lat. 
Beligion ; or Divinitiea or Segee mention- 
ed.— Buddhiat ; and opens with ulutations to 
the Arhantas, or Buddhiat saints , and the 
sculptures represent figures of Buddha, the 
worship of the Bo*tree, prooesslons, See. &c. 
Merry danotng girls spoken of, and a chailja 
temple and pillars. The Kalinga Kajs, at 
Buddha's death, got tlie left canine tooth, 
which was afterwards transferred to Ceylon, 
and is now iu British custody. 

Kings or Princes mentioned.— Aira, tbe 
great Kisg ; and speaks of a Bftja who was 
in bis 8Slh year, and jnst dead, Raja Khar- 
aTda Sanda, (King of ttie ooean shore,) ^an- 
da Ba^a. Note.] Bhamadatasa is on one tit 
the corns of the Kamadatta aniea and Brah- 
madatta ia said by Mr. Tumour to have re- 
osived the tooth relie at Buddha's death at 
Remarks —The inscription makes tbe young 
prince learn navigation, commerce, and law, sh 
well as other school maUers. At his accession, 
in bis twenty-fourth year, he chose the Brah- 
maiiieat failb, but afterwards called about him 
the Buddhist priests who had been settled there 
under the aneient kings. Subsequent breaks 
in tbe inscription interrupt the seasa, but the 
dedication of chatt^as is me&tiMitelg^*^ 




, Bmatm k noticed voder its ViA\ name, 'and 
it e¥idently mast biwe been Baddbist, ite the 
kiciir, AriB^-distribntes much gold then. 
I'he Brahman cute is writteo Faimaa casta. 

^m. yi.p. 1085. 

54, Kitktum, OoraiApur onaeolumn. 

IjiUfVifige of In"criptionBt— Imperfect 
akrit with errors of orthogrHphy, 

D«te.-^Not before tenth century. 

Chemeter u^eil in Iuaeriptioiis.~Tlie Gap- 
u or AHahabad No, alilUe befon tha Gaya 

BaliKioD ; or Diriaities or Sages owiUon- 
9d. - No iDrooataoH. 2fo Hindu itoda name- 
ed. Indra mentioned ; and five images of him 
areaat up by the -road side^ which ibe pillar 
records. The naked figure on the column, 
badced by the seven bended andce, is the same 
as a drawing presents from the Baddhs cave at 
EUora. Vide Appendix (J. tt. A. S. Vol. Vl. 

Kings or Frinoss meatioued.— Mentions 
the ileatb ofSkanda Gupta, [of Allahabad ?] 
1 8* yeare before the date of the ioscriptioR, 
but the recorder of the insoriptiott belonged 
to a wealthy private family. 

Remarks. — This is an -inscription on a co- 
lumu, by a vttdthy indifidnal (Hadn), in 
honor of himrif and family, son of Eudra 
bona, sou of Bhatta Soma, sou oi Amaila. 
Madra professes to be the friend aad patron 
of Brabmans, Gurus, and Yatis ; Iwt there ere 
not: any Hindu gods named in the . InBCription 
and alt the naked figures cut on the pillar 
are evidently the anme as an» found in some 
of the Buddhist oaves of Ellora. The trans- 
Litor speska of the errors in the text. The 
chances ate, that the iuacnpiion^ like the 
Gupta inscriptions of Allahatmd and Bhitari, 
vaa iHit on a previouslv exisliog Buddhiat 
column.— 'W. VII. 33. 

BaJcfTgaaj^ Bengal i^dmUattato/ Cvl- 
culia. OitCepp^^ pLtUi, 
^ Language of ioaeriptions^-r-Saiukiit vow, 
Miflaud^ evdogiatifi, and punning. 

Date. — Samvat 8, of Keaava Sena's retgn, 
wluoh, from tbi; Ayin Akben list, makes (he 
year X. D. 1136. 

- Oharacter used in Inscriptions.— Gaur ; a 
little less simple than the earlier aiphabeta of 
the Pala dynasty. 

BsligioD ; or Divinities or Sages mention^ 
ed--T-Au!», salutation to Narayana, Vedaa, 
Uara (Sivay Saraswati, Kama, ^dra, Indra. 
The seal of Siva is called Sadaatva. Havana, 
XAkehmi, Seaat^, Ganga, Balarana, Jagu- 
Uath, Satis, meotiQaed. 

■ Kings or Frincaa maDtioned*— Vviqw Sena, 
MR BalUha Seaa, aon Sena, aon 

t^A Keaava Sana. 

lUuuriu.— •This inaeripitiqtt ia on copper 
pUtof, in a singular state - af pteaervattoD> 
The Sena dyattty was of low origin, ealting 

thdustdves Sankaya Qaurisvara, brliMdoi 
Oaur. The iuacription givea a grant of thnn 
vilbiges to a Brahman, called Iswara DvUti 

Sarma, but aass no terma of reasrence. SUB. 
rderringto tlt« uumerous battles of the pria^ 
ces there is not any n»ntion oi fire-arms, hM\ 
of bows, arrows, swcrd^ &c. The founder d|! 
the family was a Doetor. The iuacription s^tf^ 
that Laksbmana Sens erected pillars of vietcqF: 
and altars at Benarea, AllabaMd, and Jagaq^^ 
nath.-ToI. Vll.j?. 4S. 

56. Jaim imaffet, in wtmrbUt dug at Ajwdfm 
Langaaga of luaoripiMn.— Prakrit, dann^j 
from the Pall 

I>ate.«Twelfih oBntuiy A. D. llS2iaaft 
image. 5 
Character used in Tn8cr!pti(ma.— Deva Na« 

Rel^ionj or v Divinities 01 SagsB DBentioo- 
ed.—Jaio, of the Digamberi class. The msmA\ 
at one of the miegea Prajuonath. 

Kings or Princes mentiMted—Nonb, 
Kemarka. — Fiveim^^ ef naked Jain aahto 
were dug up at Ajmhtv in a Uustuiman 
gronnd ; and the inaoriptionri on them . ara 
curions for showing the Prakrit (not P«li) ol 
the twairth,oantaiy.-- Fo/. Vl^ jMy* 6^ ' i. 

ghur ; and lie ingcripHon occurt at Dkendi, s^ 
(hitiaeifOu Ihe opffonUMide 0/ India, tntkth: 
ad^Uom o/iAree loral edtett, one ofwiich toonidi 
SMM to hmve beem done by Atoim't father, m» A 
engoimt the. i/<Mig priuoe at Ott§*i» io itmt 
timUar ordituumea to hit own. ■ 1 

laag^ge of Insoriptions.— Old Pali, or 
iotermedista between Sanskrit and P«li, hiHt 
supposed to repi-eseiit the Pali of the V/^ttf 
of India of the fourth oMtury B. C. and tJi«! 
inflexionaat DbauJiaad Gimar are not ^ai(|! 
tba aarae ; and tiiera is a difference i<i ihi 
gmniinsr of the two aeries of inscriptionai : 
Vcem Mr. Ffinaftp having referred a Sanskrit; 
inseriptioa at Giraar to the third eantsrf 
before Christ, instead of the fborth or aevntC 
A. D. (!«hioh he aft«ward« redifie*), he w«f 
inducetl to derive the Pali from the Sanskrit.. 

Datc^B. C. 330, by the Buddhist Chinese 
and Burmese chronology ; but the Gftek not 
tioes, .will make it B.O. 380. and the Maba; 
vanao makes the accession of AsokaB. O, 9S^ 
Character ia Insoriptioos.— Old Lat. 
Beligion ; op Divinities or Sages mentiooed. 
—Buddhist^ Upholds Dhsmmo, or the lawj 
mentions days and periods for hnauliation. 
prayers, &o. ; the sending of the miasionaries ; 
preschings, expstiates 00 the aoarcea.o|f trof 
happiuesa, virtue, bwiev(denoe, paaee, cliarit|^' 
ravareaoa, flce^ ret^i^d with taup^i^ blMsiajn 
in this wpildf and endless moral nierit in Jhf 
next ; and the victory of viotorres is that whia|i ; 
overooawth the passions. It speaks of itw^ 
wickod being pj«^]v5d^iig,^^j»eUwijpw|: 




M^om of hell, and the good hanng final eman- 
oipaHon, and ihej are to hope ardently for 
heaven. The promoitoo ot the King's aalra- 
tioD, and the aaiTstioa of all onbelkvere, mtd 
mother exUtenee, are expreeal; spoken of ; ulao 
the propitiation of hearcn, ind the King's im- 
mortalitj. Wliere it atheism here ? 

Kings or Frinoea mentioned.— •Asoka, or 
PrradMi. The Qreal King Antioehua, and 
QM «f th« ptolemiea of ^ypt> and Antigonos. 

Emarks.— 'Theae iaaoriptiona tn-aa a rode 
at Oimar, a eelebraled Bnddhiat loealiiy, and 
are ediota of Piyadasi, in the tenth and twelfth 
years of his reign, and >re,> therefore, older 
than those of the Delhi and Allahabad Lats, 
which are in the twenty- seventh year of his 
reign. The chief object is to prohibit the 
slaoghter of animals, both for food and in re* 
KgioQs assemblies. The second edict provides 
■ledieal aid for men and animnts. The third 
ortlera the qninqnennial asserablips (vide Fa- 
hiao) for prayer and preaching. The sixth 
appoints euatodes momm (Vide Arrian and 
Kiddha'a Sermon.) In all, there are foarteeu 
edietft hieulcating Boddhism. The remarkable 
hrt of the mention of the nanle of Antioohua 
aad Ptolemy of Bgypt in the thirteenth ooonn. 
In Atoka's zeal for protelytism he tent to those 
Greek Princes. In the first edict Asoka dit- 
tinirtly tajs— formerly hundreds of thoosamls 
of animals were savrifieed fbr food In the refect 
tory and trmple ; bat that not one should be 
killed for the future. The tliinl edict enjoys 
kindneaa to Brahmans and Srsmanas, and for- 
bids slaughter of animals. The Raja Tarangini 
nentiont King Haharahana, a Buddhist sorer* 
eign of Kathmir of the third or fourth century, 
isBuiag an edict against the alauithler of animalt, 
aittilBrto those of Asoka.^'Toi. FU.p.tM 

58. Brahmegwara in (hMaek, not far 
from Bhubaneswara, on a 9lah tn tke Jfucewn 
of ike AtiaHc Society of Bengal. 

Languafie of Insnription. — Sanskrit vene. 

Date, — No intelligible date, but the charac- 
ter is after the tenth oentiirj]141 1 cerlalnly 
after Salat Indra Keiari, A. D. 617. 

CfaaracteT used in inB(»ipti«ti8* — Qadr al- 
phahety or Haraha. 

foKcioB ; Of Diviaities or Sagea mentioned. 
—Mo invocation. Brahma, Upeadra (VisbnnX 
Uafaesmn, Indra, Bali, Siva. Vedas, grtm- 
Mr, poetry, l<%i^ fca, mentioned, bat no 
Pannaa. No enl^ of Bmbmans. 

Kings or Prinoea mentioned.— Jananc^ya, 
Lord c»f Tdinga, son, Dirghadera, too Apasara, 
njaVtehitravira, son, Ahhimwya, aon^ Ohaa- 
dthan, raja Udyotaka Eesari Deva. 

Bemarka. — ^auneoiorates the tmple of 
Bcafcmaawaia being oeoted to Siva by Koh- 
BBti, the mother of Udyotaka. The ere San- 
vat 18 it Med. He (emplf was no doubt 

erasted after that to Siva at Bhubanesar, which 
Mr. Sterling aayt was completed A, D. 667, 
and that at Kanank, A. D. 1241. If the 
Samvat en be that of Gaur of the dynasty, 
that subverted the Bhupalas, it oorrespoi>ds to 
A. D, 1141.— Vide/. jr. A VoU V. p, 
600, Vol, VXl. p. 657. 

69. Naneh Ghatf Deeeaitt in a oam cham- 

JPtom Colonel Sykp^ eoHeeUon. 

Language of Inaariptiona. — Old Pali. 

Date^Befbn Christ. 

Charaetar need in Inscriptions.— Old Let. 

Religion t orDiviuitiea or Sagee mentioned. 
— Buddhist. Glory toDharma, Indre, the 
Ijords of Sakra, sua and moon^ sanctified saints. 
Ysma, Varuna, and spirits of the air, oud 
Lokapala, or upholders of the world. 

Kings or Princes mentioned. — Yonng Prince 
Bakesa. The great warrior Tunak^iko. Prinov 
Uakuaaro, oooneoted wiUi Uie house of Amara 

Remarks.— Hiis ia part of a long inaoripUoa 
in the ebamber out in the roek overlooking the 
KonksQ in one of the passes, which was evi- 
dently the high road from Adjunta, Ellora, 
Juiiir, to Kalian and the cave temples in Ssl- 
aettc. The inseriptiona in all these locaiiiiea' 
are verv numerous, and call for tianalatiou.— 
V4>i, V'U.p. fi85. . 

60. Piplianagur in Bhopal, on copper, 
being one of the four plalet formerly noUoed> 
by Mr. L. WOkineon. 

Language of Inscription. — Sanskrit. 

Date.— Samvat 1235; A. D. 1178. 

Character used in Inscriptions. — Peculiar 
open parallelogram attached to Deva Nagari 

Beli}{ion ; or Divinities or Sages mentioned* 
Glory to Sri Ganesa. Siva, Kamadeva, Indn, 
Varuna, Ramarhandra. No mention of Punnaa* 

Kings or Princes mentioned. — Great King 
Sri Uddyaditta, son Great King Sri Nara Var- 
ma Deva* Son Great King Sri Taso Varma 
Deva. Son Great King Sri Jaya Varma Deva, 
Prince Sri Hariscbandra Deva. 

Bemarks — Gives shares of Government of 
Tillages to BrnhmanB The Patels of villages 
mentioned The capital was Nilagiri. Hnris-^ 
Chandra was the son of the great Sin Lak»hmi- 
varma Deva. The Psramar, Pcnwar, or Powar 
tribe spokon off, evidently the aiicestora of the 
present Mahratta Fowan of Dliar.— Vo2. V2I. 
p. 787. 

6 1 • JTotra, Gifforat, Copper plale. Thert 
is only at ancUj/sis iff tie inscription given, 

Laagusge of lusoriptions.— Sanskrit prose, 
eaoh word having a double meaning. 

Date.— Samvat 380; A. D. 323; hut if 
the Balibhi era be used, three bundled and 
aineteea years nuHtbe^aijiiited«jOOgrc 



ClianeteT naed ia Inscriptions. — Before 
Allahabad No. 2, bui not quite Lat. 

Religion ; or l)irinitie« or Si^es mentioned. 
^Foar VedHs mentioned, but not one name 
of the Furania goda. 

Kings or -Priaeea mentioned.—Prasanga 
B^a, grandson of Samanta Datta. 
- Bemarka. — The grant is of a rillace ; and 
the donees are designated ** tboae wlui are 
versed in tiie four Vedas," and the term Brah- 
man is not used. The grant was for the wor- 
sbip of the five Javnas, Bali, Charu, Baiswa- 
deva, and Agnihotra* There is the usual quo* 
tation aboat the resumption of lands. 

6S. Junaghar, near Ginar, in G^anUtOn 
a rock wxih the Pali ediett of Ati'ba. 

liaagnage of InsoriptioDB.--3anskrit Froie, 
bat with grammatical eirorB,and punning. 

Date- — If after Watheu's inscription or the 
Andfara kinva, then between the third and end 
of the sixth oentary, A.. D On the ooitts of 
soine of the princes of this dynasiy are the 
dates 288, SS3, 360, 885 and 890, butof what 
era is not known. Badra Dama mentioned in 
the inscription is the father of the Rudra Sah of 
the coins, with the Samvat 383.. 

Character used in lasoriptioDS. — Altered 
Lat approachinif Wathen's plates. Old Dera 
Nagari, nearly Wathen's. 

Religion ; or Divinities or Sages mentioned, 
—Buddhist. The invocation is Sidhara, and 
there is not the slttchtesl trace or allusion to 
Brahmanism. On the coins of the princea, the 
chaitjra is impressed, and one of the princes 
is called Jina Dama, Dama or rotary of 

Kings or princes mentitined.-^Bajah Uaha 
Kabatrapa, or Swami Chastana, his son was 
Biga Aridama. Ghandragupta Maurya of Ma- 
gadha is referred to, and his grandson Asoka 
The following names of the Rudra 8ah family 
appears on the coins : Budra Sah, liis son Aga 
Dama. Dama Sah (no coins.) His son Vfjaya 
Sah. His brother Vira Dama. His son Budra 
Bah date 283. His brother, Viswasab. date 
324. Radra Sah 332 ? His son Utri Dama, 
date 360 ? His son Siswa Sah. Swami Rudra 
Dama (no coins). His son Swami Rudra Sah, 
Samvat 385 and 390. 

Bemarka. — Records the repeated repairs of n 
bridge, — by Pupya Gupta, treasurer of 
Snja Chandra Gupta, Uaurya ; then by the 
Greek (Yavana) Raja of Asoka, Tushaspa ; and, 
lastly, by Budra Dama. The names of eleven 
sovereigns of this dynasty have been made out 
from their silver ocHns^ which are unqnestionably 
Buddhist, the chief and central emblem on the 
reverse being the chaitya. Rudra Sah is call- 
ed the son of Jina Dama, the rotary of Buddha. 
One of the completion of the bridge, ia in the 
Bfiventy-second year of the son of the Raja Swami 
Cliastana, called the Raja Aridama. although 

this inscription be in Sanskrit,^ there is not ffae 
slightest reUtion to Brahmanism in it. Botk 
by the inscription and coins the princes aro 
Buddhists aod Swami Rudra Sah has the San- 
vat date 386, which if of Vikraaaaditya, places 
him in the fourth century of the Ufaristifui era, 
but if the en be the Bal'ibhi, the date ia A. D. 
704. The inseription mentions the aleetioa of 
a king Bndra Dama by the people who did not 
permit the sacrifice of animal life ; and he is 
railed the Zx>rd of the country of Ougein. 
Mathura, Biudh, &c., and the eonqaered Satka- 
rini, King of the Dekkan.— FwZ A^l. p. 339- 

63. Diauii two separate local edieUy at 
VhauU in OtUtaek, the rmmtmg ediete eonva- 
pondiiig with ikoee at Girmer m Qvjerat. 

Language of Inscriptions.— Old PalL 

Date. — Third or fourth oenturv before Christ ; 
but the year of the King's reign' is aot stated, 
as in the other edicts. B. C 306 ? 

Character naed in Inscriptions. — GUI Lat. 

Keligioii ; or Divinities or Sages mentionvd. 
— Buddhist. Commands the non-destruction 
of life, non*inflietion of eruelfcy ; ehartty, kind- 
ness, virtue. The King says, for my eubjecta 
I desire this only, tint they may be possessed 
of every benefit and happiness as to things of 
this world aud of the world beyond. 

Kintfs or Princes mentioned. — Devanampiya, 
or the beloved of the gods ; and, as the young 
Prince of Ougein is named, the king is proba- 
l)ly the father of Aiofca, who waa regent at 

Bemarka. — The first edict is addressed to Uio 
public officers of the city of Toaali, and oom* 
mands murderers to be imprisoned. Bath 
edicts appoint two Tuphas, or coliegn for 
meditation and the propitation of Hearw. 
The question of atheism m ancient Buddhiam 
is set at rest by these edie^ which repeateilly 
speak of this worid and the world hereafter • and 
the people are expressly commanded to propi- 
tiate Heaven, and to " confess and btlieve in 
G»d, who is the worthy object of obedience ;'* 
or more literally, Him the eternal, ye shall pro- 
pitiate by prayer,— Koi. VI. p. 442. 

64. Airun, in Bkopah o» an mage 
Boar Avatar tn a tempU to Fithnu. 

language of Inscriptions.— Sauabit ;bnt 
with words written eormptly. 

Date. — Of the same period as the follow- 
ing inscription. Dhanjra Vishnu being alive 
at the time both were written. Probably 
about the eighth century, A. D. 

Ghameter used in inscriptions — Subse- 
quent to Kanouj Nagari, or Allahabad, No. 
2, bat before the Gaur or Harsha oharaoter. 

Religion ; or Divinities or Sages men- 
tioned. — Invocation to Vishnu as the fioac 
Avatar or incarnation. Vedas Bhagavam 
The Sakta hytni^^rilie> £i^V^^ VisluiH. 




boO^ Jaxu NuBjaiu. NuijsttKiii the 
roTin of Taniha, or the boar. 

KiBjp or Princes m«ntioN*>d.— Beja Indra 
Tahou, hisL soo, Varutia VishBo, tiia aon 
H*ri-\'iAhan> bu vtn, Matri Tishou, also 
T«rapMni, of Suraslitra, who is. called 
Xing of Kinics and f[Overning| the enrth. 

l^iMiti Tin temple wm buUt io 4>e 
f nt year of the reiyn of Knja Tnrspnni^ 
])bHiy» Vishnn, tke ronfidenttd minisiec and 
MiKr«rK«ia Mmri Viafanih T^e ia«Qri|F- 
ti(M ia tlw irsi. in hooor of the boar iocaina- 
(nirfVialuiv and tbe boar coin* probahly 
Woqeed ta this fiwiily of paaces> wko «oc- 
ihipped VU«u aa the bom. The miuiater 
DteDya obtained his offiee by public eteotion 
md threnitb tbe gnwer of Qcd \ Diiap-jA is 
^Ifld a ftiahi amongst the Brnhman^ *vd 
Iba dcvotxd worebipfrfr of Bbaga«an ; but 
tbm IB BOt any pnpoateiAiia etijioiejf «f 
iMteMb-Fol. FU, p, 

ff. ^trm. «t Bhoptd, <m « ptj/or tj» ^fri 
aftft fempit. 

Linginige oT InacnpUous. — Same aa the 
int inacnptioB. 

Oale^Tbo year 160 of tbe ew of aome 
linaitj, wboch, from the. iKnikia of Buddha 
Qapta, is possibly of the Kanouj fwaUgt 
tnMf abwttbe «i|thth oentui? A. D. 

CbMMtar wed in Inseripiiona. — Sama «fe 

ltdiiEtoii ;oc Divinities (MT Sages, ntewiwo- 
•L^Viabqi^ Garuda, Lol^ipalas, BhagaMS, 
JflMdana or Viahau Panyajanaa or Kakahaii. 

K.init» or Princes mei^oneil.— >Th« King 
^ddbaOw^ who iseveriuid tbe oovotiy 
hutovcatk^Jminwinii the Nawda. 

BoBaiis.— Tbe pillar wa» mised, at tbe 
eipeaaa of Dbaiiya Visbttu, beforff tbe. tero^ 
sIm pnceding inscription, Vaitbila 
Viafam, vho had been elected to tbe R*- 
KOMy. 1W notioe of n nev Onpta, and a 
A«e of tbe ilynaiiy, 165. is of ereat inbreak, 
a»lMklha. Qupla. oeceaaari^ followed those 
mmioned on A» Alhtbsbaii and Bbitari 
Mtaww, and op to- liiHidba Q«pta's time, 
if ba^ Mnawed tO'-lbe Kanoi^ ^oat^i its 
imtUn had bees onlj !•£ yean. In tbe 
ariy part of IbeMh eentniy, A, 1>, F»-HiM 
krn^ ■ baddb i a t ftiiig-^ Kanm^ ; and in 
ds eiriy part of tbe< «e«enkb aentaiy Hian 
fanda. Hiwl« kiiig nigping^ The 
tlNfcfom bad been- ohanged be- 
tbe ftfcb and. aa<renlb eeMartaa, «ad 
Hm Oaptefaniilyi bad apmg iq^inMMiii- 
ua wl. foL rilt ^ 

I^S^ugo of Tnsiiiri'ptions. — ^lUugu and 
Okji, with Stiuilcrit itoku. 

Daler-.Saka 1054, or A.. D. 1132, being 
the year Cheirabhana of the YrihAspati Chop 
bar, or sixty years' cycle of Jupiter, 

Character used in Inseriptionstr^Not me^r 

KelTifion ; or Divinities or Sages mention^ 
ed. — Kari, Gane8A> Santswati'; S^pn, Bhihos- 
war; Eavi, Sbart (or Vishnu). 
■ Kings OP Princes meniaoncd.—^B^ja Ktfdift 

Bemarks. — Ittntn Per* is-'tte Rsja- tomtp- 
tloned iu the Jaganoaih tem^te aMels 
C?hwangor tihorsungfl, aw*" waa.«lMr feuifder 
of the (Junga Vanaa dywtsly. He' ww- 
benefactor to J»i?anit»thi adonied it, and p^ 
pnlated its wjighbourhood. Tbe iaaeripnon 
«ontaint a long account of Radra Dera'k gch 
nealogy and of his faattkM. There nw not 
any punae ef Brabmaas. Or evsn mention 
of them I PKirii the raeaiien of Oamaa, Ma 
worsfaip most h»v» baen tised in-lknf tanlfft 
century.— Fe/. rir.p- 90X* ■ 

87. Kavrai m 6i«;ai-«ft. Cappef flatf, om«f 
four, frwm &r. Bunu 

LanROKge of Insoriptiona. — JBaaaltrit prose, 
each w>rd having a ddoW* mwnftig,— and 
ifecapablo ef beiwg aloaely rawlerad ht* 
Bnclisfr. ■ ■ 

Date.— S«mv»t 390, or A. D. 863^ iCtlfft 
era that of ¥iknrnia«fityaj but ir of tbe BnlP- 
bhi era. then A. D: ffto. 

Oharaetrr used in rnscript*ena. — CHoaMjr 
allied ta tbe Kanouj N'agarir or AHaMad 
No. 2,— possiblj^ a little earlier, 

Raigibn ; or DlTiBiUetf.or- Ssgea meKtioa-. 
ed.— The four Vedas mealioned ;,bjat not 
one word of Brahmanical gods or Brahmana.. 

Kings or Princes mentioned. — Rnja Sa- 
mnnta Uatta. His son, Vij»ya Bhatta, or 
Vita B.»j«. His son, PrsBantta Raja Batta. 

Remarks. -The Bsja Prasanga. of the tayiA 
race of Ghj]ara, gires a tillage iff rtrosc who 
are versed in tb* tout YtAn% aaft far the 
worship of Brahma, Vishnu, or SiT«, or 
ihefr otfaeta. bat for the worship of tbe five 
Jagnaa, Bali, Oharu, BaswadevA, and A|^- 
iiihotra. Brahmane, althontih alMed to„ an 
iu>t even named ; even the writor Beva. ia 
not <wtled a Brahman.— Fo^. V/I, p. 9fKl 

No. L, From a tmple »i Oodygjir^from 
Dr. Burn. 

Language of Inicriptions. — Sanskrit prosd. 

Date;- Samvat 366, or A. D: 309 ? bat if 
oftheWibhi em, then 519 yearr' ntnst be 

ChatBcter Twed ih' Ifascrfptiona.— Tfie'sfamo 
as the last. 

BeltKion ; or Divinities OT 8hges mrtitibnt 
«d.-^|ieas simply wfth " Giory,'' iiisteiid of 
other ftiToCfttion. Gartges itrer, laklttaaii 





- Kiogs or Frinoes mflntioaeJ.— Bbatark* 
Senapiti. Quha or OrihaSena. Sridhara Sena 
lat. Chan Oriba, or lawara Quha. Sridhara 
Sena Sod. Dbaruva Sena Snd. Sridhara Sena 
9nl. Dbarara Sepa 3rd, or Dharmaditja, 

. Bemarlis.— Ttua U No. 1 of four plates 
band by Dr. Bum ac Kaira, tnd ia similar to 

.(MM pnUubed by Ur. Waihan in tbe J. 4.. 3. 
B. It confirms tbe order of the reigns giren 

>y Mr. WMhen, and aSorda additional dates 
and drcoflutaneea of higb interest, respecting 
theValabbit or Bslhara dynasty of Gujarat. 

'This plate omiu four prinoes betweea BliaUrIca 
and Griha Sena, and torminates with Dbarura 
Sena 3rd, tbe granter. Ur, Wathen's plate 
girea one prince more Siladitya Snd. 
Altbougb six reigns intervened betV(«n Ur. 
Watboo's and Dr. Bum's plates, the son, named 
lladana Hila, of the mtniater Skanna Bhatfa, 
who prepared the first pUte, is a witness of tbe 
present grant. The bow tbe obief military 
weapon. No fin-arma ; ohariota iwed. From 
tbe absenoe of all mention of the gods of the 
modern Hindu Pantheon, it is plain they 
eould not bava been respected in fli^rat in 
tbe fourth century A. D. Dharova Sena Srd, 
indeed ssys be is liberal to Brabmnns (bat 
without mentioning them with respect) and to 
the temples of ihe gods. Tbe grant gives a 
field to a Brahman, for the sake of the donor's 
Athw's and mother's rirtue. On the seal ia 
*■ Sri BhaUrks/' nnder a bull, aa ia Mr^ 
Watben'e plate.— Fo^ Vll.p, gfti}, 

69 Sffw«, in Q%^9t. CopperplaU. 

Ijanguage of Inscriptions. — Saimkrit ; with 
groes errors of grammar and inooriectuess of 

pate.— Samvatof Yikramaditya 1116, cor* 
responding to 981 Salivahaua, and to 446 of 
the, en of Udyaditya, A. D. 1059. ■ 

Chua^er ased in Inseriptions. — Altuoat 
modem Dera Nagari. 

Religion ; or Divinites or Sages mentlon- 
pd.—Salnlation to Oanesa, Farrati Siva, with 
fire faoes I Vedas, Swolu, Meru, Saatras. 

Kings or Princes meotioned — Baja Sura- 
virana, of the Pavara (Powar F ) Hue Gunda* 
la, his son. Arevahimathsna, boh. Udayadi- 
tya, his SOD. Salivahaaa, his son. 

Hamtirks. — ^This inscription is of importanoe, 
■a it disclosea ■ new era, thti of the fiimily of 
Udyaditya, the probeble founder of Oodypur, 
oorreaponding to tbe era of Vikramaditya 1 1 1 ft, 
and of Saliri^ana 981, and Kaltyoga 41A0. 
Thia would plaoe tbe fonndation of Oodypur 
A. D. 614. The Baja's name is not in the 
(^rooologioat tablea of the Sesodi Rajpnts, or 
ojf any other dynasty. ArevHlanaalhAna went 
\a Holava, and recovers^ his foriner kingdom 
pf Nidbyaciefa. . 

79. Ehajrao, ei^htetn milet from Ck$Ur^ 
pur, in BumletlfMitd. 

Jjanguage of iDscriptioos. — Sanskrit verse 
in an amiuiioua inflated style ; the wtnea 
polished and elaborate, liut some obscure, and 
abounding with quaint pedantry and panning. 

Date. — Tiie first part of inscription, Saai- 
Til, 1019, \. D. 968 iU*i port, Samvat 117S 
or 106». 

Character used in Insoriptionst— Allahabad 
Ko. and therefoM resembling the Haislw 
and Bbabaneswar. In the i'tsoriptioa it k 
oalled the Kakuda character, and in the 
Seventh and twelfth oentnries appears to have 
prevailed from Outtack to Shelcavati. 

Betigion ; or Divinities or Sages mentiou- 
ed- — Invocation to Siva, UHheswara, Shambhn, 
Bharati, Pasnpati, Brahms, Uaricba end 
Brahma's other sons, the Munis, Abri, Chan- 
dratriya, Vayvarma, Aijuoa ; «nd the Puraaie 
heroes Prithnka and iLunda, Sumitrs, Bhisma, 
Upendra Sagar, aud the Puranio origin of 
the ooesn noticed ; Liuga, YuddUatira, Via- 
wakarma* Kudrs, Vedas. The temple ia do- 
dioated to Pranutha Nath. 

Kings or Princes mentioned.— -Rsjas Nan- 
nuka, Vag Yate, Vijaya, VahiU, Sriharsa, 
YsBO, Dbamta Deva, B^a, Jaya Vanaa 

Bemarks. — The inscription is oliieftj in 
honor of Baiiga (by his son), who as is osuaI, 
iselevat>-d into a great king. The kings tik 
Ondh abd CeyloH attend to do him boosaget 
and bis captives are the wives of the kings of 
Attdra, Radha, and Aaga I Baoga. of eoon*, 
eulogised by tbe Brnhmana, because he built 
dwellings for thbm, and gave them leads, and 
piously ended hit days, aged 109, by drowa- 
tng bimsdf at the jwetimi of the Jomna aud 
Ganges, as did also the Brabman minister of 
his father and grand>father. It is to be re- 
marked, that the inaoription had twice before 
been eugrsvul in irreftulsr eharaoters, and it 
WHS only in A. D. IQl6 that it waa put into 
pruper Deva Nagari. The story of creation 
from Brahma and tbe ei^s ia told. Tbe in- 
fluence of tbe moon on the tides is alluded to. 
The inscription alludes to a passage in the 
Mahabbarata, iu whiob Siva ia represented 
to have given his own flesh to a hawk, m- 
stead of a bird which had songbt refuge with 
him. Tbu alory is ttrfd of Buddha, mom 
than l&OO years before tUe time, and is mndt 
more euitable to his hammi and lifs^paring 
chan(4er than to the bloody fiin> Hen again 
we have gotn Brahman} (Sri Rama), whose feet 
earthly kioRs adond.— Fef. VIII, 17G. 

7 1 Baroda m Ch^arat ; ftmnd i» di^gbif^ 

fomtdations of a houae. Copperplate. 

Language of inseriptions.— Ssnakrit, with 
pnnuing ; but LthezgnMBmntieabslcuctuie not 
sUtetl. ^ 




i)at«.— Saka 734. or A.D. 612. 

Character used in Inscriptioha. — Not exactly 
nanabliag taty other charaeterj but sufficiently 
near Watben's plates to admit of its being 
eaaily madb out by Kamalakanta of Calcutta, 
thoufih dot by all the BrahtiaaDS of Gtyarat 

Religion ; or Oivinitiee or Sages mentioned. 
Brahmii, Sira is called the god of Rods, DTiarma, 
Viahnu, SWayanbhu Sambbu, Ganga Yamuna 
rirer. Partita. Indra. The gods, Kinnaras, 
Siddlus to Seddhyaa a&d VedyadbUaa. Hara, 
Foar Tedas, Cowa are ealkd tbe daughters of 
the sun, Bamdiaodra. 

Kings or Priocrs tnentioiied.-" Ooriod Ra- 
ja, Karka, hia son Krislina, his son Dhruva, 
his son Ooviud Sod, his son, ludra, his bro- 
ther. Karka 3ad son of Indra, and hie brc^her, 
Dttnti Verma, is heir presumpyfe. These are 
of the Lateswara dynasty. 

Bemarks.~At the time of this inscription 
(the period of Cbarl<>magbe in Europe). Hin- 
dttstan and tbe Dekkan were divided into four 
KiBgdomsj— that of Gujara (Gtgarat) west^ 
ward ; that of Matwa centrical ; to tbe east 
Oourba Rig, including Bengal and Behar ; and 
the l^ieawan Baj to tbe south. The SunMin 
kingdom spoken of but, in Karka'a niga, it 
ie expressly stated to have been called, bisfote 
hia time, Soweajya, th« identical name of the 
Satfcanb sovtreignty at this day. Krishna 
Sija waa devoted lo Brabmans, and tbe nomi- 
vat Brahmans, throogb their greediness for his 
gifts, resamed their former rites. His fort was 
Bbpur, Indra Baja, who ruled the Lateshara 
kingdom conquered that of Gujarat ; and he 
aiilMl the owner of Malava against the King 
of Oonrea (Beojtal). The inscription gives 
a village to tbe Brahman Bhanu, but wiM- 
ont cxpresuons of veneration, for the eake of 
his btber and mother's memory. It is curious 
for enoBMnting the privities consequent on 
poasesaun ; fishing, fmit, marriage and other 
fees ; fines for p^y offences • free labour ; 
treasure trove ; mines, kc. It concludes with 
the denunciation from Veda Vyasa, against 
icsnnacra of lands, in the story of the Sagara 
Riijd. The grant ia confirmed by tbe oounter- 
aignature of Dauti V a row, tbe heir prBBumpUve, 
— ro«. VHI.>». 300. 

72- I>ug up at Knmbki, in the Sauffor terri- 
tofj Mrii-Jht miUt nortk-cast of Ja&alpwr, 

l^ngnage of Insoriptiona.— Sanskrit veraa 
■ad pros^ quaint, and with obadete nsous, 
asd pvnuinct. and otthi^phioal errors. 

Date.— Stnvat 9S3, or A. D. 876. 

Gbaractw used in Inscriptions.— Nearly 
the same as the Cbhattarpur inscriptions, and 
therefore like tbe Haraba and AUababad No, 3; 

BeUgion ; or Divinities or Sages mention- 
ed. — Invocation '* Om," and gloiy to 
Brahma. Tisbnii, . Atri, Bodhanaf tbe Sun, 

Furuvsres, Arvasi, Bharata, Yamana, Funu- 
dsva or Indra, t^ra^ang, Parusavaram, Indra, 
Vartna Beva, Mahadeva, Saraaveda. 

Kincs or Princes mentioned. — Tuva Baja 
Duva, KokRlts, his son, (^angaya Deva, bis 
son, Karma Dev8,.his son, Yaaus Karma. Deva» 
hia son, Oaya Karma, bis son, Nar Sinha 
l)evn, his brother, V^aya Sinba, bia brother. 
T'hes^ priooes are called of tbe Kalachitri 

Eemarkfli — The grant tcives a villaga ton 
Bnhman, Sitha Sarma, bat without express 
sions .of venmtion. Kama Deva'a . wife^ 
Aralla Devi, is stated to have been of a Kva 
family. The Slst verse Ukeas the king Kara 
Sinba, to Pamsarama, making tbe world tha 
dominion of Brahmins by the destruction of 
the Kahetriyas. The inscription is curious 
for enumerating tbe chief ofiicere ofthekin^ 
Vijaya Sinha, namely the prime minister, chief 
priest, the chief scribe or secretary of state, 
the chief cooaeillor, the chief judge, the power- 
ful secretary for foreign affain, the gnat 
chamberlain, tbe inconiiptible superintendoit 
of police, the treasurer, and lie master of the 
horse sod elephants. Tlie usual fbtindiet to 
lesuming lands and tbe stoiy of Sagarr an 

73. Bahra, three marches fi^om Jeypvirftm 
the read to Delhi, on a Uoek o/etone or rodk 
on a hill. 

Language of Inscriptions. — Old Pali^ with 
two or three (grammatical errors- 
Date- B. C. 309, because the inscriptimi 
evidently refers to the first convocation at 
Fataliputra, or Patoa, in tbatyearyiu Ac 17tb 
of tbe reign of AlSoIu.- 

Character used in In8criptions.-^Idest 
Lai or column pSaraeter, dr Delhi 2<ro. 1. 

Religion ; or Diviuitics or &agn- BMntioiH 
ed.-— Buddhist, the supreme &^dbay Dbav- 
ma, or the law, or faith. 

Kings or Princes mentioned'. — Asoica as 
Fiyadasi Raja. 

Remarks.— This ia^ anotW of Awka's 
edicts, from a new locality, showing Ibe wide 
extent of his domain. It dinera dDroewbat 
in style and language from tbe piUu and 
rock edicts. The subject is the Boddbist 
commaodment, forbidding tfati fscrifios of 
four-footed animals. The Vedas are alluded 
to,, but net named, and condemned aa^ " mean, 
and false in their docirine, and' not to be obey- 
ed." 'the scriptures of the H'unia (which 
must be tbe Vedaa) are spoken of as direotins 
blood-offsprings and the saerifioe of aoimaU, 
Priest and prieaiesses, religious men and rcU- 
gioua woman, amongst the Buddhists,- ars 
commanded to obey the edict, and bear it tor 
their hearts.— Foi. XI.;». 617. 

71. Jiakawudaifmr roei imeeripUom. 

Language of ^v^ietioits^s^oskrit. 






l)ate.— Eightli to tenEh cenlury. 

Cliafiicter useil la Iracripiioiis. — K.utilH 
Ciaur character. 

1K<eli^ioii ; or Divtiiiiiea or Sages mentioci' 
e3, — Si Til. 

' , Kings or P^ll(^e■3Glelltio^ed. — Sow nnnieiil. 

Bsmarka.— TfieBtJ inftcriptiona rvlHled to tlit 
weU IcTiQWQ tculptures at Mahiimeliiipiir, hillI 
are litlla more iLan names applieii lo the 
ligprca in the BCtilplLrea. Tlii-y mre tlescnltcd 
ill Ibc TrBDaactiona of ihe Rojal Asiatic Socie- 
ly^^Foi. iLj). 617. 

TC. Dug up near Tespur ia the l^urrufiff 
'divisinH^ loioer Aisam ; copper plates. 
*■ Lsnguage of Intcriptigu, - Sftn^knt- 
^ Dale.— None; H'tli century. 

Character usetl in luscriijtions.— Sli^litlj 
mudititid Kutita. 

' Rtitigion 'j or Divinities or ^a^cs mentioii- 
Vft.^ — tii¥OcntioTi to Siva iHid the l^rahsuaputra 
Hfvei'. 'ftic hoftT incsmaiioii aTicI bis rfesceiid- 
aiits, hI^o Vjahniif Krisbna bikI LnsklLiiii. 

Kings or Princea roeulionetl. — VudhislTiiraj 
BMiti^i, Kbtha, Arjiinia, Bhsgmlaita king of 
KnmruiJ and his dcacendanls WaLaaibba, 
Httjara, and Vannmala. 

^ itemarka. — This inacriptlon reeonts the 
fCraut of a viltage called Abiauravataka ou t\tb 
yi tnt of t'be Ganges, to a Bratiman of the 
"Banrfilya rHce named lurtoka. The donor is 
ViinarnaU of the d^Daety of BliagadHttA.^ 
"M. IV. p. 766. 

7<i. To tlnf wesf of the northrrn ffate of tie 
Furl of Behaf On a broken ilont pillar. 

X-aiiguane of iDscripiiaiiB. — Sausknt. 

Biite. — None : lOth century. 

Ciiiirncter u&ed in imscrlpiioud, — Not cl- 
Af^tly rfsetnbUny; arty other cbarncter : allied 
10 ibe Kucila. 

Rcrtaika. — Tlie tranelatioa is wrong 
throti^hout.— Voi!. IX. p. B5, 

7 1. Fbvnd in ihe rtlic chimhtr of one of the 
' KeHeri tavei : <'op}*i:r plufti. 

iinniiuu>!e uf iD^cripCiutis. — Old Vtd\ 

biile. — 3i<d ctntiiry B. U. nbotit lOfJ yeiiT& 
of 'llic rt'gii or.tlic Tjutiit1»kii dyttiialy. 

Uh-iraci^r used in luflcnptioiig — Ko. 2" 
cave tliaractisr, 

IReli^ioii ; or iMvinitiea or Sages meniiDii- 
'jfcll — Bllil'dliisl, SciUltHlion la .Snfv^jna, Uhfl- 
■gftven 'istikyii Muni and chaitya niRntioued. 

Kings or Princua menlTOiwrd,- Trukuflaka. 

Eeiiiarks.—Fusliya Hflrinit of line comjiiier- 
td coiiutry Millfld Taromi, dtiriicatts a chaitya 
■Menliuu ia raade of iSie furests nroiiiid IJard- 
harhuuB, n couulry noticed in ihe i*Talnpru- 
dru inacHjiiiofl. — Fol. X. p. 97. 

78. Fysaltad in Quc^i : Copper plate. 

Languufie of Inacriplioiw. — SEiiiskril. 

Urttc— S. 1243. A. 0. nS7. 

Character used m Icacripliont. — Kolmen- 
t to tied. 

Relif^oH ; orDivim'tipB or Sa^aa menUM 

— Vaishnava, Xiaksbmi. 

Kings or Vrloces roenlioned. — TasoTigr* 
hfl, Mabl Chandra, Chiwdra Deva, Madam 
PaU, Govinda Chaodra, Vijaya Cbaodr^ 
Jaya Chandra. 

Kemarka.— The last prince, on the 7th da. 
of the moon in the month of Asadi.ia 124S 
tftanls ID fee simple to Alonga Audn R«yata 
Bon of Atala Kayuta of t1ie Bharadiiaja lin 
t'be village of KemaH in the district A«hwBt 
FattHoa. The grant concludes with Ihe usua 
anathema «gainat ihe resumera of rent-ire 
tenurea. The geaealopy is of the ttahlor 
firiooea of Kartouj. — VoL 98. 

79. BooIm -ti Btu$tintg9k M iheJ»ot pfzh 
SouiAaru ramgt of QiUt rmnnvig p^ralltl I 
Mount Aboo. 

LaiB|$UBgB- fA IftacrijptioBaf— ^Sanalirit, 

Date.— a. 1O0» A. G. 1042. 

KeliitWD ; Of Divi«itieg or Se{fei naeatioii 
ad, — SaltttatiM to Vasi, god^Ma of wkdoi 
ud HsEk 

Kisga or Pri»c«a meotioned.-^'CbpaU, 
Aravya. Adphnia KrishHa, Scioatk Ghoii, 
Mabi Fftla, Vandbuka, Puma Pala alias 
Baladarpadfc His sister Lakiai marvwl (o 
V^raba bod Bora* aan of Chata, aoR of Batta- 
bhiL, son of Sangniaa of the lioe of Bbab»> 
j[^pta of the liiid of ICashiswank Of tht 
fbrraer line traa Vasiat^a. 

Aeaaarkkw— Iistoiti, wife of Vigraha, on the 
death of ti«r hiMbaod, takas ahelter with her 
brolbar nod oaisaa the temple of the bun ia 
ihe Aravalli ran^e to be repaired and a Baolea 
io be eaoavated. T4« Tecor^r is Maitri 3h«r- 
mi^ a Brahraau |»0e(i wad the cstgraver Sira- 
palst engraver ordiuary to Baja Aawapati.— 

80. TirmpU at Bdiiutaffurk. 
Language of Inacriptioaa.— Santkrit. 
DHte.^27 Magh 1053 S. 

Religion ; or Diviuitiea w Saff^es merrtioR' 
«d. — daluiarion to ilie sun. 

Ktftgs or PrititKS nienlioned.— HariYnnij, 
VnwavaniS', Ari>ri a^ bhuVHla. 

Uemftr4A.>-— 'Ihis intrflription vi vrry {mper> 
feet, ae¥t;ral entire stanzas and ■mmiy Wvfrds 
btm^ (rifW.«d> H^roiB wMbI rMnniiia, app'vra 
to be the rewrti of the cnnebraLioii, hy Dha- 
valha, of a temple al a village vailed Mabid- 

61. Adn. 

Ohanctcr used in lusct^ptions.-^Hyfnyari- 

fiemarkt.— Th^» itcortl has not yet bten 
detfifrtrtWd.— Fof. XI p. 9t^. 
83. i^iitffpo. 

Character nsed in Inscription*.— Uohen ♦ 
Heligion ; or Divmitiea or Sa^ra mentioDeJ. 
—Buddhist. ' > 


-ttnaukB.~TU8 YectfrA lifii mot yet Ixfn de- 
dpVend.- rot. X1U, t>. I l!S. 

83. Cave$ qf B»rmrr, 
LanfCtis^ of In*crtptiow.— ' f*«tl: 
l^inracttr. used in IukcnptiOnt;->'OId Tali 

No. l.l>Bt. 

ft(Tl»gii»n ; 01 DMftitiel or Saga JtenlkiDed. 
— Buddhist. 

BeiMrks^Veiy imperfecily deciphered.— 
VqI. XVI. f»- 412-. 

84. Moorehedaiad, on a gun. 
Lk^oage of lMcciptious.^^eniiii, 
3)ate.-1047 Hegira. 

CbsMcter oaed in Inscriptions. — PersiaQt 
.AeUgum ; «r !>ivim«ie« or Sages meatioued. 
— Habomedan. 

. Kings or Princes mentioDed.— shah J^an.' 

Bemarks.— The gun on which tbia iosorip? 
tioD ia recorded, was ooDstructed at Jahangir- 
ua4£«r, olherwiaa called Daccf^ under the Baro- 
aaship of Abac Hohaauned.— Y^Z. XVt, 

693. . . : 

65. Nagarjuni cava. ^ x 

language ot iDscriptions.—SaDsVrjt. 
IHte. — Ist ceiitur? B. C. 
Oh^^Suec iund in ioaoriytion*. — No. % Lat. 
Bdixion ; or dWinities -or ftagoa ^Bottioaed. 
— «hi«a. 

KMi«a or grincwi ■aiUoiied.^Y^iifc VaAia. 

Bemarks. — ^Tliis icaaurkable inaeripUMS 
found inscribed in a Buddliist cave> records 
the consecration of tlie Saiva images, Dhee- 
tapati tfnd Devi.— Ft.^ XVI. p. 596. 

86. In a tempU at Oowga. 

Xjanguage of Iiiscriplioiie.-— SanslEiit. 

Bate.— S. 1496 A. D. 1439. 

Character used in Ijiscriptious. — ^Lulila. 

ReliKiou ; or Divinities or Sages meulion- 
^. — Vaislinava. 

Kings or Princes mebtioued.— Durdama, 
finuiara Pala, Lakbsmnna Fnla, Chitndja 
Pa1«, Kfcyana PhI«. Suudha Pala* Abbaja Deva, 
Hala, Ikva, Kasliiraja, Barasinba UeTa, BliaDa 

Bemarks.— IBbairavendra tecordi the coli- 
seciation of (be images* of Jagannatb, Bala- 
i-ama and SuWiddra. Tli* piiires recorded 
evidently tKluiig to Ibe "Pfla d>nB8iji of* Ciaur. 

B7. Ranodty on-a ttottc aUtb in d t^pie. 
language of luscnptions — Sanskrit. 
r)»te.-Jt)th centuiy. 
Character used iu inscripUbns. — Kvtibt. 
HeligioD ; or Divinitiea or Sages ueutfbn- 
ed. — Siva. 

Kings or Mnces Uientioned. — SomeitrftrB, 

Heniarks. — ^Tkere aie several names in this 
in«cription, hut as th« rearliuK and the ttans- 
lalion are both iucorrect, 1 have not thought 
proper to insert ibtra here. — Vol. XTI, p. 1081 

88. Be^,M» iht 'tBvgh^f Pas»ti'(Lbj. 
Langtuite of InsBii(Aiott8.— "Sttisfcrtl. 
Date.— 9lh centuiy. 

Ghartcter ^iseri in "rnscriptionp. — Kutila. 
Kcligioa i Of Uifinitiea or St^ts meiaiou- 

KiugB or Princes mentioned.— YasotiEnna 
Dava Pala. . ■ 

Remarka.— fiecord the raising ttTtWto toiw*. 
and a temple*— J^ot I VII, m. ItS^- ^ 

89. Kmiimffer. 

Laufiuage of bMcriptiDBB.*^SMnkritt ^ 
Datii;-S.J£at. 10 Kaiti^ 
€faaiKtflr uid in loaeviptiont^^Ndt known* 
Religion ; or Divjuiliea or Saget Mmtioinff. 

Kfcign «v Srinon ■raeMttned.-^Pftrffiiai^: 

' .90v i Kalinger. 

* iMUgsMgeitf lnti^ioi».^8aillVritl 
Dale tt-Hot'knowiu ' 
<eharaefer-«Md m Insoriptii)ns.M.-Not *ffown. 
Beligbn^ ■or DiWnitiea or Sages tttntioned. 
^fliv*. . ■ 

Kinga or Priboas ntention^d.— V^aj* Rrfi 
Bhuroi Pala. Ja;a Varraa, Deia Tanna, iU- 
dana Varma, Fjatapa Varma. . , 

Bemarks.— He subject oT the recorfl is 
profiably tbe eonaecration of certain imagea 
of Siva, Ksmala and Kali, the ineori^olL 
howtfi-eT is'too imperTect to ndmil of sitiafu^ 
tpry decipherment. — VqI, XYll.p,^\^ . 
'9}. Kalinget: 

Language of Inscriptions — Sanskrit. 
Dnte. — Not known. " j 

Character used in lnrcriptiona. — Not knoim, 
Vidtgtoii 1 or Divinities or Sages mentiopod. 
— Siva. 

Kings or Prlboea mentioned [—ifatiUdm, So 
Baphohha. . 

92. KaXinger. 

Language Ifracrii^tioB«.''^Sft«Bkrit'. 
Datc-^^ot Juu)WB, ■ 
Character used in InscriptitoDBt— Hot jGnoiirn. 
Belig^n^ or Dniiutiea or Sagee nntioiedi 

— Siva. 

King* or Prinoea Biei^ipmedv-^Bi^ Dfeva, 
son of KaiiiatenilH, son Uad^na VaciHi 
D«ya, king ol^ l^itljart . 

Hemadw.-^Becord of the cnuaeoivtiwi ef am 
imafTB of V«ni(|».— ^Bi. Xyjl.m, jaj» ' - 

93. XaliHffpr. 

Language of Iii8Cfiptio>i.<.r.Switkril. 
Date. — N(A known. ^ 
Character used in luKription.— Not known, 
BeligioA \ or DTvin4ie« u fiagea meqtioHed. 
—Not known. 

Refna.ks.— Five very imperfect modtirn ia- 

scriptiobs, from ^^Ijiypr qfc ji<L^valuev— 
XVII. «. 68. • o 



04. Vi/ap9 mdMjir, Udagwur. 
Language of InBcriptioDi-— 6uiskrit» 
Date — Kot known. 

Charaoter uaed in Interiptiona.— Kutila, 
Religion ; or Divinities or Sagei mention 

«d.< — Salutation to the son. 
Kinga or Priiicea mentioned.— None* 
Bemarke. — An eulogiom on kke san< — Poi. 

XTIt p. 68. 

95. I^ot ktowM, OM Copper pUU. 
Language of Inseriptiona. — Suukrit- 
Date— 66 of aome local era. 
Ghancter uaed in In»criptions. — 6aur. 
Heligion j or DirinitiM or Bagea mentiftn 


Kings or Princes mentioned*— DeT« Sacti 
Devn, Vnaiya Rna D«*a. Nan Bhattt Deva, 
Bana Cluiidn Den, Bkoja Dera, Bfakendra 
Pah Oers, BhojA Dera, Vinayaka Fala Deva. 

Bemarks.— Vinayakn Bala, the. nepbe 
of Bhoja Deva IL gnnta to kia daea^fdlow 
Bhulloka BfaatU the village of Tikkarika in 
the diatriet of Benarea. The plaoe Is t» this 
day knom under the name of Tiklari. The 
donorit eridentlv a a^n of the irell known 
Pain dynasty of Gaur— Foj. XVIL ^ 71. 

96. Stmgt^fW. 

Language of Inscriptions. — Pali. 

Character nseJ in IntcriptioDs — Rather 
peeuliar, allied to No. 3. 
' Religion ; or Divinitiea or Sages mention- 
ed.— Buddhist. 

Bemarks — BuddUik naiim— Fo/. XVIL 
p. 60. 

97. Ktiiah. 

LauKaagc of Inseriptions. — ?ali| 

Character used in Inseriplions.— Baljier 
peculiar, allied to No. 2. 

ReligiM • or Dirinitiea or Sages mentioif 

Bemaikfc— Buddhisk maiim. Vol XVUI, 
p. 347. 

9B. Jmunptir om a bund Md. 

Language of Tnscriptioaa. — Sanskrit 
Duto — S. 1273: 

Cbaraeter used in Inscriptionsi— Oaor, of 
Baja Jayachandra's time. 

Kelson ; or DiviiritiBa <« flngea nention- 
ed. — Not known. 

Bemarks.— This ia a deed of mortgage eze- 
enfeed in favor of two bunkers, Ba Sri Bafaina 
and Ra 3ri Msha ditya bj Ba 6hingadevl to 
ensure tiie liquidatioo of a debt fl» 2|260 
dramnua.— FoIL XIX. p. 454. 

99. OcfeU. 

Language of Inecriptions.— Sanskrit. 

Date.— S. 10S6 A. C. 980. 

Character used in Inscriptions. — ^Kntila. 
- Religion ; or Dmnities or Sages mention- 
ad.— Taishnava. 

Kiiigrs or Princes mentioned.— Krblma B^jsj 
Vfliri Siiiha, Si^raka, Aniogharasra aliss Vsk^ 
pati, alias Valabha Nnrendra. 

Bemarks. — The gift of the tillage Sem- 
bhatapura to a priest in order to defray the 
expenses of a temple.— Fo^ XIX. p. 476. 

100. Pknoa M TioHUwart om a M of 
lamtUtone im a tempU. 

Laut^uage of- Inscriptions- — Sanskrit. 
Date.— 979 Strnvat, probably of theVal^ 
iabhi en 

Oharaetctr used in IntcriptiomL— A. wiety 
of Kutila. 

Kinf^ or Princes mentioned. — ^Ifahendar- 
pHla, jHtuIa— VfljttU, Ti^nika, Bagga, Puraa, 
Devanga, Banmcbandra Bbcja. 

Bemarks — This insoription is very im- 
perfect, btit inteft-atbg, as throwing some 
light on a dark |feriod of Indian history. If 
we may asiume the Bhoja of tfae document 
to be (h« fir'at of that same noticed by Abol 
Pa»l and Prinaep, hia en is definitely fixed. 
FoL XXII. p, 67fl- 

101. Khunniara in Kanfra^ 

Language of Inscriptions^— Old Pali. 

Data^lst eeutary A. C. 

Character used in Inscriptions. — Arian PalL 

Bemarks. — Of Paliogiaphic importance aa 
shewing the transitioo atate of the Aiiaao-PaK 
ohanot«r.-/'o2. XXUL p. 67. 


loMcte . ... Fa- j lln«ecta L*ir. 

I&aect Gas. Puobi Tam. 

£atoma Q>. t Purba Tub. 

Insects are a clats of inrertebnte animals, 
belonging to the articolata, with little jmnts. 
They an six legged, air-breathing, artioulala 
animala. Invertebrate animela are divided by 
Lemarok into two groups, which he nils Ani- 
maux Apathiques, and Animaux Btrosiblea, 
The latter, or the SensitiTe Animals, oontaia 
six classes, of which Insects are the first. 
According to Latreille's arrangement, in tb* 
* Regne Animal/ the class Intacta forms tha 
third great division of articulated animals — 
articulated referring to the numerous joint» 
of which this class of animals is composed. 

The following is another classiScatioii of ti». 

ArtiouIaU, with Httle Joints -.^ 
1 , Botifera, wheel animalculea.. 
Bxamplea^ ai'imals with eiliatad jaws. 
3. Cirripedia, cirripeds.- 
£xample9, barnacles, sea acorns. 

3. CrustsiwB, ten-lqcged, sciatic TamiTy. 
jSxampUsr crabs, lobsters, shrimps, prawns. 

4. losecta, six-legged, air baathing, articu- 
late auimals. 

Ejsamplft, the wasp, the.bce, the bntterBy^ 
the beetle, the flea^. izedbyLjOOgle 




5. Anclwida,* eight-legged, sir breatbtng 
•niculaie animals. 

Sxampietf mitet, spiden, eeorpione. 
Ineecu have alto beeu olaeiifitd by oUier 
paturalisU as under ^ — 

1 Aptera. example^ flctit^aA lice- 
Diptera, example gnat*, flies, &o. 
Hemiptera, example buKSi &c 
Lepidoptera, MwnpU bulterflies^ aaotlis. 
Orthoptera, eMn^Is gntsboppers, oriet- 
eU, &e. 

Hynenoptera, exampU baet, wup** &o. 
Nturopiera. exampta LlbelluU or dra- 
goa-fly Ephemera or majr-fly, Pbryga- 
nea or aliierfly. . . 

S Sircpsiptera, example, parasites on vari- 
ous hynwnoptera. 
9 . Culeoptara. exan^le, oockcbafers and 

The iuseet of Insecta class of auiiuals, is 
BOW geuemlly anauged into sevwi orders, riz. 

V. Honwptsroua keniip- 

i Ootaoptara 
■L HjDienoptaTa 

in. Orthoptera ri, Lgfndoptera 

iw. HatBmptarona licnip> vtL Dipfeara 

True Inaeeta may be thua defined Art ieu* 
htted animala possessing six two anteanae, 
tvo eompoand vyea, a small brain at the 
anterior extremity of a double medullary chard. 
Gircniation efl^ted by » pulsnting dorsal vea* 
tel provided vith namerout raWea, Kespini* 
tion by tisehfse, vhioli form two lateral trunks 
and nmify tlirough the body; generation 
ov^MTDUS ; two distinct sexes ; adult stateVt- 
taioed through a series of metsmorphoaes. In- 
sert* generally possess two pair* of winft*; the 
tnink in tba adult animal is usually eompo-ed 
of three ohief parts, the head (or caput% thorax* 
and abdomen; or the trunk of an insr-ot may be 
deaeribcd as oonsistinx of thirteen segments* of 
whieh ODO eonsiiinlcs the bead, three form the 
thoraxt and the remaining nine compose the 
abdome*. The head includes the organs of 
aenaatioD and mandicatioui and its principal 
parte have received the following nantes: — 
the elypeus, Tertex, occiput, lenss, canthus, 
gala* ocolij stemmata, antenne and the 

Some insects are hurtfol, but some are 
uaefnl to man and his industries, some are of 
vonderfnl beauty or are of inteiest from pecu- 
liarity of atruoture. 

Tbe Greeks ate gnushoppera. and liked 
thcB uaiuiglf ; the kborigines of New South 
Walea eat Uam raw, first taking off their 
viagB. The Chioese thriftily cat the chrysalis 
of the ulkworn, after making use of the silk ; 
the larras of a hawk-moth are also much n- 
liahed. Tlie negroes in Jamaica eat the 
Bagoog botterflisa, afler removing the winga* 
and itoro tbeiniip by pouorifng and imoking 


them. The Hottentots and the peoples in the 
East Indiea eat the termitea, or white ants, 
boiled, fried and raw, the female white 
ant in parUeular is eaten ia India and 
Broughton, in his ** Letters written in • 
Mabaratta Camp in' 1809," tells us that thejr 
were oarefully sought after, and pressed for 
the use oT the debilitated Luijee ttao, |Nrime 
minister of Seindia. The natives mis than 
with fiour, and make a variety of paatry ; or 
they pareh then in pots over a gentle fire, 
stirring tham about m it done in loaiting 
coffee. They cat them by hondfula, as we do> 
comfits ; ** i have disooataed with leveml 
gentlemen," observes Smeathman, '* upon the 
taste of the white ants, and on omnparing 
notes we have always agreed that they are 
most deliotoiu and .delieate eating." Pr. 
Livingstone says: — "The white anta, wlicn. 
roasted, are aaid to be good, aomewhat resem- 
bling grains of boiled rice. An idea may, ho 
adds, i>e formed of this diah by what once ocenr- 
red oil the banks of the Zouga. The B»o^« 
chief, Palaui, .Tisiting us while eating, I gave 
liim a pieco of bread and preserved apricots, 
and as he seemed to relish it much, I asked 
him if be had any food equal to it in hia Qoan- 
try? *Ah!' aaid he, *did yon ever tatCo 
white ants f As I never had, be replied, 
' Well, if you had, yon would never have de- 
sired to cat anything better.' " Humboldt' 
mentions ants as Iwing eaten by the Marivi' 
tunos and Marguerataies, qualified with resin 
as a sauce. Bees are eaten in Ceylon. Mites in 
myriads are oonsumed in eheete. The grub 
of the palm-weevil, wliich ia the si» of a 
thumb, is a favourite dish in some parts of 
India, ^lian relates of an Indian king, whiv 
for a dessert, instead of fruit, set before his 
guests a roasted vonn t^en firom a plant, 
(probably the larva of this inseot,) whion was 
thought very deliotous. — 

lit natnie, the Udopid* devour igaridl under 

Bearaktut oHoa , one of the Mcmida li n 
native of Java. 

TkeraUit a gtnru of CToIeoptera, of the tribe 
Cicindelidee, is confined to South Eastern 
Asia, The following genera, belonging to the 
Cicindelidse, are not auoommon in India, viv. 
Th^ratea, l^condyla, and Collinris : the two 
former axe. charaeteristlo of a aouthem nngc^ 
while the latter is abundant throughout the 
eastern continent More than aixty apeoiea of 
Indian Ciaindelidm,had &llen under Mr, &>pe*s 
notice : the most splendid of the race abound 
in Ifepal. Anvong varions apeciesi however, 
peculiar to the Himalajaa, only ono i4)pnn(Aen 
the form of the European Germanica, 

DyluoiM gruWf one of the aquatio 
Coleoptera, is fouqd^im J^^^^iin Bo?tf 



. ^leuckns tacer, the BscieO- beetle of tha 
E^yptiana^ ia round ia Egypt and Wealern 

The I/ampjfrides, are a tribe of the Malncor 
' (lermouA Coleopidrn, induiling ihe glow worm 
and: fire-fty. Tiia Fixe-Jlg is tlie iiaiuti uiveri 
to ayiecHs of EUi«r aii:^ L^mp^ris, at' tlie order 
t<olifoptf;ii], Hud Id t1ie KuUora of the tcopLca. 
f . Ijuberetirin ie uf S^utlt Atii^rio9, F. ciiiddnria 
of K. Asia. ')cUti IndeE reeort to iffioiat ^Ihcts. 

Tita JjHinpyrfB li'ire'fly ia tbe Moucbe Ju- 
iQtnqiisa of ilie freticlt. The llomntta ^LvlcU 
the luminous insecia by tJis catnnLOi) nume^ 
ooatiluea, tiucj IuicIoIh. 

TliG Phaamie- or epectre iiiaecta are found ia 
Aain, ATricn, S. America, Hud Anstriilia, nnd 

knavn, tbat insects refuse to attack tbe 
gum of the cashewnut fruit. 

Bogs belong to the famity Henitpten, 
several genera of which occur in India ; AmoBK&l 
others are Cantuo ocellatus, Lcpioacelis 
marginalia, CalUdea Stockeriua, &c. Of the 
aquatic species, the gigantic Betostorni 
Indicum, attHins a size of nearly tbree 
incbea. Some of tliem are most attracUri in 
colour ; a green one is orten seen on leayes. 
They are quite inoffensive, iT unmolested, but 
if irritated exhale an offensive odoiu:. In- 
sects known as bugs hare in recent years 
attracted much attention from tbe anxiety 
and losses they hare occasioned to the Coff'c^ 
planting interests. The 6offee plant haa very 
many enemies lo contend with, and the foUow- 

from Ibeir varied sl-apL^ are called 8pe.tres, ^ ■ ^.^ ^ ^^^^ „f ^.^^^^ 

u," II.- ..^ /u,,.Mi \ sw. f I nJ. * Pseudococcus aoouidum, White 

Walking Lciivea, ( I iiyiliiiinjiinittiriteil eu^^k?. Stc, . ' 

The M.iinij'9 relig:iosn, amonget ttie penetinis of 
Laitf^iiedoc i^ held alnQr>st sacred ; tlit^y call 
it the FregH Deori, or Prie Dieu, 

■Three ncnv uptciea of Pflusaus have been 
found under sconea in Hong'kon'g in tbe nest | 
<>f a. smnll yellow tint nt upwards of seven- 
teen hundred feyt- The three apecies all , 
t^cepitate, uml one of tbeiii> haa n 

(Itscti^irge staining like tiiiit of a Bricliiniia. | 
Tbe Faasalua genua rtbourirls over iniJia »ud the 
ArcKipelflgo. li'-<J& si's useful in producing 
Iiaoej. anil ill Afgheinistau tlivy 'Avt Hemi- 
domi-aticattid as iu Europe. Tlie Liingeh bee ' 
Dtf Buritoo, niiJ oneofsaiHllersiKe halted Nunng, j 
gCOJ uce vakubie lioiiuy. Tliev generally place 
t)jeM. u&sts uniierncLuh lUe larger brancluq 
vpA I tie Dyaks nscaud Ibe Vtuss by means of a 
rail iii bamboos. Amongst the insects which | 
ipfest booka in India pre two genera, wliieh are 
Q«uallv rcftnrded as accomplices in the work of 
deaU'iiCtiou, but wliich on the contrary pursue I 
and ^reeiiily Teed on t1ie larvx of the death ; 
watcli flud tlie numerous acaii which are 
believed to be the chief deprpdatora tbst prey 
ifpon book&- One of liie&c maligned genern, 
is a liny laillcas scorpion (Clielifer) ol wliich 
three apeeiea have been noticed in Ct-ylon, 
thfi Ch. librorum Temp. Cli.oblongum Ttmp. 
ajvi .C,'b. acaroides IlermnaJi, ihn laai nf 
udiicli it ii beiievtr.r Iind becm introduced from 
HuJnpe io DiLtch and forluguese books. Ad- 
othtr ^ciiua of bcmk inaeals is the Lepiaoia, the 
fi»h in&eat genus, nnd called 90 by Fabiiciua 
Irgna its fiab-like scales, tiny sjlvery creatures 
^ich {east oil liie acHvi an<l oofl bodied msecta 
tbjj, infest books. There h»ve oidy been two 
iipeclu. deaj;ribed, v\%., ihe L. tiivtto-fHScialus 
^qd h. ni^er. TsKp. It hna 6 legs. As in-. 
Bccta arc very destructive lo- boojLe iu India 
a»d the paataa ^uma employed in the 
bindings, form special obj^ect^ for l!he attficks 
pf ccttaiu tribes ; it may be useful to be 

or Mealy 


Parasites ; Scymnus rotundata, Jfolek. 
Kncyrtus KietDeri. Motch. 
t^hartooeras masciformis. Motck. 
AcaruB translucens. N. 

3 Lecaiiiam Coffeae, Ifalki Broirn or scaly 


Parasites ;. Scutelliflta cyanea, Uolch 
Cephaleta patpurelventria. MoUh, 

,^ bruiLQeiveatria. Match. 

n fuBciventris. Match. 
£aeyrtua puadisicus, ifofoA. 

t, Nietneri. Match. 
Cirrbospilus coccivoras. Sfotch,. 
Marietta leopardiiiue. iV^ 
Chilooorus circuuulaLus. SchanU. 
Acaius translucens. i^. 
8 Lecaoiuni ntfirum. A'. Blaelt bii^. 

4 Syncladium, Nietneri. Rabh. Dread. 

Hsdwig. 1858. 
Trisposporium GatdnerL Berk. J. Hort. 

Sac. Lond. 1849- 
A fundus. 

5 Aphis coffeae N. Coffee-louse. 
Parasites : Syrphus Nitittneri. Sciiner u\ 

. liu. 

„ spleiidens. Doleich. 
Myjjromus auatralia. Soff. Verz Wteh, 
Siraciiia geometriqa. Motch. 

Lepidoptera. \ 

7 A]oa lactinea. Cram.. 

8 Orgyia Cpjflancia 

9 Etiprocitis virguncula., WaUt, 
10 Trichia eiigna. Feld. 

\\ NsTQsa conjspersa. Walt, 

13 Lintacodes graoiosa. Wata, EhL eat, 

13 Drepana P 

14 Zdttzera Coffeee. If. 

15 Agrotis segctum. Wien T. BhicV gruli 
X& Galleriomorpha lichenoides. JtfZflf.. 

.17 Boarniia CeylfuacJt. Jfeld. 

18 „ Icucostigmaria. /W(i. 

19 Eapithecia coffearia. ftU: 6 



20 Tortrix eoffearis. Feld. 

SI GneUaru f coffeifoUella. Uoteh' 


St Antiioiiiyza t coffras. N. in iioich. 

S3 Phymatea puneUU, />• 

84 Am^loDcyeba »ptc P WtiiU grub. 
S0 Arbiim f dMlndor, N. 


Aearas eoStn, If. 

Elliott Gray, Goff«fr>rafc. 

37 Oolnnda 
Tba " nt *' doea muali miiehiaf by 
fcuwing off the young braueliea, appa- 
TonUj to get at the tender pth ; it is 
called " D«dd«wedda" by the SIiifialeM, ia as 
large as a weasel and of a greyish blselc 
eolonr. The rat. monkeyi, and squirrels eom- 
mit great depredations in fruit lime ; they 
are partial to the sweet pulp which they di- 
gest bat evscukte the beans whole. 

Of the locasts which, at intervals, devas- 
tate some eonntries, the Acrydium ((Oryllus) 
asigratoriom ia tiiat of Afrios and the south of 
Asia and O. gregsrins that of Sinai. The Migra- 
tory LocQst^ Acrydium (or ^ipodium ) migra- 
toTiura* which ooeara in Africa and the south of 
A«a is greenish* with transpuent elytra, of 
a dirty grey, whitish winxa and ]^nk I^s. 
They have the power of ioflaUng tfaemselTCS 
with air and of tmvelling about 18 milaa a day. 
Tney are bred in the deserts of Arabia and 
Tartary. The Cephaltemla ovis (syn <estius 
OTis) is found in Europe and the £. Indies, it 
bjs its eggs in the nostrils of the sheep and 
the worm from it occiipica the frontal sinuses. 

(Bstms equi occurs in the south of Europe 
nd in Persia. It is a dipterous inseot. Its 
eggs are deposited on the hstr of the horse 
and licked into the stomeeb, nnd when oom- 
ph- te the inseets pass through the canal. 

The Bntoeera rubus, Gomminya, of OqrloQi 
is a beetle of the south of India which 
peMtea'es the trunk of the ooeoanut tree nenr 
the gTonnd and there deposits its eggs, and its 
grulM, when hatched, eat their way upwards 
through theeentre of the tree, to the top, where 
they pierce the yoni^ leaf buda and do incre- 
dible damage. 

Beetles, belong to the ckos of inseets called 
Coleoptcra : they are very inmerous in tropical 
Ibdis. and the blistering beetles of India, ere 
sereral species of mylsbrii, the market ralue 
of which in Britain is only bt. Bd. the pound. 

Vtom other Indian Beetles is obtained an 
aitida of comsseree in the beautiful wing eases 
or clytm of the Bnprestia they are of a hvUliant 
MtaHie green colour aut ue imported into 

Englsnd prinoipallyfrom Calcutta, as ornament* 
ofkhuskhus fans, baskets, &o., sndon mnsline 
to enrich theeKbroidery. The beetles wings ot 
Akyeb, of Bnnuah are called Cheak Poorte, and 
Tbnngou Pooris. 

The naase mOapa wu applied by the Greeka 
to a ap»eips of Coleopterous Insect which wao 
distinguished by yellow transverse bands. 
This is the eharacterifttto of species of Hytabris, 
one of which, M. FusMbni, occurs in the south 
of Europe, and enother, M. Ctchorii in Syria, 
and throughout the east. In India it is called 
tdee and telee mukhee, or'tbe Oily FIj, no doubt 
from the oil-like exudation whiu fh'e insects of 
this genus give out from the articulations of 
their legs when seized. Another species, M- 
Triantheme, is uM-ntioned by Or. Fleming, and 
the Lytta gigas, FoA. is found there as well at 
in Senegal. One is mentioned by the Anbs 
under the name of snrareh. It is not known 
when the officinal Blistering Fly came to be 
used, but it has had a variety of names, it waa 
called Meloe vesicstorins by Linneeue, Lytta ve* 
sicatoria by Fabrieius, and Cantharis vesicaloria 
by Oeoffroy. Qeoffray grouped the Vesicstory 
Beetles in a small tribe corresponding nearly 
with the Liunean genns Meloe, snd distiu- 
goished it by the title GantharideK. Thu ho 
divides into eleven genera, among which are 
Gantharis; Mylsbris, and Meloe, all of which 
species have been employed as vesicatoriea. 
Meloe majalis, or Mayworm, is a spedmen of 
the genus. 

The blistering flies of India are chiefly the 
Mylsbris or Meloe ciehoiiithe Cantharis ftigss, 
and the Cantharis violacea. Mylsbris ciohorii 
is common in the neighbourhood of Duces, in 
the Hydrahad country, ia Kurnool, and nume- 
rous other looalitits. Or. Hunter published 
a good account of in the 6th vol- of the 
Transactions of tm Asiatic Society, p. 816.' 
The inseot is about an inch long, and ^rd 
brosd ; the elytra or wing coverts ate msrked' 
with six cross stripes of deep blue snd russet 
brosm. The Buprestis of ancient writenia 
met with in the basars under the name oftfao 
golden fly (sonamukki.) The Gantharis vio- 
Iseea u often mixed with speeimens of Meloe 
in the bazars. The Telini fly, if procured 
before the mites hsve commenced its destruc- 
tion, yields on an average one-third more of 
caotharidin than the Spanish fly of the Euro- 
pean shops. The bhie fly is of uncertain 
strength ; Meloe trianthems, is so called from its 
beingnsually found on the plant named Trian- 
thema decandra (biscoprs, Hind.)At the Madrns 
Exhibition of 1866, spedmens of the Indian 
blisterii^ beetles, Mylabris pnstulata, and M . 
punotomweie exhibited. Both inseets an fbnnd 
in large qnantities at ocrtain seasons idl over 
Sonthen India. Mrg&^^Qe^d^R?****'" 



arc xi»tA by the Gliiiiew.-^-^niff'. Teruieni*» 
Cej/loH. "SvaUr's Bnsi. JtMr,, Vol. II. p. 66. 
^yle. O'^'AafijJnveifljf, page 884. 

The Coccus geiLus of iiisecU belongs 
totlia order Htinipierw. The species kiiown 
ial«di> an tbe C. cticti, the eochiueal insect ; 
^ Ot laeca tbkt yidds the stick lab of 
pptDinerc^ tnd tbe C. maniparus of Arabia, 
wbieh paDQluna th« TamaHx gallica, and causes 
^4 exudation of il» Arabian manna. There are 
in^ f avieliea Coeous cacti, the Irn^ oi grana 
i^, and the grana %\ Ifestris, and after pndong- 
«d efforts oil iVv part of Drs. James Anderson 
and Berry of Mmlraa, in 1795, the 0. syUestris 
Or wild species of the cochineal insect was in- 
troduced into Bengal bjr Captain Neilson of H. 
M. 74LhEegimeTit. It throve rapidly on the 
^Jaotua iD^lien, imiipeoous opuntia, the country 
nopal. auJ \wlw«ii 1800and 1807, 74,366Hb8. 
of the cocliitieal amotiiiling to Rupees 142,916 

Vfilue was shipped to England, but at a loss, 
aa tlw *riU apecitis was greatly inferior to the 
traa, The oodiineaL inseet was introiluoed 
VitoimshQUt tbeienr 1826, as a Govem- 
Xi4at BxperLmentj au apparently with more 
•UCCGS3 ia its produotion than in British 
Lidii., for 9.1 lonjT agrj as 1844 it wM exported 
from i(MJivia to tlie estimated «lue of 93,319 
guildetj. Tiie ppeciaa introduced into India 
swarms at certain aaons, and settles on one of 
the apcciee of Uactus^ which they iminediately 
destroy* Tbe whole neighbourhood of Homana- 
liad near Beder in 1365, was surrounded with 
^;^lkty p«av which then dissppeared under one 
^Ikwevrarms. The Coccus laoea, produces the 
iubttance called \»c:, it inhabits India, is found 
nq various trees in great abundance (Fious re- 
£!oM and P. Indioa. Butea frondoaa, croton 
Uhb and Bhamn Ji^Ua). When the females 
gf this Coccus han JU«d themselTes to a part 
of the branch of the treeB#i which they feed, 
B pellncid pnd glntinoiu aubstance b^ins to 
exude from the margins of the body, and in the- 
end covers ilic whole inseet with a cell of this 
BubBlance. iviiiiils wlien hardened by exposure 
(a tlic air, becomefl lac. So numerous are 
these insects, and so elosely crowded together, 
that they often eiuirdy corer a branch ; and 
tha groups taVe ditffrent shapes, as squares, 
tesaiEOiiB, bo., ect^ording to the space left 
xwmd ^e insect which first began to form 
S^eeU. Uvder these cells, the females deposit 
Hxm Kp* vbipb, -after a certain period are 
latohedu and tba young onea eat their way out. 
it is found BocircUtig twigs and branches. The 
bnken twigs eorer^d «it}i these ifkorusliatioDa 
wxt called *«ttc tatt' in commerce. After the 
(^lour haa been Gxtmcted and farther purified 
shell !flc resulta. Cuacua polonicusia a species 
dhich is lifted indveiug ared colour. It is now 
i^jui^«a^e4 % tiiB Turin fordjeiog wool, 

silk, and hair, and for staiaing the nasla ef 
women's fiagers. 

Lao lake was first made in Calcutta in the 
beginning of the 19th century and aftenrarda 
the lac dye. Coccus sinensis of China secretes 
a wax from which eandlea are made. 

Sitk.-^VL. P. Uailla in his rHiatoire generale 
de la Chine, mentions that B. C. 2,600, Si-ling- 
chi, wife of the emperor of Gfaina, Uoang-ti, was 
enjoined by him to utilize the thread of the silk 
worm in which she suooeedad. It is produced by 
several genera of the Bombyeidse called Silk 
worms. Silk worms are liable to several diseases. 
f/uiteiiet, are worms which have not strength 
to mouIt4 'I'bey should be early removed, as 
; tbey die aud infoct the room. jlr;rtMa have 
extuiustad all their strength in the last ntoult 
and have not even strength to eat. 

The yellov or fiat worm* easily die. The 
jlat m ffioHt, are soft and indolent womu, 
beeoBB very (at from eating a great deal, tooa 
die and become putrid. 

The most severe disease, as the most gene- 
ral, is the muicadine. Tbe losses occasion^ by 
it are reckoned In France to be equbl to one* 
sixth of tbe profits. A worm may be eating 
as usual, when suddenly it becomes a duU 
white and not long after dies, becomes reddish 
and rigid. Twenty-four hours after death, a 
white ^oresoence shows itself round the head 
and rings and soon after all the body becomes 
floury. This flour is a fungus, the Botrytis 
bassiana of which the myellum develops itaetf 
in the fatty tissue of the caterpillar, Bttadia 
the istestlnes and fructifies in the exterior. 
Some Suppose this disease to be conlagioua* 

The OcUiine ailmetU is another epidemic dis- 
ease which shows itself from the very beginning 
of the rearing. The losses it has occasioned ia 
Burope in the past ten years are very great, tmi 
the countries of the Cevennes, the prioeipal 
seat of the silk culture in France have beat 

An&tera paphiaf the Tosseh sUk wons. 
called Bughey in Northeru India, is found 
in Assam, Bengal, Bheerbboom and Bahar awl 
feeds on the Zysipbus Jujuba or Ber and on 
the Assan. It has not been domesticated. 

Sahtmia arrundi is the Arrundi Toaaeli 
Silk moth of India. It feeds on tbe arand% 
or castor oil plant. » 

Bomhyx Cyntftia^ is met witb ia the loww 
ranges of the Himalaya, at Darjalin^, UnssouM , 
and NepanL It is partial to the leaves of tlui ; 
Ailsntliua glandalosa but eats also those i 
the XanthophyUum hostile and Bidnas c«w | 

Three speetes of Attaeos feed on tiw^ 
oak, in Japan, vis.. A.. Tams'Mai ; A. Pon^t^ 
aad A. Uylitta. The sUj^ of the A. Tuu^' 

^ ' Digitized by Google 

Ibi, is nrxt to thit of tlw molbeiTy tilk w6tm. 
It ia n brigfat, hvA if len fine and airang. 
Tin lama are of gnat aiEe : the oooood 
maeabte* tbat of U« mnlberrj. and tha motb 
xa larga and beaatifiil and of a bri^t jellow 
ariow* It waa int«Dd«ad into Prance ID 1662. 

AttmcHM Ptn^ yidiia a reinarkablj boantiful 
utk, fine, rtrong and brilliant and which ean ba 
•pan wiib great «aae. Tbe tisanea obtained 
from it partake of the qualitiea of onlinarjr ailk, 
ef wool and of cotton. It feeds on the oak 
m Maatcboniia- It baa been acelimatixed in 
France and hopes are eotertained of it. 

AtUeus myliits prorhioea a silk eseo au- 
peHor to A. Pernyi. This worm is found in 
various parts of Bengal, and in tbe Fai^ab and 
iia browDirii silk of bright fom texture is the 
lusaeh of oommerce, which is largely, exported. 

The Atiactu {Bombffx) cyuthia (wi\a on the 
AiUnthDs. Ita aiik is a sort of floss silk, hold- 
ing ■ middle place between wool and the 
ulk of tbe nulberrjr tree wonn, and in France 
the silk haa bees meoeufnlly wound off it* 

The Attaciu {Bom^) rieini prodnaes a eilk 
which Buck resemblea that of A* Cynthia. 

Tbe St^wmia pamm viator spins a brown 
eoeooB, with a ooarse tUk. It inhabits France, 
bnt not further north than the latitude of Paris, 

Satomia carpini, ikt Emperor moth oo> 
ewra in Eng^nd. 

BoadnfX mensifia, the Ltiokey, and B. pro- 
eesaionea, tbe Procession moth occur in Europe. 

Himakjwn eniomobgy in cbafactar is both 
Asiatie and European, and the inter- 
■iegfing of fonns of temperate and tropical 
dtnea ia one of ita moat diatinguisbiag peeu- 
Ituitisa. In ita mlt^s. pn^^y inftueneed 
by the keat and moiatare of the jnngk^ 
aoothern fcima pndominata cm northern ; 
and it in ant anlifcely, tbat to the nnieterrupied 
Wta of jai^a stretching along tbe mountain 
ra^ea, we may partly tcaoe sereral tropical 
phjtyrorooa genera far bejond their apparent 
natnnl lioAta. tionie oarntwttous insects are 
also found nuiging £ar tn the aCMrtk in the j 
Himynyaa j an example of which is Antbia | 
ft-^nttala, a welt-known native of the tropica ; 
the apedmstts, howerar^ are mm dwarfs, 
esmpared with those of FwinsuUr India, a 
fast be regarded aa a proof, that 

JmtUa hM hen reaebed ita extreme Umita, and 
onaan^m iittj will aoos diaa|^pear <»ais the 
flMtt^anid-be repnaentad by mother l^rpe^ 
laUHiag the omae fnnetiona, oblf unJer 
a diSer«Eiee of loim. Amoi^ tbe Ciemdelifla, 
Oolliaiu appears ; anaMg tbe OaraliidiB. 
we find Deaera, Omphra, and Cyclosoreus ; 
anmng the Lamelboomes, Encelora, Mi- 
mob, and Dieronoccphahu ; and to these may 
be added. Amotetna belonging to Tirlephoridie, 

and Podoaiia and PhyUoohjiria to (he Chryp 
somslidn ; all of theae are attaebed to wwm 
eonntries, and aome, indeed, are leldoln found 
but within the torrid xone. Many genera from 
the Hifflali.vaa evince an affinity to European 
types ; various Uinalayan gancra oloaUy aw 
proximRta Siberian forma, and acme of the 
species deaoribed by Dr. Gd>ler from the Altafe 
duiu <if mountaiua, particularly some Cbry- 
lomelida, are believed to be indigenona in both 
regions, some few, bowerer, are worth noticing^ 
such as Brosehns and true Csrabus, Geotmpea 
ntid PimeliH ; ihe two last have bwn declared 
bjr high authority never to be found in India. 
Ri^rdtng identity of Inseots oeourrioK in the 
Himalayas, as well .as in Etirope, there are 
several species of the following genera of 
Coleopterii, namely, Elater, Melolontba, Cbry- 
■omda, Caasida, and Coccinella, which aeem 
to be the same aa those of Eagknd ; among 
the eamivoroua Insects, Dfraustes lardarius, 
and vutpinus, Coryqeles violaceus, and ruitpea^ 
andaomeof the Siaphiliuidm» are easentiaUy 
the same in EurMie and the Himalayas. Of 
Lepidoptera, Papiuo machaoa, ia evidently the 
same as that met with in England ; the same 
remark will apply to Vanessa Atslanta, aod 
Gynlhia cardol. The pervading character of 
Indian' Entoaaology ia uniformity. It ia true 
that we meet with numerous genera, both of 
tropioal and temperate elimes, associated to- 
gether ; the former more abundant, tbe lattqr 
leas frequent (as we might natnzally expect) than 
in the Himalayas. There ia, however, a greats 
intermingling of forma thui at first sight woul4 
be readily imagined ; but when we take into 
consideration, that many of the speoiea »- 
sembling those of Europe may have been cs^ 
tured on the mountain rangea, at a conaiderafaJs 
deration we may partly aooouat for iU * When 
we Uiok to (he range whieb genrra here enjoy, 
it is very conuderable ; in put of the Hima^ 
loyaa, at tbe extreme soathern points of India, 
in the West, and even iu ita Eastern Isle^ 
there is one pervading character, evincing 
every where the prevtdenoe of tropical genera. 
To apeak more specifically, in Nepal and iha 
aoutbemmost extremity of tbe Mysore, and in 
Ceylon, at Bombay, and at BSadras, at Calcutta 
and Singapore, in Japan and Java, with tha 
rest ol the Polynesian Isles, the miyortty of tha 
same types abound ; and what is of more conse- 
quence, a great migority of the asme apeotea 
abo occur in most of the abovementioned le. 
gions. Having noticed the intermingling of 
genera belonging to Borope and Asia, if we 
tarn our eyes to Africa, we shall there find a 
conaiderable aimilarity in the entomology of 
this qutf ter of the globe with tbat of Asia ; 
among the Carabidm occur Antbia, Ortho- 
genius, ,TrigOBi»d«cty^ and Siagona. . Anw^ 

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the LamelUoornef, Epirinuf and PopilUt, the 
conieal Buprestiilea and the extraordinary Paa»- 
•idiv, which last are chiefly found only in theie 
rexioos ; aad ta thew mity be add«K), aa well 
as many more, the genera Uelyria. Htipilopus, 
^ra, and Adorium ; Doryliu^ among the 
Hymenoptera, and Dioftk anon^ the Piptera. 
VksaiRf^ from genera to apeeiee, we tball find 
that preeitely the aame Monr in both conli- 
feenti ; among the moat oonapiouooa, Copria 
mida*, BabBoa, and PitheQiaa,.CetottiB eomula, 
»nd liyita gigiS' auppoaing that no 

identiosL epeciea oconrred, which were conmon 
to Alia, and Africa, yet we cannot help 
obserrlog the very remarkable similarity in the 
representativeaof each ; one «x»mple of which 
ifl, Ateucbtts asnctua, which very oloaely 
tesembles the celebrated Sacred Beetie of 
the Egyptians, the object of tlieir worship, 
by some regarded as an emblem of ferii- 
(lity, bat more probably thot of eternity sinsl* 
speoiea of Indian Csanonia, and fhyptidte. 
Dryptn ia a Kepalese individual of this family 
belonging to the genna Deaeaa^ £raa4 which is 
deseribed in 6ei»ral Hardwioke*a oolleotioa. 
Fin others ars also reoordsd aa inhabiting 

0/ the Lebiadm, LdtiOt is of rare ocearrence 
in the East ; uoiootor, is from the Himalayas ; 
aploa ia found at Poona. Orthogoninsia com- 
mon to Africa and Asia : the gigantic species, 
liowever, predominate in the liitter country. 

JBraeiiinida. — The true type of H«llao, 
axclusively belongs to New Holland : the genua 
denominated Omphra by Dr. Leacli, applies 
solely to the Indian Bellnones. Ozena and 
Fseadossna inhabit Calentta and Cayenne ; 
-while Trigonodact^la appears in Afrioa and 
Ana. The OraphiptersB of the aandy deaarts 
have no reprcsentatiTe in the East One gf-nns 
•ppeara to units Braehinns and vAntbia : the 
latter is found throughout the continent of 
lodin. Some of the specimens from Nepal, 
however, are very diminutive. Aptinns is 
partly confined to Northern Europe and 
Amerioa ; while true firaehinui enjc^a the 
Unlimited range of the world, Catasoopus U 
found in Nepal, and resembles in its habits 
Elaphnu or Enrope, and probnbly oeoupiea its 
plaee< Dyscolus, Promecoptera, and Thy- 
ireopteroa, prefer the southern tropical r^ons, 
%nd an not found to range as far north as the 

ScarU^ea. — Siagona atrata is net with in 
Kepal and variona paita of India t a speci- 
men from Egypt, if not the aeU'Same, is so 
exceedingly alike in size and aeulptare, that it 
is very difficult to diitinguisfa. The Scaritideee 
abound in both hemispheres. Boapterus of 
India ia repreaented by Oxyatomna in the 
BiiziU; and in Afrioa by Aeattthoseelia. 

irarpa2»i2i».^Uarpa1i ara fonnd diqiersad 
nwly in all the countries of the globe : thcv 
abound more in the arctic than antartie tegioas- 
The following genera are reeorded as bekH^iag 
to India, mr. Harpaln*. Platymetopns, Sebno- 
phoroB, Cydosomus, and many otheis. Soma 
species of Ophotius from Bengal and PoonSi 
closely rrsembk British spenes. 

Fogoniim, — Some of Uie goMra of ihia 
family are not confined to the temperate looea ; 
the major part of them preftr the polar ragiooe. 
Pogonns and Cudiadarua an met with in Asia 
and Africa. 

CoZoMu^ai.— Priatonycbns inhabita Nepal 
and Burope ; while Calatbus prefers a northern 
more than a southern climate. 

' /((roi(*(u2«.~Iu India we meet with Trigo* 
notoma, Catadromna, Lestieus, and Distrigua : 
most of them peculiar to that oontioent. 
Argutor antique occurs in the East ; Omaaeoa 
and Platysma in Nepal • and Steropua in the 
vidnily of Foona. Gephalotea is found ia 
Nepal and Australia : Anara ia captured in 
Japan ; Antareiia and Masoreus an e^lly 
aatives of Europe^ Africa and Asia and Beveral 
ttondoieript apemes from tha Eaal of the latter 
genna, are to be fonnd in English cabineta. 

Spk&drimda. — The genus Sphodrus occurs 
in Nepal, and the enomalona form of Hormo- 
Ijroe in Java and Bingapore ; which last has 
been ranged with this family, but appears to ba 
ssdly out of place, as it is most likely a sub- 
cortical feeder. 

OaJU«<»if«.— Epomis and ChelsBuins abonnd 
in the tropics : the maoulated set appear eommoa 
to Asia and Africa, eaeh country possessiBg 
species almost exact representatives of each 
other, Chelmnitts oepalenats approaehes ia 
form to lieinuB ; Oodea ia widely dispmcd 
over India, Galllstui oocnra in the Mysore. 

Meor^Mffls.-- Bembua fa foand on the Ibla- 
bar and Goromanded ooaata, at Calcutta, and 
in Nepal : Panagmus has its metropolis in 

Prourida — Among the Tesrcts oolleeted 
by Dr. Wallich, Uiere were four or five speoiea 
of true Carabus. Wherever the oak grows, 
there Oatoaoma will be found. C. indioum 
inhabits Ncfwl. If caterpillara are necessary 
to keep in cheek the luxuriance of tropical 
vegetation, the Calosomata must be etjually 
nfoessary to keep within bounds these InSeeta, 
which eometimes destroy, in DOrthern dinaea» 
nearly the foliage of the year. 

JBmMKsdW.'-A single speoiea of TKhys 
is the only example. 

Friekidce. — Btenolophns, Aeupalpua and 
Tetngonodems have occurred. 

Dytkida. — Aquatic coleoptera are appa- 
rently not much influenced by climate ; the 
tampuatnn of witft not ^^W^ tbat of 

Digitized by VjOOglC 

tW«Bthin'ur, i* the nnan we meet witli 
Ik mU ime tpeaes in the interior of Jjidia 
tmi the etmth of Fnnoe. Dyticaa appears 
BwfawJ t* Noitbeni Europe or Americe, while 
(philter is diipereed tbrovghout the world, 
h-^** and Ujdaitciu beleog to Nepal and 
ladi** and to tbe Utter eountry ^^e may add 
iIm the Mlowing gennn^ w. Colymbetes, 
iMspUu, Noteras, Hjphjdnit end Hydro- 

^j^rumiaK. — Muj gigsBtie apeciea of 
Gynuds eboond in Indiau Dineutua Nepal- 
ewi, poUtna, end tpiaosiu, han.been found 
wiihu the HiBabnn dietriets.---Aoy/et page 
Cnmfmrd iHeL page 112. Kirbg and 
««w«, Vni. I, p. 320. rol. If. US, 
^Mted in £nff. O^. Vol, II. p. 144. B^le 
m Ae Productive Xetourtu ^ IndiOj p. 07. 
L. ftfrnietf Imteet Itfa. 

B^drspUUdm. — Several genera of this famil; 
■ic as videlj diitribnted aa tbe Dy ticida ; end 
■est of those found in India inhabit Nepal* 
Ifmnpkm^ — Oanion feeders abound more 
im wara eoontries than ts generally believed. 
&• K%iMis piqndion of the Indiana not 
, than to toocb t dead body, aaay ao- 
for the &w apeevs wbidi hm hitherto 
Bnrepsfiom thoEnt, NeeiophonM, 
M w iudt a, 8il|^ and OteeoptoiM^ an jami 
with in bdia and Nepal. 

SkidmUdM, which have been captured in 
Indie. In the Engidsa family we find Trl- 
plai, Ips, and Baone ; in the Erotylidee, £ro- 
^rtns ; sad next to this gronp, Languiris and 
BnsMvphns should be placed ; gmera abound- 
ing in species in Nepal and India. 

Denlatida. — ^This genus, and its oongeneri, 
isappasently a predcHninaBt group throughout 
thn werid. In gentral Uardwieke's collection, 
than is a Kqialese speeinien of Dermestes, 
aaOnr m cvwy leipect to D. lardarins of 
ABapt; a aeooad ^ledes is oloady allied to D, 
nlptnaa of Afiiea. It is searoely posaible that 
cither of tbcm can have been impMled into the 
Hi— layna by oommeroe. 

^^vrKdlv.— Anwnn the drawings of tbe 
Wcpnl drfledion, made purposely for General 
HMdwieke, two species of Anthrenui ace figur- 
ed ; they ■pprar novel in form. 
tfarfsruM.— This family abounds in India, 
rthaa fifty spcoiea are known from the 

LmMmidte Some of the Lneanida resemble 
British speeiee very elosdy, while others are 
the samo aa thoae in Java and Siniapore. 
Ikrty apedet had bean anbrnitled to Mr. Hope's 

PaaaoiKbr are not equally abundant in the 

r ■■rffiffffrart.— The oelebrated Ateuehus 
Egyptionw, oc Stoad Bcatie, hai almost an 

eiact representative in India. Gymnopleurus 
capieola, Hope, and G, azureus Jab. both of 
them African speoieB, are replaced in the Bast 
by G. sinuatui, Jab, and splendens, Hope. 
BisyphuB ia met with in both hemispheres. 
Epiriuui is ao Africau, as well as an oriental 
form. Several Indian Gopride resemble those 
of Egypt. Copris midaa of India and Nepal, 
eiaotly corresponds with C. Isidis of Africa. C. 
SabfeuB and G.Pitheaus sppear cominon to both 
oontinenls, and areequal^ abuudaot in Ceylon; 
and several amaller species of Copris, from the 
eaatem part of Africa, if not the same, approach 
so closely to those of Western Asia, as to 
induce a belief titat they are tbe same insects, 
only modified by climate. Onitis and Oniti- 
eellus have also several represeutatives in both 
regions, if not in some instances the aelf-samQ 
spedes. Onthopliagus abounds more in India 
than any other country ; some of them unri- 
vailed in si», spleiidour, and variety of form. 
More than ISO oriental species may be seen 
in European cabinets ; Pactolus of Nepal 
and India, is reprssented in SenegHl by Harpu, 
Joi, Aphodios, compared with Onthopbagus, as 
an Indun group,'is quite insignifioant* sesreel; 
twenty spedes an recorded, indoding those w 
Manilla and the Eastern Isles : There was only 
a single speeunen of Troz in General Hai£ 
wiche's coUeetion. 

Qeotrapidee.—Ot three species of Oeotni^es 
one is from Delhi, a second from Japan, a tLu'd 
from the HimalHyas, Bolboceas appears in some 
measure to supply the plvce of Geotrupes, 
which last is not so important a group in the 
East, as in a northern region. Orphnus, 
AthyreuB, and Hybosorus, occur in India. 

£car<x&<nM.— Under this term, the most 
gigantie and remarkable insects of the Old 
vl^ld are ranged. Four species, allied to S. 
Atlas, /a&, are indigenous to Nntal, there axe 
several genera of Scarabsidm, besmes Oryotet, 
found 'on tbe Himalayas some of them ap- 
proaching African types. 

JfefofontAu/tf.— Some of the Mdolontbe of 
Nepal are closely allied to the British M* 
vulgaria ; others again, with the margins of 
the thorax serrated, evince their affinity to 
tropical spedes. Geniates, Apogonia, &c. are 
common to tbe Himdayas, the whole conUnent 
of India, and the Southern Isles the genera 
Mimela and Euehlora appear peculiar to 
the Eaat : there are thirteen Mimelm deaerib- 
ed ; several hrom Nepal; Euohlora appears 
wherever Mimda rang^ and is more abundant 
in spedes. The genus Fopillia, appeara nearly 
equdly abundant in Asia and AMca, and ia 
oommon to tlie Old and New World. Fonrteen 
Bpeeiea have been collected in Nepal. Also, 
the following genera of Mdolonthidte 
Anomala, HopfiB> Apogonia»^and Ad(»eln«. 

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Trichiidai. -—Xainlhmai, TrisbiuB, »nd Di- 
croQocaphnius, inhabit tLe.llimalayu. The first 
ot tbese rorras Approaches European type, the 
latLer is tlie repreaeniativs in India of whftt 
(ToliaLhuB is in Africa, naii Incaa in Soutbern 
Americs. Gftliatida ia a conapiouooa family, 
and may juslly be ranked nmoiig the most ex- 
traor.liuiirji fornni of the lueecl world. 

Cctmindfe.^ Campaiiira xniitborhina, Hopt^ 
ia represented in Africa by Cetooia aculelUtn, 
J^ii. C. cornula, Jitit. is fotinfl in Africa, as 
well a« Asia. More thRTi III species occur in 
Intiia, it is ev'idcnt that the oidropolia of Cetoni- 
adm U siiunted in the tropicAl regions. 

Bitprfstidti. — Of this superb an eil»*nBive 
family, u^mpritiing at present more than one 
thousand epecirs, the tnost mni^QiGceiit inhabit 
India; the apletidid 3ternoi::ern and giant Ca- 
toxAHLha rinii^e the equalur nnd the tiopica. 
Ninety spe^^ies bt:loDg^ to the continent of Imm, 
\sxA<ciy io Ncpaul, th« ialea of Jriva and Sumaira, 
among theta are forms of tem perate ai well as 
of □orlbern clitues. 

Mlaterid(s. — Several Nepalese Elateridfe 
closely resemble British specii^a, in Nepal Eta- 
ter c{EnoBus, Hope ; nnd voTioiia species, wbicb 
in Ehiropc frequent tlte obk, aider, and «illow, 
have Nepalese speciea nearly reaembliinf them, 
and we have stated that there i3 a correapood- 
ence of Tegelation belwe-ri Europe and the 

Cebnonid't — Feiv examples - occur in India. 

Lgmp^ridie llie Enst boast of numerous fine 
species, unaurpaaaecl probably by those of south 
Ameviiia. Tne wnnn damgi of the jungle ia 
peculiarly adapted tr> tba hnbita of this family. 
Jjycus aitd Omidyaii9, as well as Lampyria 
abound in the tliniaUyad range. 

ifaiactf'/fjmi(7i'. — The fnrr.ilies composing 
tbis group Are more iibunrlmu in Nepal thau 
QenlrHl ludin ; and ycl thry are not of 
rare occurrence. Anisotelua, appears- to be 
peculiar to tiifi Eiist. St^veftil species of MhU- 
chius and Uelyria enjoy an A^iaiic and African 

Okrida, — abounrl in the East. 

Fiiitida i have been found iu the Ifuritiui. 

£attricliid(c are Riiuridant, and it it not 
□nlikeiy tbnt thu Fnuaaidea commenoe where 
the FiioidrB terminate. 

CircufioAidet of the nuiuerous gOMfi (rf 
this (amiJy, N^'-pal contains many iiopioal 
forma, as well as other, which are [Mttliar to 
lemperAte climee, some of tbem estendieg 
from the HtLUFilayaa, even to new UoUand, 
particularly SipnLus. 

Cwujida are coQamoa to India and Nepsl 

Prionids. Prionua lovei iLe torrid and 
tropical zones some of the Himalayfta speoies 
indicate ark AtKance to European types. 

XoHMuftf^The largMt, ns welt at Ibe mo«t 
beaatifttl spades of thia family, aro fouud ia 
Nepal.— Lamia Boy lii. Bope^h unriralled i« 
sixe ; and L. Wiiltichii surpassea all other ia 
beauty and colonring • it ia found in Ncpilr 
Japan, at Binf^pore, and ihe Hie of Ht^ 
Cerambyz, 'Callidiam, Ctytus, and Siperda, 
are proiiominaBt groups, and nre ibund in ail 
coaatriea and climates. Idany Nej^aleae spcciBS 
exactly represent European types. 

So^ruL*.— Donaeia oceura in Java, uveral 
apeeiea of Sagiaare foaad on the Nympti«uice«. 
Whether Sagra attaches itself to peculiar water- 
plants or frequents the same as tiie former geou* 
is doabtful. Megalopus i* found in N*^pal, in 
Africa, as wdl as South Aveiioa. Crioceria atsa 
appears to be a predomioant ^roup. while 
Adorium ia confined more to A^ia than Africa. 

Sa/^nrcuftf..— Galleruca and Aucbeaia 
abound in Nepal, Hakioe are found ihrougbuut 
the world, and are intended probably to keep 
indieck particular vegetation, in Europe, tlta 
genera Brassies and Sinapb aljoo^t annually 
suffer from U>eir dspredstionB ; ibey appear lo 
abound more in light and sandy soile ; and 
wbere lime is used instead of animRl manurer 
the eropa are leas attaaked. 

Ohrfmmeiidee.r^Uuiy of the Nepalett 
species resemble those of Siberia ; othera ap- 
proximate closely to Europenn forms, so m.uch 
so, that in many instances if not the aame, 
they are certainly aimilar rtpreseaiaiivea «f 
their respectiTe countries^ and probaitly fulU 
the same officee and funotions. Podoniia and 
Fhylloobaria aeem peculiar to Asia and Near 

Sumolpidm, — The Eumo^pidm of India ar4 
not surpassed iu beauty or spl«iidi?iir by tbow 
of South America: tbey sbIiIqih, however, cquai 
the-lntter in sixe. Clythra and CrypTocepbalya 
occur in tha east, both of item ulj'>undi[i}; won 
intemperate than tropical counttiea ; sevi 
species occur io the Uiouliuaa. 

Ca»aidid* — About fifty apeci'-a of Lodt 
Cassida have come under notice ; some of 
Napalesa speeics resemble £n^lLdki specinu 
and may be parasitic on tbe iSialle. 

(/OceiNeUssb*. — Coceioelb 7'puikcalJir 
appears common to Europe and Asia. 

Supida, — Hispa erinaoea snd two 
eobed speaiss afls abundant in Nepal. 

TmfbrioTudee. — Hegeter and Tagenia, 
coOanion to India, Upia and Xeuebris are fi» 
ia Hiflselayas, and are aliundant ia 

/'■MtfJiarM.T— Piaelis 0CCUI3 in the vicint^i 
ofFoona. Sepidium, Rlap», Euryiiotua, nndj 
Opatnm, oeeuc in. the Eaat ; the first preferw 
the soutbern tropic ; tbe two nt\l appear at| 
Bombay, Calcutta, and Nepal ; and the last 
vidriy dispersed throughout ihe East 



s taat lu 


Dimp^riia and Ctosqrpilw, ire both eottnon 
to Asia and ATrioft, (X^da and I<agria : the 
Ittter appaieaiW a predominaDt froup. Pyro- 
eh»^ aho has been disooTered in Java. 

Belopidte.'-TtiiM family is tbe grand reoep- 
taele for tbe varioas forms of the Heteromera. 
Among tbe Indian genera we find Amaryi^muai 
CDodalon, and Pl^yerepit, with several true 
Helopids, rivalUng in splendour and magni- 
tade those of the South American ContiaenU 

MardtUidii. — Most of these lusecti are 
parasite* of the Hymewiptera, and abound in 
tnpieal eKniates. Their office i« probably to 
keep in check, and piefent the too rapid in* 
erease of VesfAdse and fiombidat : tbey are 
eonnoa to the Old and New World. 

<Semt3utridm. — This fsmily eontains insects 
vhich are used in Medicine, and denominated 
Bliaicr Plies. Lytta gif;", Fab^^ is found 
slmnd«ntly in India, and also in Senegal ; 
aad scTeral species of Mylabril common to 
both continents. 

StaphiliMidoB. — By the families Notoxidse 
sad SoydnueoidK, we arrive at tbe Pselapbidse, 
led afterwards at the Bracheiytra, which termi- 
■ste tbe Coleoptera. Anthilephila and Notoxua 
oceur in Nepid, aud ScydmiBBUs in Java ; 
vsriona other guierA of Stapbilinidaa are wi^- 
ty dispersed throimhont-the East; 

Lepirfopfera.— There appear to be a much 
greater oumber of species of Lepidoptera, 
widely cfiasemioated throughout the world, 
than of any other Order< In Asia antt 
Europe we meet with Fapilio maohaou, 
Gooepteryx rhamni 
Coiias and Pontia, 

and Cynthia cardui ; and to these mi^ht be 
sdded, aervrat idenlical 8phingidfe, particularly 
AebcrcMiUB, Atropos, lleilepbila, Celerio, and 
Sphynn. Amonit the Not^uideej GeometridEe, 
lortrieidi^ and Uneidts, many species will 
abobe found inhabitants of both continents. 
In the Orttoplcra, some Gryllidn Are oonnson 
to eoantriaa remotely situated, which may 
partly be aeeoanted for by the migratory habits 
»f these insects ; Aod the 'same remarks may 
be applied to the Sphingidte. Among the 
BUttidae, sereral tropical speeies range widely^ 
aaoM <rf them have beeome naturalized even in 
a northern climate ; and it is no uncommon 
oeeaneooe to find Indian^ Brazilian, and New 
Holland apecUs in a high state of perfeoiion 
aSs« la the honaeeof London ; and among ihe 
fiaaiam Neoroptera, there occur various Libbe- 
Iblinae and Hemerobeidae, closely resembling 
Ei^ioh ipeeies. 

.-AiBoag the H$meMpUr€^ may be noticed 
diembaad rugeri Bnnia appendi^ter, ever 
sMeBdaat on Blatta| some IchnenmosidsSf 
ChnbraiudiB, A^ida^ and Tespidsi, all of them 
; identioid «pe^» win thoie of Britiutt. 


To referring to the Dipltra, may be men- 
tioued the wide range of tho Orange Fly, 
the same in England, India, and America ; the 
Ooats and Mosquitoes, common to the four 
quarters of the globe, alike tbo peat of tb» 
Indian and Laplander ; and, lastly, Variona 
speciea of Husca, as widely dispersed as the 
hiilf-domesticated sparrow of Great Britain.' 
Passing by the Aptera, and the various parasites 
of birds, quadrupeds, and of man bimseif, we 
find among the Hemiptra, aeveral identical 
species of Pentatoma, Rednvius, Tetrnit besides 
Cimex leetnlsrins, the aeourge of all countries 
and climates* Asia and Europe have many in- 
serts in common, and probably other parts of the 
world will eventually be found lo present not 
only similar genera and representatives, but also 
the same identical species, subject to the modifi-. 
cations of climate, and other external circum- 
stances.— Jfr. ffope m Mainu JM, 8oeUt»*§ 
JoHnial, 1840. 

The coast region of Ceylon, and fhlly one- 
third of its northern part, have a much dricv 
atmo8(>here than that of the rest of its surface t 
and their climate and vegetation are nearly 
similar to those of the Carnatio with whidi 
this island may have been connected at no 
very remote period- The difference of ite 
Fauna from that of Central Hindustan and the 
peninsula of the Dekkan in its insectifaens 
will probably be found to have more 
resemblance to that of Ceylon than to tho 
insects of northern and western India joafc 
. , as the insect fauna of Mahiya appears more to 
with some species of ' resemble the similar productions ifAustraliwi* 
with Vauessfc Atalanta, (1.^0 tjjow of the more northern continent. 

A oollcetion made by Mr. Layard was partly 
formed in tbe dry northern province of Ceylon, 
and among them more Hindustan insects are to 
be observed than among those collected by Dr. 
Tempteton, and found wholly iu the district 
between Colombo and Kandy. According to 
this view the faunas of the Neilgherry Moun- 
tains, of Gentral Ceylon, of the peninsula of 
Malacca, and of Australasia would be found to 
form one group ; while those of Northern 
Ceylon, of the western Dekhan, and of the 
level parts of Central Hindustan would form 
another of more recent origin. The insect 
feana of the Carnatic is also probably similar 
to that of the low lands of Ceylon : but it is 
still uneiplored. The regions of Hindustan 
in which species have been chiefly collected, 
such as Bengal 8ilhet> and the Punjab, are at 
the distance of from 1,300 to 1,600 miles from 
Ceyloiii and therefore the insects of the Utter 
are fully as different fn»n those of the above 
rq^na aa they are from those of Auatnbaia 
to wBeh C^hia i« aa neu in pointof dbtmoe, 
«nA iBgxBMr pon with ^rmrd to Uiltftde. 

Digitized by GOOg Ic 

Hftgen believei th« fnuna of the moun- 
taina of Ccyloa to be quite different from thnt 
of tbe plains and or the sborei. The south 
and wQBt districL have a verj moiet elimate, 
aod ae tiieir vegetalLon ii like that of Malabar, 
their inaect-raunR will prabnbly also resembli: 
that of tlie latter rCi<ioTi. — TenntnVg Sketchet 
of the Nat. mu. of Cfjflon, p. 442, 443. 

Chinese insects were described as far back 
as 17*93 in the times of Fabriciua and of 
DoDOPati, witli tills exception, there were very 
flcanly noliceB oT oilier Chinese insects until 
Mr. Hope, in Msrch 1312, published half a 
ceotury of the Coleoplera of Canton and Chu- 
san, cmllecUid by Dr. Cantor. Part of Mr. 
Bowriog'a L'oleopLera and Homoptera of Hong 
Kone and neigh bonrhood were poblisfaed in 
the ^Lnnals of Nalural History, Vol. IV, De- 
cember 1841, by Mr. Adam White. The rarer 
Kpecies of the Cursbideous genera, frequent 
marshy localities or the summits of mountnins. 
Several Hne specit^s were tliere captured in tole- 
Table abundance ; a fine G^ilerita, aeveral 
ChlffiQii* three species of Hellus. Pansgaus, 
seferal large Pherosophi (Brachinidffi), a Cli- 
vina, Dyscliiriue, CHsnouis, and ArgaorLepto- 
traciieiluB. The beetles belonging to Radister, 
the Amaree and Harpalide an of small sise. 
Tha largest wrabideous form has much the 
appearance of Omaaeu!. It is thirteen lines 
lon^. Ino]iidiF:g the tiger beetles and their 
allieq Willi carabideoua beetles, Hong Kong 
cannot produce mucb under sixty species. The 
cnrabideoua genera are ihe most abundant of 
all the insect trihea during winter in Hong 
KoDg, Bome forirn commencing to appear with 
autumn. In April they are very abundant, 
and iFiere are stilt found a few in May, They 
then, liowcTcr, give place to the Cicindelidee, 
noue of which are found here during winter. 
Of CicindelH, Mr. Howrtng meotiona ten 
spijciei ; Col1iuri$ bngicollis is found on the 
flowers of B.*iihlnia Vahlii (P) Trieondyla 
pulchripEB {if'Aiie) on Litchee trees, differ- 
ii)g ill lisbii fma its congeners by being 
found on trees, not at their roots. It is 
apterous, like other species. A small species 
of Lebia huA of Brnchiniis is found on flowers, 
Sciaritea Lias not Iniln-rta been found in Hong 
Kong mid OHfoa'imit ariflOarabus proper occur. 
The loibwiiija; CejIo]i iitseots, given by Sir J. 
E-Teiinent, will ahu* iheOrdera and tiieprioci< 
pdl familiea and genera, which occur in tlie 
South and Kaai of Asia. 



Fctm, Cicemleiirlaei StcpK 
Ciciodela, Linn, 
TriCondylA, Latr. 

Fam- Caraliiidie^ Lcach^ 

CasQonia Latr, 
Opblonea, Klvg, 
Euplyaes, A'wt, 
Hateroglossa Hitt, 
Zuphiam, Latr. 
Fheropsophua Solkr. 

CytDindis, Latr,' 
Anohiita, M'e(. 
Dromias, Bon. 
Lebia, Lair. 
Cresgiis, Niti. 
Elliotia, Niet, 
lUngs, Wlh. 
Catasoopus, KMy. 
Sou-ites, Fair, 
CliTina^ Latr. 
LeistuB, FrahL 
IiutarsuB, Lufertt. 
PftoagsauB^ Latr. 
CblieuiuB, Bon. 
AsohomeniUt Bon, 
Agouam, Bon. 
Colpodea, MacU 
Argutor, Mtg. 
SimphynBj iVicf, 
Bradytus, St^h. 
CurtuDotus, SfepA. 
Harpalus, Latr. 
CaJodromoB, Niet. 
Hegariat«n)B, Hiet^ 
FUtysmft, Bon. 
Morto, Latr. 
BarraomuB, Dq, 
Oodn, Bon. 
■Sel eoophoniB ,Z)e^'. 
Orthogooiiia, D^, 
Helluodea, Wutw. 
PhysocrotaphuB, Parry 
PhyBod«ra. Eich. 
BMhseholuU< tarry. 
Omphra, Latr, 
Planetesi Mad. 
Curdiaderiu, Dtj. 
DrimMtoms, Btg. 
^ Cyclosomus, Latr. 
OobthephUns, Neit. 
Spitbitiua, UeU. 
Acupalpuij Lair. 
Bembidium, Latr. 
Fam. Paasaids^ Wtttv. 
Cerapteroa, Smd, 
PlearopterOB, Wail. 
PausBua, Linn. 
Fam. Dytiacidn, Mael. 
Cybiater, Cart. 
DytiBCua, Linn. 
Ennecteat Brieh. 
Hfdatious, Ltack. 
Colymbet«B, Clairv. 
HydroporuB, Clcurv, 
Fam, Ginnidse, Lueh. 
IKneotes, Mael. 
Porrorhyaohua, Lap. 
Qyretefi, BrutU, 
GTrioua, Linn. 
Oreotuchilaa. E»eh. 
Ocypus, Kirbi/. 
Philoutbua, Leack. 
XanthoIinUB, Dahl. 
SuniuB, Uach. 
CBdiohiruSf ErUh. 
Poeddrua, ^dftr. 
SteQDB, Latr. 
OsoriuB, Leaek, 
Prognatba, Latr, 
Leptocbixua, Pertj/, 
OxyteluB, Orav. 
TrogophlwuB, Mann, 


Alochsra, Grav. 
DiAArda, Ltwck. 
J'<Tw.t*sel*phi<1», Lredi.. 
Pselaphinal, Wit. 

Kiioeuaj Wtk. 

Seydmsen'ii*, i^lr, 
Fam. Ftiliad», TTo. 

Tcichopterjn, JTi 

PtUiiim, Schupp. 

PtenidiiiDi, KrieJL 
Firm. FbsUcFitlBj 

PbniiLcrits, Pa^h. 
Fam NitiJitlidsi, Lead. 

NittiJulii, F^tbr^ 

Kitidulf.paii,, Wtk. 

KleligetheB, Kirhj/. 

R-Uizophiigiie, HtrML 
Film., W\ 

Lyetus, Fabr, 

DLtoaa^ lllig. 
Fam. Trogositidffijfl: 

Trugoaita, OlivK. 
Fam. Cucnji'die, StepK. 

LflemophJtrua, Dtj^ 

CucuiuB, F<t(fr, 

Siivauiis, Latr. 

Brnntea, Fabr. 
faw.Lat'hridianiB. Wi 

LaLhridiiiB, Hcrbtt. 

Curticaris. Marth. 

Mouatoms, Berbti. 
Fiurr. Dermeatide, 

Dermfl^teB, J.innm 

AttageQUB, Lttr. 

Fam. Byirbidq:. LeadU 

FaM HiFterida;. foffflAb' 

H'ster. linn. 

SajirinuB, Erick. 

Vl&tysiOJan, Ltoich' 

DendrofiliiluB. Leo' 
Fam. Aphodlidffi. JCiet. 

A)thodiun, tUifl. 

Paammodius, GgH. 
Fam. Trogidse, Maet, 

Tros, Fa6r. 
Fam. CoprideB. Leach. 

AtoucIiMB, Wcher. 

tiymaopleunia. /ttig. 

Si»yphu4F Latr. 

OrepanoBSrus. KtrSy. 

Cfi|>rii!s Ctt'^- 

Oatboi^hnguFt, Late, 

BuiiaidBns, Fabr. 

■(JnitiH, Faht. 
Fam, DypaatidfOr Jfi 

Xylulrxipea, Sb^ 
Pbiledrutij Latr, 
OrphDus, Mart, 
Fam. U60tru|)id«, 


MeliilititfaB, Fabm 
Phytlopertha, As 

Series, Mact. 
PopJlin, Leach. 

Isoaycbus, Jfans. 
OuMlop)!% Mttj. 
Apogoola, Kirby. 
P:>ytalas, Brick. 
Ano;lonycba, Dtj. 
Leacophuli^ Dej, 
AuoiQoUj Jvfy. 

^rahta«i^ Wettw, 
EucUorm, MittJ. 

Olyvyphanft, Surm. 
CltQteria, Sunn. 
Tmniijden, Barm. 

Agectnoa, £VtcA. 

KaoruDota^ S<tfiu. 
Fam, Triehitidse, Leach. 

Valgus, ScrAa. 
Fmn. LncMiid«, LtacK 

Odontolabis, Barm. 

^fSnn, Maei. 

Sioftluxla, fftanch. 
Fjm. PaauklMtt, J/ttcf. 

Sphisriiliam, i^9&r. 
Cercyon, Leach. 

HydrobtuPf /«adi. 
Philydrvs, S-iUtr, 
Boruavu, Heocil. 
Hydrochui* Germ, 

Dastarou9, H^^. 
Pam. Baprestidn, SfepA. 
, Slerpocera, Btch. 
' L^ryBOchroa, .'?o/(V. 

€%rf sodema. Zap. 

Baliouota, Aei. 

Cbrysubotbriii, £jic&. 

Agriln*, Mtg. 
Fam, E^t^ridse, Lead. 

Can>paoBt«rBo-. Lair. 

AurypDiw, Each. 

Cardiopbonu, JBtph. 
Coiymbites, Latr. 
Laoon, Lap. 

ADtpediu, ifef. 
Lap*, WlJc 
FamAJ^m ^jtiAmfLeaei . 
Jjjetm, Fabr. 
Itfetyoptenw, Zatr. 

Hannaielia, Wlk. 

T^laphorofl, SehaJ. 

Sagenaii, Waite. 
Fam. Cebf-igxrfde, StepH. 

Callirlupia, Zatr. 
Fam. Melyriac, lateh. 

Mal^infl^ Ittir. 
KoieopiWt IKcpft* 

Fam. dmitefSMg. 
CgrlidnH, Lap. 
&tigiaa1itin, Gny. 

Kacrobia, Za'r. 
/VtjH. PtutidK, Leaeh. 

PtiDU^ Linn. 
Fam. DiaMridie, leae\, 

Uiaptria, Geof. 

pBfluduliJaps, ffucr. 

Teoebrio, Linn. 

Trachyacelii, Latr. 
Fmm. Opatrldie, Shucb. 

Opatrum, I^br. 

Avida, Latr. 

Cryptlcus, Latr. 

Phaleiia, Latr. 

Toxic am, Ltttr. 

Boletopliagus, III. 

Uloma, Meg. 

Alphitophvgusj auph. 
Film. Hektpirttt, Steph, 

Osdaia, Wtk. 


('auiaria^ Lep. 

Amaryetons, Dalm. 
Fam. lH*\oi6eBj Wptl. . 

EpIcButa, Jj^. 

Ciasite^, £,atr. 

Mylabrifl, Fabr. 

Atrsptocerufi, Pa/. 
Font. CEd8iiieridte,S(rM. 
CiatelB, Fair. 
AJlMtila, Fabr. 
Sora, Wtk 
Tfatooona, Wtk. 
Fam. Uordellidio, Steph. 
Acoemns, D^. 

Murildla, £tnn. % 

Myrmeoolax, We»lm. 
Fam. Authicitue, Wit:. 

Aathicus, Bt^t. 
Fam. OUsidse, leaeh. 

Qis, Latr. 
Fam. Temicids, Skudk. 

A pate, Fabr. 

Bostrichut, Geof. 

VJttJpns, fferhit; 

Hylu tigas, Latr. 

^(»n.Cnroa1ioiiid£e^ Ltaeh. 

Bracbtis, Linn. 

8 pcrmephagvB, Stwm. 

DeDdropempQ, Sch9Jt. 

Dendrotrugns, Jet. 

Bncurytitw, Sckon. 

Baaitropis, JeJt. 

Lituurn, Schm. 

Tropidwea, Seh. 

Cedui, Waterh. 

Xylinadss, Latr. 

XenocerRa, Oerm. 

CallUtoeeroB, Lohm. 

Anthribos, Geaf. 

Ancoerua, Schon. 

Tipieut, Ptue. 

Aiwlecta, Pate. 

Arilmtodnf f Stevn, 

CoTvbates^ Sehon. 

Ceocepbaluf, Sckon. 

NfinocApbalBe, Latr. 

Apoderm, OHvf, 

Rhyucliitea, HerbtL 

ApiuD, Bvbtt. 

StrophcMoiiini, JUlSvff, 

IHizomias, Sekm. 

Astycus, S^on. 

CleonuE, Schm. 

Mylloc«raa, Sckon. 

PhylloWnf^ Sckon. 

Epiaomt-ie, Sckon. 

LiXQB, Fabr. 

Aolees, 8eko». 

Alcidw, Dalm. 

Acicuemia, Fairwt. 

A putomof fain (is,ScA on. 

OryptorbyDchiis, lUii/. 

Camptorhinut, Sckon. 

DeKuiidophoniN, Ckepr. 

Sipaliiii, Sckon. 

HecopuB, Dmtm. 


Protooerua, Sdum. 

SpliQenuphorus, Schon. 

(JomonuB, Clairv. 

ScitupbiluBf Schon. , 

MeoiiiuB, Oerm. 
Fam. PrioQldB, Letek. 

Triotenotoma, Gray. 

PrioDomna, White. 

Acantiiopliunifl, Serve. 

Cnemoplitea, Hewing 

^gosoQiA, Serv. 
Fam. Cerambyoidse.iKrip 

Cvrambyx, Linn. 

S«l>M)iiia, Pate. 

CallidtroiBa, Latr. 

Qoiiwlomalv, White. 

Oolobvtf Serv. 

Thranius, Pa»e. 

Denteromma, Pate. 

Obriam, Meg. 

Pailomerai, Blanch. 

ClytuB, SaVr. 

]{h^)buma, Patg. 

Ceresiam, tietem. 

StromatiuDi, Btrv. 

HeB^eropbaoeit, M^ia. 
Fam. Lamiida, Kirby.. 

i4ypboD*t Ifu/i. 

MWHa, Strv. 

Coptope, Strv. 

XylorhiK*, Dtj. 

Cacu, Hcim. 

Batocera, BlanA. 

MoDobanjiaua, Meg, 

Cereo]jsin», i>«p. 

Petargodarns, Strv. 

Ol^nocaTnjitua, Ckevr, 

Praonetha, Dtj. 

ApomeovDa, Serv. 

»f pica, Pv^. 

HathUa, Serv, 

lolea. Pate. 

Ql«oea, Newm, 

Stlbna, Hope. 
Fam. HiapldsB, Kirlnj. 

Oncoeepba>a, DoKm. 

Lflptispa, Batif. 

Ainplisba, Baly. 
; nohrpa, Baly. 
EBtigmena, Hope. 
Hispa, Linn. 
PlaUpria, &ver. 
Fam. Gaaaididn, WeAv. 
BpUtietU, Boh. 
Hofjionpts, Bope. 


Caaai4a, Linli. 

Laooopiera, Bo \ ■ 

CppIejeU, Chevr. 
Fam. St^sn'da, Kirbg. 

Sagra, Pabr. 
Fam. i>ooacidc Lawrd. 

Donaeia. Fabr. ^ 

Coptoeepbala, Chevr, 
Fam. Sumolpidai, Baly 

Coryuodes, Mope. 

Glyptoscelis, Vkevr. 

Eumolpus, Fabr. 
Fam. Ctyptucepba idse, 

CryptocephaluB, Oe^. 

UtaproDiorpha, Lae. 
Fam. Chrysomellds/ 

.ClM]cofain)w, Balg. 

Tempi etonij Baly. 

Lifl«| i/e'j, 

Chryaomela, Linn. 
Fam. J^atemcida:, St^th 

aakrucs, Geof. 

Graptodera, Ckevr. 

Mouolepta, Ckevr. 

Thyaails, Steph. 

Ce^lDojcus, ita/g. 
Fam. CufioiuetlidiB Zctfr.' 

EpiJachna, Cketr. 

Cocciuefla, Linn. 

KeciA, Mule. 

Coelophora, Mule. 

Ghiloeovna, Leach. 

Scyminuii, Kttff. 
Fam. Krotf lidse, Lea<^ 

FatUB, iJ^. 

Triptax, PayTe. 

Xritoma, Fu'br. 

Tacbyrns, CUerz, 

^on. EDdomycliid«,£AK& 
EugoulttB, Gent. 

SCenotanua, Ptrt% 
Ly«opfirdfna, Zo/ru 
Ancyldpue, Gertt. 
Saula, Qer^. 
Hyoetitia, Qartt. 

TEBA, Unn. 
Fqm. ^orficulidte, S/QiA. 

Porficula, Lfnn. 
Fam. Blattidff, Steph. 

Paoeathia, Serv. 

Polysoatcrla, B»rm, 

Corydia, Serv. 
Fam. Mantldie, Leaeht 


Batpax, Sarp. 

Sobizooeph^, Serv.' 

Maotia, Linn. 
Fam. FliasniidK, Serv, 

Acropbylln, Gray. 

Phaama, Lieht. 

Fhyllfnnt, Itlig. 
Fam. GrylHda, ^^h. 

Aeheta, Linn. 

Platydactylus, SroK. 

Stolrodou, &rr. 

Pbyllophora, 2%ni(. 

AoaiitlKidix, Serv. 

Pbanercptera, ^erv. 



TraiftUi, Xwn. 
Aeridiom, (Pco^r. 


Thrips, Linn. 

Fam. S«Hc(MtomM«, A. 

Monnonia, Cirt. 
Fam. £epbooeridi^£«tcA. 

Maoronama, Pict, 

Uolanntj Cttrt. 

Satodes, Bam». 
Fam. PByohomidiB, Cart. 
' Chbum, ZeocA. 
Fam. Bj/moTpajohidm, 

■ OySrop^olit^ Piet. 
Fain. RbyMophilidto^. 

/'oM. Peiiids, XmcA. 

Fain. SUiAdc, nretfw. 

Fam:. Hernerobld«»£«acA 


ChrjBupa, Leeek. 

Uicromeras, RaaA. 
' HamerobiM, Ziiui. 

GobioptarTXf Bat. 
Fam, ' MyrmeleoDldB, 

Fktparea, Rami. 
AeanthootUis, i?«M&. 
UyrmeleoD, Linn. 
Asoalapliua, Fabr. 
Fam. Faooidc, LetiA. 

Fam. TermiHdB, Zeocft- 

Termes, Linn. 
Fam. GmUdaj HOfftn. 

Oligotoma, Watm. 
JFaxi.Gphemerid»j £«uA. 

Sctis, leaeh. 

PatamaathuB, Pict. 

Cloe. AiniL 

CleDUf Steph. 
Fam. LHahOidtt. 

Qidopter;x, LeaA. 

EapbMj Sdj/*. 
■ JCioromeruB, Rami. 
' Trichoonemys, 8^t, 

LeatM, LeaA. 

^grioD, Fabr. 

Qjavomib^t S«mi. 

£pophtha1miB, Bnm. 

Z;xoinixiJi( AimI^ 

AduoDU) Fanth, 

UbeUnla, Xtntt. 

Ftm. Fomwiiim, Leaek 

FormIe»> £Inn. 

Polfrtutobu, Smith. 
FioH. Poneride, Smith. 

OdoDtomoahai, Lair. 

Trpblopone, We*tw. 

Mynnlca, Latr. 

'Crematogaater, Land. 

Pftendomyrma, (Titr*. 

phtuou, r«i(w. 

#aK MutUUdc, Xttil&. 
Mntilla, Linm. 
Tiphla, ^d&r. 
FttM. EumeQida, Wtdw. 
Odyn«nu, Latr. 
SoolUf Fabr. 
Fam. CnbroDidSf Xmc&. 
PhiUnthaa, Fabr. 
Stfgmus, j«r. 
Fam. Sphe^idn, Steph. 
AmmoptuJa, Kirbj/. 
Felopteua^ Latr. 
Splnaln, St. Farg. 
Sphex, Fabr. 
Ampules, Jar. 
Fam. Ijuridfc, Stq^h. 

Lamda, Smith. 
Fam. PoQipilide, ZoicA. 

Pumpilua, Fabr. 
Fam. kpamf Xawft. 
AodraiM. Fabr. 
Konria, Latr. 
AlI«dBpa, Smitk. 
Ceratina, Latr. 
CcaliozjB, Latr. 
Croehm, Jvr. 
Btelia, Panz. 
Antliophors, Latr, 
Xytooupa, Latr. 
A|nB, htnn. 
Trigoaa, Jar. 
Fam. Chrjaids. WU. 

StSihnm, Spin. 
Fam. Dorylids, Shvfk. 

Eniotiu, Skuch. 
Fam. Icbseuooidief Leach. 
Cryptna, Fabr. 
Hemiialfli, i Ormt. 
PoiiioD, Fai. 
Pimpls, A&r. 
Fam. Bneouidae, BtU. 
Miorggaiter, liatr. 
SpathToB, TVett. 
Beratfltnia. WU. 
Kebartfaa, Wit. 
Iftytialia, Wht. 
Fam. Chalcidi*!, .tpim. 
Chalcfa, Fabr.- 
Haltlcella, Smm, 
DirrbiDna, Daiu. 
Barytoma, III. 
Eatuuria, Latr. 
PteioDialoi, Sk^. 
Eiu»rtaa, Latr. 
Fam. Maprids, BaL 
Diaprb, Latr. 

Fam. PaDi]ioaidn.X0ac^. 

Ornitlioptenif £oiad. 

Papilio, Linn. 

Poatla, Fabr. 

Keria, Sehr. 

CalloflQiM, DomIL 

Idibaia, Boiad. 

Thaatiae, B(nMd. 

Hebomoia, Hvin. 

Eronia, Buha. 

CallidrTM, Baitd. 

TerlM, fmiM. 

Boplceii, ASr. 


Diaala, Lair. 
Uoatia, Htthn. 
TelcbloLa, BvJm. 
C«tboda, Afrr. 
Meaaaraa. DanU. 
AteJla, DoM. 
Argynoiflf Fabr. 
ErgolU, s»»d. 
Vaoaaaa^ Fabr. 
libythea, Fabr. 
Pyrameia^ ^wlm. 
JiiQonla, Hubn. 
Precia, Hubn. 
Cyntbia, Pahr- 
Partheaoa, Bubn. 
Umeoltia, Fabr. 

Diademaf Boitd. 
Symphttdra, Bvbn. 
Adoliaa, Boiad. 
Nymphalia, Lair. 
Tpththima, Buhn. 

Srilo, Bmid. 
yoal«ria> BmIu. 
Ctenonympha, Bubn. 
Emaaia, FtAr. 
Fam. Lycanida LtaA. 
Anopa, fiwtd. 
Loxnra, Bonf. 
Myrina, Qodt.. 
Amblypodia, Hor^f. 
AphnieuB, jTu&n. 
Dipaaa, Daubled. 
Lycnoa, Fair. 
PolyomcMtua, Lair. 
Lucia, Wettw. 
Pitbecopa, Bortf. 
Pom. Hmperidv, SUph. 
Ooniloba, Wm». 
PynpUf Babr. 
Kisoniadea, Hubn. 
Pampbila, Fabr. 
Aobylodea, Hubn. 
HeapflHa, Fabr. 
Fam. Sphiugidn Ltach. 
Seab, Fabr. 
Hacroftloaaa, OeAc. 
Calytnola, Boitd. 
Cfa<erocatDpa, Bup. 
Pargeaa, Wlk. 
Panacra, Wit. 
Daphoia, Huin. 
Zonilin, Boitd. 
lIa>-Toiila, Boiid, 
SphiDx, Umm. 
Acberootia, Oeh: 
8oierintbn«> Zatf. 
Fam. Caatniidn, Wlk. 
Euaemia, Balm. 
Mgofxn, Lair. 
Fam. ZygBuidte, Leach. 
Syntomta, Oekt. 
Olaucopia, Fabr. 
Boehromia, H^n. 
Fitm. LlthmiildB, Stefk. 
Boaptofiyle, Wtk. 
Nyot«aiera, ffnin. 
Eoachama, BUbn, 
Cbalooaia, ^11611. 
Eteroda, Hope. 
Tiypanophora, Ko/t. 
Heteropan, Wlk. 
Hrpia, Hmv. 
Vitnu, >toor. 


litboda. Fair. 
Setiiia, Schr . 
Doliehe, Wlk. 
Pitane, Wit, 
McMiaa. WO, 
Dlimde, Wtk. 
Cj]ifam, Wlk. 
Bisooe, Wlk. 
D«bpeU, SteM. 
Fam. Alopa, Wlk. 
Tlnulina, WUc. 
CreatOQotoa, BUtm. 
Acmooia, Wlk. 
Splloaoma, Steph. 
lijau'im, BiAn. 
Antbaua, WOc. 
Aloa, Wlk. 
Amerila, Wlk. 
Ammatho, Wlk. 
Fam. Liparld*. W(k. 
Arfeasa, Wtk. 
Aoyphaa. WOt. 
Laoida, Wlk. 

Amaacta, Wlk. 

Antipha, Wtk. 


Bedoa, Wlk. 
Euproctia, BGJm, 
Cispia^ Wlk. 

DaBycbira, /TH&ii. 

LymaotrU. Bvhn. 

Eoome, Wlk. 

Dreata, Wlk. 

Pandala, Wlk. 

Cbarnidaa, W^k. 
Fam. Psychidc, Aw. 


MatiM, Wlk. . 

Eumeta, Wlk. 

Cryptothdea, Tem^ 
Fam. Notodoatidn, St. 

Cenira, SAr. 

SUnropua, Oerm. 

Nloda, Wlk. 

BUia, Wtk. 

PtUomacra, Wlk. 

ElaTia, Wlk. 

NorodoDta, Odtt. 

lehtbyora, Hubn, 
Fam. Limaoodidie, i>i(fb 

Soopelodea, Watiff, 

HeaaaU, Wit. 

Mireaa, Wli. 

Vyaaia, Herr. SA. 

Nasra, E.«rr, Seh. 

Naroaa, Wlk. 

Naprepa, Wlk. 
Pam. l>repanulida, 


Oreta, Wit. 

Aran, W'k. 

Qaniaa, Wlk. 
Fam. Saturlblda, Wlk, 

Attactia, Ztan. 

Aatbenaa, BUbn. 

Tropna, £11^. 
^«ar. BombycidK, ai€r]t. 

TrabaU, Wlk. 

lA^bcampa, 9Mr, 

Uegasoma, iMarf. 

Lebeda, Wtk. 
Fam. CoaaidK. Xtvm. 


fleusarm, latv, 
fMM. flepUlid«, SUph. 

Vhamua, St^. 
Fam. Cjmat'jihoritlK. 

Serr. Sck. 

Th;«tira, OeJLr. 
A». BcTOphilidsj (Titen. 

BryophiU, IV<«. 
Htm. Bofnbyetddv, ffvM. 

Uipliten, Oob. 
Av. LeuMoidM, Owen. 

Leoomia, OciU. 

BrmAt, Wlk. 

Cnunbopris, Wt. 
F*m. UlottaUdx, Gvn. 

PolTtela, Qven. 

Olottula, Oven. 

Cbumina, Wlk. 
Am. Apttmid*, Qutn. 

LfemplijrgniB, Quen. 

Frodania, Gttn. 

CKla-gntnnift, WUc, 

Belipphobun, BoiiA. 

Apamea, Odb. 
Ftm. CindilQtdK, Oiteii. 

Ptm. Noetaida, Ouen. 

Agrotb, OcA& 
Fam. UadenMK^ Oven. 

Borois, /Fiifra. 

Epieeia, Wlk. 

Jiadraa* fVaf . 

fmm. XyltaMs, CTwH. 

Cryaan, WOc, 
Egeliata, If^'^t. 
X^ioa, Oe^ 
tkm. He)iothidv> OueiL 
Haliothia, Otk$, 

Ariola, Wlk. 
Xra. AeoBtidK, Oikk. 

Aeontia» OeUt. 

Cbhunella, IT/Ir. 
Ax. AntliophiKda,0tM». 

Wen, Om». 
Fmm. Bnopiim, OntH, 

OMopiatvta, BtAm. 
Urn. KmMfidm, Omea, 

Protcillaria, Qua. 

ahaal», Wik. 

Fwm. FlaiiidK. Baitd. 

AbrtMtola, OqU. 

Pimaia, OnU. 
Am. CAlpidK, Omh. 

Cklpa, 3V«jr. 

Onaaia, Owm; 

Den, wot. 
Am. Bcaiweride, 0um. 

WeatannMua, Baku. 
Fwm. H jU«Hd«« Awn; 

B a l aa ea a, m 
ilw. Ooaoptaridbe, l7iUs. 

Aoomu, HsA»^ 
Bporadia, WVe. 

Psrtpeda, FK. 

Ftm. TuzoeampidBjffiiM. 

Toxocampa, Gven. 

AlboDica^ ITlk. 
An. FolTdeamidBL ffHOi. 

Polydasmi, Boiad. 
Fam. Homopterida^ffoif. 

Alami^ Gueit. 

Houioptara, Agjuf. 

Diaeuiita, rtt. 

U^ta, Wlk. 
F«m. BjpognmmtSm, 

Briarda, Wit. 

Bnna, Wlk, 

Cut**, JF/i. 

AvaUuj Wik. 

a«dirtha, Wlk. 

ErdiM*, WOc. 

PlolhfliH, Wtt. 


UfQUDma. Wlh^ 

Lnaia, JT/Jt. 

Abuntflj Wlk. 
Ftm. Cat«pbh)«e, Ghm, 

O'M^hKles, Oven, 

Otepfaia, Ovea. 

8t«irU, Jr/t,4 

Anoba, Wlk. 

M%ii\M, Wlk. 

Maceda, Wlk. 
Fan. HypootliHie, Gum. 

HjpooaU, Ottcii. 
Am. eatoeaK<I», BaUd. 

A*». Oplitderidn, Ooea. 

Ojihidorei^ A>M. 

PotantopLenr, Oue». 

Lygnlod-ea, Ou«n. 
'«iK. Erebidae, Outn. 

Oxjodea, Orien. 
A». OmmatopboridK, 

Berioia, Ontn, 
F»tDU, ffaCN. 
Argin, fitfta. 
Beregra, JTRB. 
^<«ii. Bypopjrride, 
^ramia. Quern, 

Gr|<M.p,na, Wlk. 
BiitiMnumin na^OuM. 
J«»«. Bendidw^Oitea. 
oinca, Ouen. 
Hulodw, (TirtM. 

OpbiuBldsB, Guar. 
Sphjogttinoipha, Oiwm. 
Ziivoptmt^ MM, 
Qsrbia, Wlk. 
Ophum% 6'Ken. 
AebiM, ifafia. 
BtnodM, 0am, 
Vaua^ ^K«ii. 
CalMiay Oiu». 

OpbloM, 0A». 

Ortiiunodaar 0iww. 

Trigonodaa, Omh. 
^am. Rflmigids^ Ow^ 

AM. FaenUdc, Chm. 

FwcfUa, Oncm. 
J'mm. ABpblsititidafOKn- 

AtnpliigpDia, Oircx. 
^itm. Thcfnubidc, 6u*». 
Syioplt, QMt». 
TTlernieaia, Bmbm. 
Azasia^ IFJt. 

B(>bjrodeB, (7km. 
CflpnodM, <?«««. 
BalUtha, Wlk. 
Ihuanisu, Ifiife. 
arsi, ilF'tf. 
Fam. Uraptfrydn, 0yM. 
L»Hra, ftt. 

Hy perj- t&Mf &Mn. 

Onouoba, Wlk. 

FaaceUlua, WIL 

Lngioia, WPe. 
Fim, BoarmtdiSt Gum. 

Amblycbikr Guem. 

Boarmia, Tnit. 

Jfypoobroma, Oa«M. 

Gnopboa, JVett. 


Aftatfala, Of en. 

BiiIbDga, Wlk. 
Fan. a«om«trldB, Qmt. 

Geometra, lAttn. 

Kemoria^ Ifui*. 

ThalaaacidM, Gum-. 

ComlbiBiu, FU. 

CeleniM, W^. 

PaaudotarpiM, IHC.- 

Amaariau, tfnea. 
Fam. Palyadtt, Qutn. 

Enmelea, Ifune. 
Fam. Epliyrfde, €^«eM. 

Epbyra, Dup. 
Fam. Acidalidae^ Off 01. 

Dripetodaa, Oatn. 

Poniaaia^ Omh. 

Acidalia, Treir. 

Cabera, SUpk. 

Hyris^ Stepk. 

Tfmandn, J>»f. 

Agyrie, Oven. 

Zandoiiteryx, MeiTt 

Fam. MiofoBidn,, Oman, 

Hicronia, Ortn. 
Fan. Maoiirid»f. 

Aaoariii^ Curt.. 

M«ra, Wlk. 
tarn. hanntUm, Guam, 

HmuTia, Oaea. 


bfom^, Wlk. 

Coramia, Gven. 

kobopbtm, Cart. 

Ueaoftramma, SUpk2 

Eupidtecia^ Curi. 

Oatbynia, Wlk. 
Fam. Platydida, Oken. 

TrigoDia, Ok em. 
Fam. Hyp«Dfd»« Berr, 

i>lobroBua> Guem. 

Hypeoa, 8ekr. 

Qwonia, Wlk. 
gam. Heminidtt, Xhf, 

Haraittii, Xrofr. Dg.Lize 



BartiiU, Wik. 

BocMia, WVc. 

OrOiaga, Wlk. 

Bipbepa, Wlk. 

LaDBri, ^Ik. 

Echana, Wlk. 

Dragadh, WOe. 

FiDgiW, wye. 

Eguaia, Wlk. 

BerrMa, Wlk. 

Imma, Wlk. 

CbasariSj TP/ft. 

Corgatba, Wlk. 

Am. Pynliite, (hun, 


Aglosoa, Z«fr. 

Ubanda, Wlk. 
Fam. Kooyobidn, Dap. 

Pyransta, Sekr. 
Fam. Aaopidtt, emem, 


■Sdioiea, Oatn. 

Samea, OtKm. 

AsopU, Oaen. 
Agatbodas, Saaa. 
Lencinades, Oven. 
HymeuUj Baif. 
Agrot«ra, Sckr. 
Itoptam, 6iteM. 
Fm. HydroaaiDindrD^ 

Cataolyata Sirr, Sck. 
Am. Bpilomelide, fftoet. 

Lepyrodea, 0am. 

Pbak0giode«, ffttoi. 

Bpiloinela, Oaen. 

Kiatra, Wlk. 

Pagydi; WHt. 

MjtHepha. m 
^OM. MargModidn, Oatw, 

fllypbc^j Ouen. 

Fbakellnnt, Z. Guilet. 

Margarodea,- Oaea. 

Frgoapila, Okoi. 

Irenriaa, Oven. 

llonia, Wlk. 
Fam.. Botydie, Buen. 

Bbtya, Latr. 

Mbulea, 0mm. 

Pioaea, Gaen. 

Soopula, Sekr. , 

Oodar*. Wlk. 

Heiciilia, Wlk. 

Mwyna^ Oven.' 
Fam, Seopanda, Qitan. 

SqpB*''^' Hav. 

Davaua. Hlk. 

Sanaoia, Wlk. 

Doaara, Wlk. 
Fam. Chorastidc. StaUtt 

Niaccaba^ Wlk. 

Sinisthia, Leach. 
Fam. Pbyoiw, Staiia- 

U^tik, Bvbn. 

tHaiaahf 'Wtk. ' 

DaBonu, Wlk. ■ 
, SloBBoat«ma, Gurf. 

Mepbopteryz, Bvin^- 

PampeliA, Bvbn. 

FrioDapter^z, SUpk, 




Araxej. Sttph. 

Tarn. Crimlddtt, Dup. 
Cmotbui^ Fnir. 

Jftrtheza, Tift. 

Bembioa, Iflk. 
Ckilo, Ziui*!;. 
DarUa^a, Wlk. 
Arrliade^ IFtk. 
"DBtoeDvn, Wit. 
fan. CUoatihorida, 

Thsgon, IT/I:, 

J'om. ToCtricidie, 
LozoUauia, Steph, 
Pwoset, C7tir/. 

Dictyopteryx, 5(«p4., 

Hemunia, T1 /i. 

Aebruia, ^uiii. ^. 
JPtfin, Tponomeatide, 

Attfiva, Wlb. 
f (in. OefiohicUe, Staint. 

DepreMarii, //aw. 

DMuaria, ITfit. 

Oelecbia, ifu&n 

Oizsmii, Tf/fc. 
' £niiii|iia, W/k. 

Oapbaria, Wlk. 

Ooesa, Wlh. 

Cimitra, in*. 

FiouIeM, Wtk. 

tiwiiift, wa, 

OeBoniha, t^A. 
Aginto, F/fc. 

oadrt, r/t. 

J'am. Olypbrptidn, 


HybelP, Wlk! 

Tin'M, Lilt. 
Tmk. Lyowtida. 

CftcUnra, ITW. 
js'oM. Ptwophorldse. 
f urophumi Go^j-: 


Fam. UyeetopliitidB, 

Soiara, Metg. 
F*m, Cecidomyzidie, 


Ceddamyia, lair, 
PaM. SiamiiAst, Bat, 

Fam. CUirouomida, 


CAratopogon, Meig. 
Fam. Culicidn SUph. 

Culax, Linn. 
Fam. Tipulidie, jffo/. 
Cteoopbora, Fala: 
GyniDoitltfttla. ITeftw. 
^Mf. StratiomiitK, Latr. 
PtilocMa, tried. 
Poohygaatei, Sfeiff. 
Aoaat£iaa, Wied. 
Fam.T»baaidtt, Leach 

FaUgonla, Latr. 
Fitm. ABi!idlB,■£fac^ 
Triipanea^ Maeq. 
Asilai, Ztnn. 
f ftai. DoUcbopidie, ZcmA 

J^MK. MiiscidK. iro^r. 
Tachina, /W. 
AlusoA, Zinn. 
D<ou!', Faiir. 

Sclouiyu, Fall. 
Droupbila, ^n/t 
^rtm. sygtcTibidie, 

Nycteribia, Zofr. 


There are many kmall btetlei and otfaer 
inteela wUoh comOLOut only at night. These 
■re tetj intemtiog to the eatomologSitt but 
at tbe lame time very diffiouU to enteh. Toads 
an not unfl-equently tiirnod into beetle-traps, 
and made to catch theH little niijlit iniects. 
A brigade of ilcvtnishiag tiuids ia turned loote 
into the fraideii in the eveiii(t}>; ; and in tlie 
morning tbeir master makes them geet all their 
night-work. In thii way many curious and 
rare specimens of minvte nocturnal inseota have 
been obtained. To baU^ ifae night moths 
smear the trunk of a tree with sugar and beer 
boiled together. ' A Uotem is then placed near 
the Uapt tbe moths attracted by it oorae 
flying around, and are canght by tbe sticky 
mixtore.— OirjMKfjet of Natmnd History^ 
hjf Praneii T» Bvchtand, x. a>, 1S57. 
Tfime»t*» Osylon. TmnetH't Sketcltet t(f iha 
Jfatvni Sikory of Cejilom, ^p. 412ri43. 

Cantno, Bmyct tSene. 
Callidea, Lap. 
^«M. Eorygaiteridfe, 

TrigORoaoma, Lap 
Fum. FlataapidK, />«!/. 

OoptosoiDA, Iiap. 
Fam. Halydidie, Dull. 

Halys, Fabr. 
Fart, FeDtatamidie.A. ; 

PenUtonaj Otir. 

Catacaiitbua, Spin. 

Kbaphigaater, Lap. 
Fam. Bdeaaidie, Bait. 

Aflponj^opiMj Ltvp. 

TeaaeratouM, £ep. ^ 

Cyolopelta, Am. and 

Fam. PbyUocephalidK, 

Pbyliooepbala, Lap, 
Fam. TAiciidtB, Doll. 

Hiotis, Leach. 

Crinoronia, Burm. 
Fam. AniroHcelida, Doil. 

Leptoacelia, Lap. 

Serinetha, Spin. 
Fam. Alydidw. J)alL 

Alydas, Fabr. 
Fam. Steooonpbalidse, 

Leptocorisa, Latr. 
Fam. Coreid» Sltph 

RhopaluB, SchiU 
Fum. Lygteidsa, Weitw. 

LygatiB, Fabr. 
Rfayparochromua, Curt. 
Fam. ArMUds, Wik. 

^estOBomft, Lap 
Fam. TiogiJw, Wtk. 

Callomaoa, W/k. 
Fiiia. Ciuiicida;, Wlh. 

Liroex. Linn. 
Fam. ReduviidB, Stc/^. 

Piratea, Bum. 

Aeantbaspia,.4m. $<rr. 
JTam. HfdrtKDotiida, 


Mr. ffopt i* Uadrvi, Lit. So/;. Journal 1840 
JoHrmnl 0/ Ike JBenifal Atiatie Soculg. BojfUi's 
MiaUria Mediea. Boyle o* the productive 
tOttre«i of Iiufia, p.ot. K6rhy arid Spencc, 
Vot. I. p. 320, V9I. IV. p. 142, quoted i» 
Eng. Cjf9. fol. II. p 144. L Fiffuitr, Insect 
Life, looker's Eimmalajfan Journal, Vol. II. 
p. 65. O^Shawghrusey't Uaterit Meditta. 

INSfiCTIVURA, the order of InsectiTorous' 
mammals, which, id India, ia repKaeoted by 
genera of the families, Talpide, Boreeidn and 
Erinaoeidtt. Talpa micrura, macron, and- 
leaoura of Nepal, Sikkin \ S;|rlbet, l^naaserim, 
and Japan : TJirotrichuB talpoidm of Japan : 

Sorex csruleaoeua ; munnue ; nemwivi^iu ; 
Oriffitbii; ■erpentarlus ; heletodon ; satnratua 
Tytim ; aoocataa ; niger ; leaeopa ; Hodgaoni ; 
Psrroteii ; mfcranyx ; melanodon j SikkfmeDiia ; 
oliguras ; homourus ; maorarua and . lioloaeii'- 

Ptilomcra A.m. Str. 
Fam. NepidiCf Ltach. 
BeloBtoiua, latr. 

Notoncata, Linn. 

Fam. Ctcadidfc, Wmet. 

Uuodubia, Am. 6l Serv. 

Cicada, Linu. 
Fam., Fiilgorids, Hchav^ 

(lotipua. Am, k. Strv. 

Pyropa, Spin. 

Aphmtia, otter. 

EUdiptera, Spin. 
Fam. Cixitda. Wii. 

Eurybraobys, 6uer.- 

Cixiwi, Lott. 
Fam. lasldie, Wlk. 

HemiapbsritiK, SeAo^aa. 
Fam. Derbidie, Schamm. 

ThracM, Walm. 

Uerbe, Fa&r. 
Fam. Flattidw, Sekavm'' 

Fl&toid<», Ouar. 

Ricania, 9trm. 

Pisciioptera, Zafr- 
Fam. Membracidie, Wtk. 

Oxyrbaobit, Germ. 

Ceutrottu, Fahr. 
Fam. CeroopiilsB, lecct. 

Cenopia, Ftibr» 

l*iyetns, iqp, and Sarv'. 
F^m. Tflttigaundse> Wlk. 

Tettifronia, Latr. 
/^ini. Scaridn, Wlk, 

Ledra, Ftlr. 

tiy))Ooe, Garm. 
Fam. loaaidiB, Wlk. 

Aoocephalua, Berm. 
Fam. P^yUids, Latr. 

Paylla, Gof. 
Fam. C!i>coidv, Itaeh. 

Ijeoanltun, Il/igt 





Tlda fMTcler rn^y ■lao be thue.abown 

UntnelLuif 1 *p. 
Am. BoKcidM, Shtewft. 

Some, 80 jgr, 
Sorioalna. 1 tp. 


Corsim, 1 ip^ 

Aw. Kririaceidie. Hedge- 
£ijinueu8 Tap. 

order of birdi, knowD 

tiso as Che Perebere/jver; nan^orom in India. 
AmoDgst the order^ ttie wHgtails, some of 
the pipits «nd lerka, «ioiiechn)B, sevenil wnr- 
biera, ftDd'thnisbn, butiiitigs end the shHkr, 
hoopoe end.two elnling* nre \ he «hief ^x^wpi 
amoDgst which mig^Htury birds <recur. 

OaDBB IXL — luKesaoree : or r«^cWrs. 
Sub-Ord. PicsE. 
Fdni, Bucarotidie. 

SHb-jfhm. BuovroUiiea, 1 geo. Id spi viz., 19 

St^jicm. IrriAoriDSB^ 1 gen. 1 vp. vist, Irri- 
tor eiTthrorbjDohaa. 

Fmi. TJpuptdg^ 1 gen, 2 sp- vis.* S Uplpa 
epops aod SeaegalcDaia. 

j^na. Halc.vonidas 5 gen. S3 np. vis-, 3 
Dacelo; 8 Halcyon: S TudirfaAmphua : S 
t^ryle ; 9 AIcmIo : 2 Ceyx. 

Faai, Conuidfe, 1 gen. 4 Bp. v\z., 4 Cora- 
«tas {Hieaia j gHmln, IntiiCiR, affiuin ; 2 Eurya- 
toinna» oriontalia^ Padflcua, page 47(K 

Faia. Aleropidttf 2 gen., 8 ap. tib^ S Aloe- 
meropa i 6 Merops. 

Tribe Z/godaotylifSub-Div. 1 Climbers, viz* 

Fain. PicidK- 

Xttb-fam. GanipephilcniE, '6 gen. Ifi ap. 1 
Campephilns, vii., 2 HerpicercuSj 4 Hemilo- 
phiM : 3 Cbryaooolaptes : 2 Bracbypterua : 4 

SiA'fam. Gedniiw, 4 gen. 10 np. via., IS 
Gecioiu : 1 Gtaciuealiie : 3 Ale^Iyitteat AMi- 

Sab/ufn. Piciiii^ S gen* 15 ap, vi&, 1 23ryo- 
eopbaa ; 14 Picas. 

SnA-^m. Picomni&fBj 2 gen. 3 sp, viz., 1 
lieamnuit SSaada. 

Ynndnn, 1 ges. 1 ap. riA, 1 
Tru totquUla* 

ffafr-^ferm. Indioatorioa, 1 gra. I efh tIb., 1 
Inrfioi^or unthonolaa. ■ 

Sub-Divisioa 11.^ Peidieta, vie , 

Fim. Uegdamidn, 2 gen. 15 8p,T»f 14 
Ue^laima ; 1 Megalorbyncbua. 

Fmw^. Cnculldee, viz. 

Smb-fw. CqcqHosj 3 gen. S stib'g<9n. 17 ap 
9 Coeolna : 2 SnrQicuIns : 3 Ouysococcyz 
1 BndTiMuttii^ S Oxylopfaua. 

Su i fm A. PbcaoioopfaainBt 4 gen* I sub-gen. 
ll> Bp^ TUL, I Uttsylophna euperoilionw, Chv. 

3 rbaanicopbauK : 5 ZaDoloBtomua t ] BiaoitbA > 

4 Taccocoa : 5 CeQiropbua. 
Fam. TrogonidfE, 1 gen. 6 sp. tIb. S Trogon. 
Fm. Capri malgids. 

S*A-faa^ Podargfnce. 1 gen. '3 spl Viz. 3 
Fodargna anritaa. JaTanenaia and affioia. 

Ssfr^na. Oafrfmnlgiiw, 8 gen. 9 sp. viz. 
t Saraatopodaa: 7 Cepximulgue, 

pjm. Cypaelidae 

Suh fam, Oypaclinee. 3 gen. 21 ftp. viz. 3 
AcwiLhyliq ; ft Uypaelua, 2 CoUooalin. 

Sni^-fctnk. Mftcropterigiinn, 1 gen. 3 ap. vis. 
3 Mamipierix ooroitatua, kleobOi eOBiaius. 
Sub OiuiBB. Pasaerea. 
Fam. Corvidte, 

S'ih-/im. ~A. Oorviriffi, 1 gen. 7 Bp. via, 
A. CmTf<( 7 Corviia, culminatus I corona ; 
coniix> aplbiiUenaj oiacrorfayuchuaf frugilagHa. 

IV IJutcisckera,. I geu. 1 ep. Tiz.lltnei- 
fruga lieminpila. 

0. Choviglis, 2 gen. 2 sp. Tiz. 1 PTnrhocoraz 
ftlpiniM : 1 Kregibis gr«culU8. 
Sub /am. GarrnI inte. 

A . MagTiiea, 4 geu. 9 gp. vie. 3 Pica ; 4 Den- 
dracitta ; 1 Crypseriiia ; 1 TemtioruB. 

B. Jay-M«gpies, 6 gen. 10 wp* viE..SCiaaa» 

3 Psiloi DLuua, 2 (jarrulua ; Perisneiu i I Lo- 
pbocitia ; 1 Timiafixa. 

3ud-/am. tiarrulacinee 5 gen. 27 sp. viz. 
aO GaiTuliix ; 2 Actinodura i 2 Sibia^ 1 Cutia } 
2 Pterutbiua. 

fiH^ybsk Leiotbricnnie 5 gen. 15 sp. riz- 
9 Leiotbtix, 2 Iznlua; 2 Tabina ; 1 Mjxoroia, 
1 ErpomiB. 

SWr-fam. Farinie, 8 g^. 20 sp. via, 1 Co- 
noatoma ; 1 Ueteromorpba, 3 Suthora: 1 
FalcuncnluB, 10 Parup, 1 Orttes ; 1 Sylrlpartu, 
1 .AgitlwluH flaunnioepe. 

StU>'/am. i'aradiaeinas* 2 gen. 4 Bp. viz, 3 
Para<*i9ea*l Cieinnuroa regiiuk 
Sut^M. UraoiUioie. 10 gea. 27 fy. vis. 

4 Gracula, I AmpeJicepa, 3 Acridotheres, 4 
Sturims ; 1 Paarogloasa ; 9 Biumia, 2 Calorais > 
1 Tastos ; 1 Bnodea : 1 Uintf. 

Fam. Fringillidc. 

St^Jbm. Plooeinn, 1 gen. 4 ep. viz .4 PIo- 


Safr-ynm, Ebtreldins, 5 grn. 16 ap. via -11 
Munia; 1 ErytbriuA, 2AniadiDa; 2 £atte]da, 
1 SoiaairoHtruii). 

aub-fam. Passerinse. 2 gen. 7 ap. vie. 6 
Puetr ; % Peiroijia. 

av^fam. Friitgillinte, 14 gen. 2 «p. via. 
I MontirrinffiUn: 1 PriugiDas I Pytrfaoapisa, 
1 Proeardnelia : 3 Carpodaona ; 1 Htemotoa-. 
pisa:3 Pyrrfaala: 1 Propyrrhula ; 8 Loxife, 1 
Chrysomitrisi 1 Cardnelia; 1 Liguriniu; 1 
Seribiia, 3 OooootbraoateB. 

Bub-fani- EoiberiBiaie, 8 gen. 10 sp. vis. B 
Emheriza. 8 Euapiaa 
a^am, AocMUtorina, 1 -gen. 4 sp. vis. 4 


avi-fam. AJandinn, 4 gen. 1 aub-gen. 14' 
sp. viz. 3 Alanda, atvenaw, gulgula, Aialaba- 
ricB, 3 CalAodrella ; S Galerida ; Uirafra. V 

Fam. Motacillidie, 6 gen. 2 anb-gen. 20 E>p. 
viz. 1 Hoternra ; 8 Authua ; 8 DMidrotnantbna* 
I Nemoricola ; 5 Motaeilta ; 3 Budykea. 

Fam. SphenuridR. 24 geo. 76 ap. vie. 1 
Spheunra, 1 Meguliuus; t Splieueaoua, 3 Du- 
meiia, 9 Malaoocercua, 10 Dryuotca, 6 Prinia 
1 Neornia ; 3 Orthotomns : 1 Hoiietes ; 2 Ciati*- 
cola; 1 Pellomiam ; ITurdiroatria ; lOPoua- 
torhinus ; 1 Xiphorhamptw ; 1 Turdinua ; 4 
TrichoBtoaw ; S M*I|fl98Hr(ip^.^l<appe, 1 



Mftcroiirviif : S AlixDriiis, 4 TimalU ; 1 Cliry* 
Bommn ; 4 StHchyrifl. 

Faa. Lftniadffi 6 gen. 33 ip. vis- 1 Gsmp- 
Borbynchtis, 1 ThainnCKiJktapbns : 10 Tjanius -, 
6 Tephrodotniia ; H Humipuji i 9 Xantb'nijgia. 

Fani. Brachyiiridro 5 gen. 19 ap. vis. 9 Pitta . 
1 HjdrobaUv ; 2 Trogloil^tes ; 1 Gupetea, 6 

Fffrii. MeTuliflK. 3 Ren. 7 suh-gon, 31 sp. 
tIz. S MjiopbdtiUH : 1 Zuotbcra ; 6 PreooiDcla* 
6 Ttirdua: 7 Menila, 5 Ueoctiiols, 4 I'etro- 
ciocla I lUoHtioola: rLuEciuia. 

S'tb-fiim. Saxidlinn. 35 gen. 6 snb-gen. 
lO^j up. viz. 2 TIiHKUxibk ; 1 Kittacinclf^ 2 
Copaycbud : 1 Notodelw ; 1 Gr&ndak ; 6 S*x.i- 
cola -. 1 UyanBciiIa - 8 Kivticella ; 3 Callioiwi 
iTarsigeri 5 Pratincolit; 2 Jantbia ; 2 Erj- 
thaca ; 3Erythrnqtflrn<t ; 4 htiiihia ; 1 Aatipea ; 

3 MawiuapiiU ; Cjnrnih, 1 Ocbromela, 3 
rJiltava, 1 CyiDinpteU, 4 Stoparol*, 1 Butalis, 

4 Hemicheledoii ; 1 AcaiithiEii; ] Sylvaoia; 1 
CnUene ; 4 Bra'shjpterii, 2 Teaia, 3 Pnoepyga, 
1 ArandiiJAX) 3 Aoroce^ihalu? ; 1 LocaataDa ; 
1 PaaiidnliieciiiiA ; 1 DnTUeticola ; 3 Phy\- 
]opneustft,4 Abrcirnis ; 1 Cnlieipeta; 3 Regii- 
loideg ; 8 Phylloscopua ; 2 Reguliw. 

SHb-fam, SyUiAHK, 1 geu. 3 sp. 3 Sylvia. 

S'^/am. CertbiniP, I gen- Sep, ti's. 3 0er- 

Sab fsm Sittins^ S cen. I siib-geo. 6 ap. 
TIE I Tichodromfl, ; 4 Sittjt, 1 Dendrophila. 

Fam. Orfluca'lidffi, 3 gen. 5 ap. vii. 1 Gnu- 
cakis 3 Campephagfi ; 1 Lalnge. 

Fam. Puncrocotiija, 1 gen. 8 ap. viz. 8 Pe- 

Fiim. ArapelidjK 1 gcR. 1 Bp. viz. I Coeboa 
purpurea of Nepaul. 
Fam. PipridcQi Siib-fam. Earylairoinn. 3 

f:en. 3 Biib-gen. ft t-p. viz. 1 Corydon; S Kiiry- 
niniiiB ; 2 Cymbirhjncu^ I Paariaomua : S 

S'^MfW- Pipilnsi 1 gcii. 1 sp. wiz. I Ca- 
lyptnmena vhidis. 

'Fam. ELirundiiiidDB. I gen. 10 ap. vis. 10 

Fam. Artamtdx, 1 gon, 1 up. vis. 1 Artamus 


/iiTft. Dierniida; 1 RBii. fi anb-geo. I4flp. 
viz. 1 ClitbiH : 3 Ohaptia : 1 Bbringa : 3 
Edolius, 9 Dicrurii*'. 

Fam. Tcbiti-ftHHtfj rigftii. ISap. vis. 3 Tchit. 
roa; S Pbilentoma l 1 Ubipidiira; 4 Leimo- 
cerca : 1 MytPig^a i I Cryptolophia. 

Fan. PycnoiwiitliE, 8 gen, 38 sp. viz. 7 
HypnipeUa; 2 Lole ; S Usioxoa ; 4 Criiiiger ; 
IB Pycitiniiotus; 1 Mlcrolaraqa^ 2 Bracbypo- 
diua; I Setornis. 

. Stib-JiLJH. PhyllorniDE, 3 gen. iSsp. viz. 7 
Fbylioruid ; 4 Iota ; I Irtua paella. 

Fam. Meliphagida:, S aiib-fani.4gen.14ep. 

SKi'/'aru Urioliiiie, S gen. IS ap. viz. Il 
Oriolus,' 1 SphecotherBH viridia. 

sah-foM. bleaphagiLiKi 2 goo. S sp. vis. I 
Ei]*,oTii;zL cyaiiatii?; L Zoataropa palpebrosOfl. 

Fafr:- Neclariuiida, 6 geo, 36 ap. viz., 8 

Myzanthe ; 2 PricDOchilus; 1 Piprisoma- Bca 
Birds p. 4G7. 

IVSKA. HfND. Rubni biflorui. 

INSTITUTES of Menu, composed at least 
800, but probably 1280 years before Chrisi, 
accordiitg to Sir W. Jones, and the Vedas 
lUOO or 1980 vrara before them. 

INTAN. MaLat. Diamond. 

I'NTHA. Ualbal. Phcenix farinifera.— 

INUR. Akab. Vitis vinifera. The gr^ie^ 

INULA, a genus of plants belonging t* 
Ihe Mtaral order Compotiita and the aubnir^ 
der A&teracem. 

INULA Visooaa and Gmvejotens hare bee* 
lately recommended as diuretics, and as nsrfiil 
in calnulouB diseases. — Honiffberger, p. 390. 

INULA HELENIUM. See Coafeotioa of 
black Pepper. 

INULA ROTLEANA, ^ws in the 
CashnQi-rean hilts, but as the plant la eoo* 
•idered poiBonoua it ia not oaed. Dr. H»< 
nitfberger is of opinion, that important rirtuei 
lie hidften in it, and that it is well worthy of b^ 
ing rzperimented with. — EonigSerqer, p. $9^ 


INUNDATIONS are of fRquent oco«f^ 
fence in India. Those of the Laocadive laUuadi 
in a hurricane of April 1847, were deacnbed 
by Cfiptaia Biden in Madrat Spectator 
and Bombay Timet, Oct. 1847, and in tli« 
Bombay Time*, August 18, 185u. An accoant 
of remarkable inundations in India in 1849, 
was given by Dr. Buiat, in Bl. As. I'raut. 
1851 :and E lin. Phil. Jl. 1851 ; singular 
results of inDiidations of the BrahampooitB m 
&ssaiD, were described by Or. MeGosh in Tepi^ 
tcmphy of 1837,1 vol. Svo. Remarkable in^ 
undMions occurred of the Ganges in Aug. SI, 
1838. It rose at Allahabad 43 feet; and did. 
immense damage at Benares. Uasiingabad wa« 
on the same occasion 6ooded by the rise of tbtt 
Nerbudda. One of the Indus in 1841, snpf 
posed to be oceasioned by the bursiing of 
gtaciT, was described in Bl. As. TrAns. 1 84<li^ 
vol. XV ill. Those of the Taptee, for the paal 
80 years, were detcrtbed in Bwahay TinutJ 
I85I, Inandationa at the mouth of Iba 
Ganges, occasioued bj hurrieaDes, occurred m 
May 18^3, and Uay 1630. Bl. As. Tran*^ 
vol. 1, p. 25. In August and September 187V 
much of Ueotral Hindustan was inundated, la 
the Legends of the peninsula of India, tba 90\ 
ourrenoe of inroads of the ocean, are often vum^ 
tioned. — Dr,Bu%U, SeeGyclonea ; Uorrloanes ; 
Typhoons ; Winds. 

INTANA See Vaislinava. 

INVANI. SeeKabir Pinthi. 

IN-YONO. Ghin. Mandarin Teal. 

INZAU. Hind- Ficua cBric«idea> 




IXZAfiBA. Utno. Pdsht. GnwU be- 
tttlaefdia, /wi. Qrewia> BotbU. 
lOD. Qbb. IODE. Fi. lodiu. 

lode Fb. I lod ....On. 

(In IM), frooB uM>fs, tioletf the colour of 
its npomr, vn obtained 1^ H. Courtoit in 
1813 in the iwidual liqiKV of the proeew for 
obtaining eoHe tmm kelp. Tbongh but lately 
diMOvered, ito eVeett have long been obtained 
in medicine, at it ia found in tea and several 
mineral watertf and in seaweeds, sponjEe, 
florals, and some molluaoous anhnaU. In the 
present day, the leaf of a Be»-weed <a speojes 
of Laaninaria, Dr, Faieimer) is emptoy«d 
in thn Himalaya^ and called the ffoiire-Uaf, 
gnlnr-ln-palta ; ud in 8. America the stems 
of a se*>ireed are add b; the name of 
goitre-Uidtf because they are ehewed by the 
iobabitanta wbereTer goitre is prevalent. 
— loduM is proouible 1^ boning bn^e 
qoaotities of aa-woed or of the eonfiBrva of the 
aalt water lake near Oalcntta : but to prepare 
it from theae, the process is only economical 
where the weeds yidd enough of impure car- 
bc»i^ of aoda, to cover the general expenie 
of tUa (^ration. This is not tbe case with 
the Calevtta coDferva.— PAmt. p. 370. 
Sa^le, MiUtria Hedica. 

IOMIA' This name occurs in ancient Sun- 
•anaratt writinga and is aiipposed to refer to 
tbe Bactian Greeks. See Javan ; KabuL 

IONIC. SeeTedaa. 

Tiola aafEratieoss.— iteft. liM». 

Hvmhawm Bnta t Nsia kobbui Til. 

B«tta»p>r»R DuK. I Purnsha ratnuB... „ 

\Jt*lMt-iajoMa.Uax.TAM. [ Surya ksnti obetta „ 
Cbsnti Babb. | 

A rugged and somewhat prickly- rediniog 
herb, havii^ a smalt crimson fiowor. It is oom- 
■OB over tbe peninsula of India, and is used 
as a dcnuloent. Dr. O'Sbaughnessy examined 
carefully speeimeas obtained from tbe Calcutta 
Garden, bnt did not detect the kast trace of the 
aetire principles emitine or violitte. — (ySkaugk- 
■fsty, pt^ 209. 

lOUA, or Jora, a lenus of birds esU- 
bttsbed by Dr. Uorsfield, and placed by Mr. 
Swuaaon among bis BraehypodtM, or short- 
le^ed tbruabea. Tfaoe are four species of 
the bright little lora with bright lemon yellow 
fenlbers : which may aeem to represent the 

IPBL Tax. Brms latifoBa, WHtd, 

Ipeewdiosnbt. Ekq. Fb. 

Lit. Pobt. 
AaMrikanisdw bredi- 
waracl Qip. 

Jpeooacanna It, 

Cipod •.c&maras...PoBT. 

IliseaenuM ^Sf. 

iUia de Oro „ 


A vdoaUe emetic mcdirinfl obtuned htm 
tbe root of Cephaelia ipeodiuanha and other 
ftpeeies. It ia a plant of Smith America. 

IPHTGINIA. Bee India, p. S40. 

of the Crustacea belonging to tbe Indian seas. 

IHI. Can. Bassia longifolia. 
^IPOMCEA, a grnus of plauts of tbe natural 
fflmity ConvoWulacee. Most of the species are 
erpHmeniaL Roxburgh in his Flora ludica 
describes ebrven species vf Ipomcea, Dr. W^ht 
in icon, gives Ipomosa braoieata, campannlala, 
obry«oides» pes-ii)tridis, pileata, puldiella, 
nigosa, sessilifloni, and Wightii.' The, spe. 
otes and varielies of Ipomcea are pretty creepers 
flowering in the morning. Thry itreatly enhance 
tbe beauty of Indian gardens, when tbe various 
colors are well arranged. 1 he plants are raited 
ttom »edi aown at the commeneemeut of tbe 
rains, they may be sown wbereinteoded to flower. 
Any garden soil will suit, if not too heavy. Ia' 
Chimi, mnny beautiful species of Ipomcea are 
euitivatMl for their fluwerSf especially the Ipomosa 
quamoclit, found about the bouoea even of th^ 
poorest people. It is an elegsnt little twining 
species with arrow*headed shaped leaves and 
also oecitrs in Bnruab. Tbe rorolla is cream - 
oolonred with a purple eye* It is ia bloom 
in the hedges of Mautmain at tbe cloae o^ 
the rains. Other cultivated species are 
Ipomoea Bona-nox < I. Huricata. (Hairy.) 
1. Badro-Ccemlea (blue and pink.) I. Tyrian- 
thini (Bright violet ) I. Violacea, fViolet Blue.) 
I. splendens, (pale red.) I. luberosa (yellow 
species.) Ipomcsa coccinea, ia a b«iutiful her- 
baceous and shrubby species well adapted for 
covering treltis work, waits, or pillars, growing 
easily from seed, «t tbe commencement of the 
rains in any good soil, when tbey produce flowers 
in profuse abundnnce. — Riddell. WilHanf* 
Middle Kingdom, page 387. £o»b, 3/'lor. Ind, 
W. le. Meuom. 

IPOM(SA BATATAS.— ZoM. Syo. ofSata- 
tas ednlis.— C&ewy. 

IFOM(EA BILOBA. Pobbk. 8rn. of Ipo- 
mcea-pes-capm. — Aweef. 

1F0M(EA BONANOX. Lmm., the Munda 
Valli of Van Rheede ia a syn. of Calonyoiioa 
speciosom. — Ckoity. 

of IpomflQapva-caprm. 

IPOMCEA CAUNOSA. B. Bi. ayn. of 
Ipom<ea*pe8-capr8B. BweifC* 

IPOMCEA CAT£SBiI.»Jf«y»-. apt. of 
Batatas eduliB.—Cjleuy. 

IPOMCEA GCERULIA. fm. JZmb. ayn. of 
Pbarbitia nil.<»^ilotV. 

IPOMCEA CUSPIDATA, is a creeping weed, 
ita leaves are used nedioinany.— J9r. Honig* 

D,g,,ized.y Google 


zpoicasA Hlbaza. 

Robived the teadsoftliis pUnt from Hindostm, 
a> an utidote to hydrophobia, ll is mltad 
Kui'ta ki binj. i. A theueds for doga.— ■ffontjr- 

I^OM(BA. KRIOSPERUA.. Beam. tyii. 
cf Batatas piinicuUto.'—(7)io»j'. 


CouvoItvIus gemeUtia, Linn. 
8iru TaU ...... .-...Tam. | Cliinaa Tali Tafc. 

Theie teaves ftra aaid to have a ptofltarvt smell 
and muotlagjiMnt tute. Whsn dried, powdered 
and boiled with a-cn-Uin pmtioR of ifbee, they 
are eoimdpred as a valaabte external applioatton 
in apthous affeetiona.—^ t»«.ifa^ MtMf.p. 115. 

of Bntatafl psniculatii. — ChoUy. 

l?OU(S,k OUANDIFLOHA. Koxb. tyn. of 
Oalonyctioii HoxbuTvhif.— Don. 

IFOMCKA INSIONld, And. eyn. of Bsttftae 
paaieulata.—OA(rf«y. • 

iPOMOCAlALAPA. Ja£&p Flavt. ' 

Ooavolvalu^ jaUpa,ItRA.1IpoiiiEeA i>\trga, Wthderoth. 

A native of South Ameiicn, XalHpp^ and 
on the Eastern declivity of Uie Mexican 
Andes. The roots are fleshy, lar^ce oval, oblooft, 
KQgose, and blackish exteraally ; while recent, 
in a dry state, and as aotd iu the ghops, th>y are 
cut in flskes of variable diameter, aometimes 
cleft l«iKthwlse and pyriform. If entire they 
are usually small, wrinkled, heavy, uucqunl, 
hard, brittle, desp brown grey externally, of a 
dirty grey within, fracture smooth and wavy, 
showing a gr^at number of resinous points, 
visible to the lens, and often to the imkrd eye. 
The odour is peculiarly nauseous, tbou}(h wealc. 
The taste a|i;rid and disgusting. A brjsk ca- 
thartic. The powder is of brown f{rey colour, 
Hfld must be prepared with caution, as it is 
exceedingly irritating. Tlit; worm-eaten iroota 
are mitch more active -Uisn the sound, as the 
worms only attack the am^l»ceotte and sweet 
parts. Ajcwrding to Humboldt 400,000 ii>8. 
weight of jalap roots are annually exported 
from Vera Cruz. The plant thrives best on 
cool shady hills, about S,'>00 f«et above the 
level of the ' sed — (/SiaiiffAneny, pa^ SOS, 

IPOMOEA L.\T1FL0R\.— iJoM. ^ Sehidt. 
syn. of Gnlnnyctioii tKrandiflorum.— CAotiy. 

of Georgia and Carolina. In 1884, Lord 
Auckland imroducsd this to tba Gnlcutta 
Oardea. The roots attaiaed sneh an 
tuomeus size that A duster belonging to 
one plant weighed 70 lbs. while recent it 
was fleshy, white, juicy of mild flsveur, and 
•Uogether devoid of the acrid resin. It had a 
iweetiiJi tMte,*nnd has been eeten by Bereral 

persomvhbont any HI eflbot bein^Miperiepbed. 
To test the applicability of the not as fockler, 
seven sheep were fed on it, but felz of them 
dieil suffering from diarrhma within a Bioath — 

Ipomcea p»-« OAprm.— 

il^OMdlA MAUHITIANA. Jaej. syn. of 
Bstataa o«nicuUt«.~0/u)>*y. 

irOU(EA Bo9i.8yu. of Fliarbitis 

nil.— CAoHrjf, 

Ipojnofs pes-capiK. 

IpooKM Bunthua R. Br: 
Ipoausa wMoularUf EO. 
Ipummtaaraosvil. lir. 
Ipomoea BruUiensia, 

IpomoBa biloba, ForM. 

Ooanhalm maritttans, 
. JDcarviwa. 
rt pes-csprai, Hm. 
. „ BrasUieoBta, Zinn. 
„ b)lobatu« EnxKUh. 

Ohsgnl Umri .» Bnro.i Bala Mga...:; 

Goats' tmi erasper.Cao. Bi|aba«4i tige-^ ... » ' 
Do-iMtt0-tufo BjoohlOheviiUa^tige... » 

Tbia ia a oseful sand biadmg plant on the 
shores of the aouth and east (MT Asia and hna 
the widest range ia India. In Chiaa it is a 
plant of eKtsnsive ranges trailing over the 
sandy beaches along the coast from Hainan to 
the Chiisan Archipelago.— ^t^ZiaMs' Mi^lU 
Kingdom, p. 287. 

syn. of Batatas paniculate — Clioiajf. 

of Bstatss pentapbylU.— Ck. la. 

IPOMOSA Pl£:inGRll>I», £mm, Roxb. 

Tigers' foot Ipomcea, £aa. | Pura Utal,. ... Hiss*. 
Kunra .. ... iJiKD. 1 U(dtamuad«^u ..Tat.. 

In Tennaeerim the tiger-footed ipomosa, with 
large palinated leaves is not uncommon, very 
corumon in the rniua every wheie in Bsjpiic- 
tmiafi.— M*d, Tgp.p. 184. 

IPOMCEA. <9;?. One moat beautiful, extensive 
pereninHl Ipomosa is ^enernlly called theHdla- 
bar creeper, it has bright yellow flowers nnd 
glabrous pnlmate leaves! This species seeros 
to agree with the Ipomcea tv.fjerozao^l\it West 
Indies, only this hns no scent. This plant 
extends an immense length and affords a very 
close shade. — Mason. 

IFOMCEA PHJ!NTCB.\, Scarlet Ipomaia, 
common in hedges and gardens during the 
rains.— ffen?. Uei. Top. p. 181. 

IPOMCE.V PILEATA. Bonnet Ipomoea. 
In October, as soon 9»X\\p rains close,thi3 pretty 
little twining species of IpomoEyt is seen blush- 
ing through every hedge and bush in Tenasse-, 
rim. It U pt-culiar for its concave bonnet shap« 
ed involucre, io the midst of which half a dox«a 



tiay hjosaoms hide their 

Digitized by 



Wing le*T«d IpouuB*. 
Cynnu Viae, • - 
CmnsoA Qtuunodit. 


Quamooiit peDoatum. 

Lai Kama-luta ... Hind. 
Su-«ta Kama luta „ 
AtBliq pecba (love'a 
ringlets) Pbbs. 

The Cyprus Vine or Crirnaon Qunmoclit 
ftowen in the cold weather and of a most 
beaatiful brij{ht crimson colour ; tube Iotik 
■leader ; in gardens pretty common. The 
criDUon variety is Lai kama-lnta or red ring- 
lets of Kama the hindu god of love. Sweta 
k&malata. white, is the pertinn Ishk pecha 
(lore's ringbts) — Genl. Med, Top. p, 181. 

IFQUfM. QUlN<^U£LOBA. Willd. syn. 
of BittaUa panif iiUts. 


iyiTetay-k««i»y... Taw. 
A perennial creeper with . yellow' flowers ; 
tlie learea used ai greens mixedwitbtatnarinH ; 
very common during the cold nontha.— •'a^tiy- 


Guithfaa ... .« ffiRD. I KaH... ... Tam. 

VdlayJcMiiV.... TaM. | Tota-knra. ^ Tbl. 

V«ri«. . „ „ I 

A creeping annoal with rose colored 
flowers, foaad about the borders of tanlcs aud 
B<mk pUeca. The leeTca are used as greens, 
and in plaees its root also appears to be eaten. 


Thale»-k«eraj... Tan. 

A oUmUng pereniiinl plant with rose colored 
SovorCf found in hedges, the leNves are eaten 
mixed with others as greens. — ^afirey,^ 

Oeonra cpunqcfy in the Punjab plains, up to 
Hw matcra frontier. It-Is one of the plnnis 
whiefa is eaten in 'India in faadDcs. Dr. J.L. 
MUmmi, jr. D. 

Argyreia speciosa, — Bvt. 

IPOIKEA TBILOBA grows both wild and 
pUated in Japan. Tlio roota of it are eiUwr 
white or black ; the latter are used as laxa 
i^Mtk^Tkmb^ TrmvtU^ Vol. ni. p, 63, 

IPOMOiA TUBEBOBA,lhe Malabar Creep- 
er, B rativo of tropietl America, is a 
riiiaUng plant with a woody stem ; common 
in gnrdcna ; feaves palmateid, aeren parted, 
nevcrt ydhm and showy, appear in October 
and NoTcmber. It is in general use for cover- 
m% old walla, trriHses, &«., and for which 
wmee, from its exceeding rapid eiowtb, it is 

W. lit. 

CoovoIvuluB turpcthiim, 

Htid-ul-Zaugi Ar. | T«rwai .'. PdsHt. 

Turbid,.. ... ,, I Tirwi Hjkb. 

Naaut Hud. 

Niswot.rt M 

Mag.pntta, . „ 

Triroorta SAKSC. 

Traeta-walu ... SmcH. 

Shevadi Tam. 

MalU T^ada Tbi^ 


T«ori Bmo. HiNn. 

Pud Kalnti „ „ 
Siiuarc stalked Il>»- 

niisa Enq. 

Indinu Jolap ... „ 

Turt>«tih root „ 

Tarbad Bmo. 

CUta-bauaa of .... . .Fasj. 

The root 

Tarbad Hun. | Ntoot Hm*. 

A nntivQ of Ceylon, the East Indies, Ha- 
laynn Archipelago, Australia, Timor, Otaheite, 
Frtendl; Islands, Matianoe Islands, Tinian, fcc. 
Its root is perennial, and has fong been 
employed In Indi* as a common purgative, rub- 
bing np a slip of the bnrk with trater or milk 
on B stone and swallowing the emnlsion thus 
formed. A strip six inches in length from a 
root as thick as the Hule finder is deemed a 
sufficient dose. Dr. cyShaugfauessy asterta 
that the action, of the medicine ia ao extremely 
unoeitfltn that U does not deserve ft place la 
our PharmacopEeia. Price IS annas the pound- 
Dr. Bellew states that it is considered bene- 
ficial in diseases of the mucous membrane, 
in leprosy and paralysis. It contains a purgative 
resin, resembling that of jalap. ^0*SKwgknet^t 
page 504 J>r. Roxb. FL Ind, fol.ip. 476. 
Carry* t edithn of Dr. Roxburgh's Fl. Titd. it, 
p. 51. Powell Rand Book, Vol.y, p. 867. 
Dr. J. L. Stewarif M. d. ' 

IPOMOPSfS, a geiiUs of twining plants 
requires the same treatment as the Ipomcea. 

IVOR, Fess.' Thyme i wild Uagoram. 

IPO TOXICARIA. Peks. Aotiaris foxi- 

IPPA CHETTir or %e Oiettu, slio 
Ippa manu. Tel. Raasia Iktifolia.— ^^oxft. Thia 
tree rnniisbes a strong wood, but ia never felled 
by the natives, the flowers yield a toddy, and 
an oil is extracted from the seeds. — (kiptatn 

'JiTTos, Gs. Horse 

IPPU, the name of a tree in Borneo 
from which is obtained the famous Borneon 
poison, with which the Idaan tribe poison 
tbeir darts: TIte poison is collected by this 
tribe only, and its effects are similar to those 
of the Liana and Tteiuma of South Ame- 
rica. — Ddtrjfii^U*» Aceoml oj 8uli$. 
IBA. See S&rasvetL 

■IRAK also Hiswak. Pus. Salvsdora 


IRAK, in Aiabic, a territory which ia di- 
vided into two poitions, Trak^-Arabij aneirat 
Babylonia or Chaldea, and Irak>i-Ajam, Media. 
Irak-i<arabi of tbgy^j^iiOw'^^^fVribediiB 
I the aneinit Hesope'tsmia, the- lor^ty known 



io the A^rabflj'as Al^Jisira. The proTiQus of 
Fan, as it now stands, it bouoded on the 
north and north-west, by Irak-i-ajem and 
Lurutah, and a amall portion of Kbuziitao. 
'See India i Iran ; Junnan ; Samaroand ; 

IRAHBU. Mal. Bee Fall 

IBICAMUIiA. Bahs. Afiitolodiia IndioB. 
— Xtnn. Jtioith. 

IRAN mentioned in the Vendidad under the 
. name Airyaoem Vafgo was a oonntTy on the 
alopss of the Belar I'agb, in the hit;hland of 
Pamir, between L. 37 and 40° N. and L. 86° 
.«iid 90*? Vol. w. pp. 469, 460. 

lEAN. A coHQtry situated to the south 
cast of the Caapian Seia, which Dr. Pntchard 
con&iders to be the oiiginal seat of the Ira- 
nian (lado- Atlantic or Caucasian] race. In (his 
vide cxpanae of territory, stretching, with 
varioue efeTation, at least 85** from north to 
south, such extremes may be looked for as will 
bear ou| the remarkable description of. the 
youDK^ Gyrus : " Io the dominions of my fa- 
ther,*' aaid the prinpe, " people pe^sh with 
cold at the one extremity, whilst they are suf- 
focated, with heat at the other." fXenophon's 
Anabasis, Book 1, pp. 67, 68. £d. Hutch, 
.1735.) Thus, the northern and central por- 
tions of the plateau of Iran and Arabia, as well 
aa a great part of Asia Minor, enjoy a tem- 
perate climate, whilst aa intense cold preTaila 
la the northern parts of Afghanistan, in nearly 
the whole of Kurdistan, and on the eleyated 
inojintain ranges and high Talleys on both 
udes of Ararat. Tet* notwithstanding this 
difference of clunatei' throughout the whole, a 
great wmilarity prevails in the vegetable and 
animal worlds ; and in these respects the 
valley of the Kile, the plains of Mesopotamia, 
and thoae of Arabia southward of Mecca, 
together with the central and southern 
paits of Iran, havq much in common. The 
aurfoce of Iran extend for 1,280 miles, from 
Sumelsat on the upper Euphrates, eastward to 
Taxila on the Indus, and nearly 900 miles in 
breadth from the shores of Gedrosis, in 25" N. 
lat, to the iMUiks of the Oxns near Samarcand, 
in 40' N. lal. The latter river and the Caspian 
Sea form the northern linut of this great divi- 
uon i the £r][Uirean Sea is on the southern 
whilst the rivers Indus and Buphrates eonati. 
tute the eastern and western extremities, tn 
the space iotorvening between the great 
mountain chuna, in most places the sorface is 
largely impregnated with salt and saltpeire, 
which prevail to some extent on the plains of 
Fars and the coterminous provinces of Irak 
and Kirman. BetwceQ Ahu-3hehr and Da- 
laki, crystalized sulphate of lime is found; 
and, a liUle westward, (in Kbnzistan], an 
abundant supply of sulphur j while rock-salt^ 
alum, antinoDy, and o^iment, as well as 

mineral waters, are foand in abundance in 
different states, from petroleum to theehoiceafc 
kind of naptha, and it applied to many use- 
fal purposes. The places most known ara 
Baku and Mazanderan towarda the north ; 
K«rfauk, Hit. &afidwKir, the Bartria mbuo- 
tains, and pMlaki, towards the soutii, and both 
Kirman and Afghanistan towards the east. 
Iron and native Bted is met with lu Mazande- 
ran, Khorassan, and Bactria. The former, as 
wejl as copper and lead ores^ prevail in differ- 
ent parts of the eastern provinces, but more 
abundantly in the pashalics of Ui^ar<Bekr and 
Sivtis, with the addition of gold, silver, and 
precious stones. The ordinary, as well aa 
some of the more precious metals and valuable 
stones, are likeWhse fonnd in the eastern pro- 
vinces, and also in Azerbaijan ; copper and 
other ores aboujld In Kurdistan, the Jnbmerik, 
and other moumtain disl^ricU. la the Dumbu 
Tagh mountains the granite abounds with 
interesting minerals, more particularly topax, 
beryl, schorl, and disseminated gold. The 
valleys of the Oxus, the Indus, and nearly the 
whole of that of the Haphrates, being at the 
extremities of Iran, that territory (in additioii 
to the Tigris and Araxes, with their tribu- 
taries) has only the advantage of the Salyan, 
the Aji, Jeghetu, and Safid Bud, towards the 
north } the Zende-rud, Indian and Bendenir, 
in the centre ; the Hehunil with its tributa- 
ry, and the Farra-md, more eastward. B»> 
sides these, there are some inferior ^reanie, 
which after a sliort course, are uther lost by 
absorption, or beoomih aalnia. EitMiuvB salt 
lakes and streama, in^regni^ irith the suae 
substance, are by uo means, unoonmon. 
Amongst the former may be meniioned th% 
Caspian Sea, (he pictiires(^'uQ Urumiyah, aa^ 
Van. Zerrah or l)urrah, in Seistan, Baktegaa 
in Fars, and others ^ the fresh- water lakes are 
only met with in Ibe .ttaets below Babylon, 
and again between the Slburs range on the 
shores of the Caspian. . The surface of Iran 
mav, in a general way, be described as oon^ 
sisting of a wide-spreading plateau, ftankad bft 
mountainous countries on the eaM and west, - 
and bounded to the north and aoaih by tWQ 
mountain chains outside of which are two ex- 
teaaiva plains, on a much lewn leveL Of 
tkese, Tnraomania^ wi^ the oontiwioaa ^hin 
westward of it, brtwean the Caspian Sea and 
the Elbiurz mountains, form that wbioh"i« on 
the northern -extremity ; Arabian Irak -and 
Khuzistan, with the restsiofthe.level tract out* 
side the Zagros, form ..the plain at the aouthem 
extremitv. Among the dommtic animals the 
horse holds the principid place, and there are 
four distinct kinds in ir»su Ifirst, the ox^pnal 
Turkoman breed, a large, powerful eqdorii^ 
animal ; second, the ythfMfWMmmmi carrying 
hack, which is Mtet wd^U^w Um* 



tbe ganovsjr. Tfaen the amalteir Arabian 
breed (first introduced by Nadir shah> ; and, 
laatlr, ft fourth, between tbis animal and the 
Turkoman horse, the badpai (wiod-footed),' 
whieb, being the ino»t prized by the Persians, 
is rimost always among the horset of n great 
umb's retinue^ Bat tficre is an Unosnal pro- 
portion of mules, which, tbongh sma]!, are 
very rouoh used for efcrhvans. This surprising 
■aimal Seldom geea so far as 90 unles in a 
daft tbough eairyitf r load oi abqnt S cwt., 
wHi pasHVg -over audi •kuttali or passes, as 
WMid appal svea a Spanish .BDleteer. in 
tbe gi^ut diffusion of msfttod; the westvra 
iwoviooea of Iran appew to bave fiillen to the 
ahare of iha Aitaaesns and Etamilaa, while 
tWnoahef the Kesatei, Ariani, Usrdi'acd 
•tiiertiftwB, amposing theearlieat iafaabitasts, 
mvsd BotvCBstwacd, katiog som of their 
wtmlbtn io tin mnnrtainoai diiiiiots, to asis 
wiUt or beeome subjeet'tA the new vomers, 
Vh&: Sbearitic people and laog nage having 
Ihn beoome - domiumt iaaiead 9i tb4 
{haiiite, the ethnography the former rathet 
than thai of the latter, beoOmes an important 
•onridenUioa. From this primitive tangoiige, 
or rather from one of its oognat^s (as'tfae 
Him^ritic, may poasibly prore to hare been) 
two disLinet branches were derived, the original 
Arabic, ,wiLh the Uusnad, Korcis^i and other 
dialects of ibat toi^ue, bieing one of these, 
and the Aramaic the other. Jha iatterhafl 
two grand sub-divisions, from .one of . which, 
known Sa the Western Aramuc wefe derived 
Ihe Amharic, Syriae, Hebrew, &o>, and fronpi 
the oifaer or £astem Aramaic, came the Aesyr 
riaa, Babylonian, and Chaldean. tongues. Front 
its monosylUbio conatroclion, the eastern 
seems to he more ancieut than the western 
Aramaic, and it appears likewifle to be the 
root of the Znttrl, Pelilevi. Saoskrit, and, oih^ 
dialects in use throughout a portion of the 
territory along which it hjad spread eMtwsjcd. 
Whether the nrst of these, languages was ones 
in general use, or was merely the sapred lan- 
gnage oflrw, the affimty. of all of them is 
wmeib as to imply a eomnon origin. P^levi 
was the oonrt langnaga. ta Uie time of the 
fiaiaanini monare^^ and^ acoording to S091S 
aathoritiqiss br ,baclc as tKat o{ Cyrus : it 
contafos many wOrds which belong to .the 
CbjUdaleand Syrlac tongues, and Sir William 
Jones was of opinion that one of these most 
have been its root : ' but it is now (cenerally 
presumed that the root of. the PehleVi is,the 
Aramaic itself. The cognates of the latter 
^read westward and eaattvftrd, and one of 
them, the Ohaldee, can scarcely be dislinguish- 
ed from the parent root Another, the Parsi, 
being a softer language than the Fehleri„be'- 
eanw general in ^araistan, ahd gave ritfe to the 
Deri, or fflodem Peitian, The fchieTi, how- 


^vc^,' b still partially nsed bi l&eir ntL^nA 
writings, in Shirwan, and also by some of the 
Gabr of^the eastern provinces, as well as by 
a numerons section of the natives of Ipdia, bnfe 
among the Parsees It Is lai^I]^ intermiied 
witb tlm Hindustani and other Native dulects, 
which are less or more coimeoted trlth ths' 
Sanskrit. The affinity of the latter to the 
Parsi is so great that a learned phSoItqttst has 
pronounced it to be one of its derivatives. 
The number of words which are idehticaf 
among the different dSalects of .tran and 
Tnrnn, and some portion of the terrrtovy merer 
eastward, goes far to show, that at n period 
euterior to anything like cohnected history 
there mnst have been some common language, 
and this was probably the Aramaic. PeriiapS 
one-third of the inhabitants of Iran' era 
nomadio, and this section, by its habits, M 
irell as mode of life, eonstitutea a nee sefM^ 
rate fitmr the' other or fixed portion, which 
consists of Persians, Kntda, Arttenfons, Arabs; 
Jews, and Parsees.— JTenoj^Aon ^nabaaiii 
Euphrates and 2^rh, Chi. Cketnet/, p. 38. 
See Fars ; Arians ; Hindoo ; India ; Kabnl i 
Tnran. , 

ard's classification he has four groups or dy* 
nasties of language, three of which are confined 
to Europe and Asia, a fonrth being oomnion to 
Africa and those parts of Asia wfai<A are ncst 
that continent. The fir«t of his four groups 
ls'(l.) the Indo-European, sometimes termed 
Indo-Oermanie, and by late writert the Arialt 
or Iranian langnages. He ODnriidcm that tho 
Indo^Enropeon langnages and - nations may bh 
divided into many diflbrent gronpes, in thh 
ol'der of tbeir amriitieB for instance ; bat he 
regards the most obvious division to be h 
geographical one, and he styles his _ firat^ the 
eastern group, which, by many writers baa 
been termed exclusively the Arian family of 
tongues. It includes all the i(lioni»tff the 
ancKut Sledes and Persians, who named the«h 
selves Arii, and their country Eeriene or Irai^ 
and likewise the Sanscrit with all the PrakrlW. 
property so termed, and the Pali of IndiA 
Among the former was that ancient Ptfn^n 
tongnage in which one partlenlar set 'of the 
cuneiform inscriptions was Written- TMa di»- 
lect was so near the Benscrit that the ihsMp^ 
tiona have been interpreted thrtngtt 4ho me- 
dium of that language. '■. ^ » 

The Zend lays c/tarm to a still Mghev 
qoity, since the Zend 'is said 'by Banioit^ 
■esaor Wilson apd othefa Who bavo stuMed 
it most sdcce^sfuUy, to be men neatly allied 
to the very ancient dialect of the tedas, wt&ch 
preceded this daBsicsl Sahskrit, than k is to 
this last more cultivated speech. How this 
claim is to be Tcconciled wilh'(*e comparative* 
ly recent date of aU feftWrt ='«6«itfl»*^^ ih^ 



Zenduh lugniige,- remuns, be vmtaden, to be 
expUuud. But (bat the high castes or " Iwice 
born" olaiKs of the Indian rioe at they term 
ihemidves, the brahnuui tlie ohetri^a aod the 
vaiBja bimla» wkxa of Uie same atock as the 
ancient Peniaas, n^y be regarded as a f>G| 
eatablisbBd by iha affinity of their languages. 

Chovalier Bonseu's naoes differ from those 
of Dr. Frilobard. He icIaaBea one group as 
the great Asiatic Eaiopean stook of languages, 
which tub-dindea into eight families, via. 
1, Celts j 3. Thraoan or lUyrian ; S. Armeai'ini 
^.AsiaticlraBiaaji. Helutoibo-ItaUal 6 Sl^ 
TOnie ; 7. LiUuianian tribes, and 8. Teutonic. 
His fourth or Asiatic IiuiisD, or the IrauHn 
stock as represented in Asia, he agaia sub- 
divides into* 

1. The utions of Iran proper or the Arian 
stock, the Isnguages of Media and Persia. It 
iacludea the Zend of the cansifonn inscriptiont 
and the Zend Avesta. The younger Pehlevi 
of the Sassanians and the Pazeod, the mother 
<^ the pieteot or modern Persian tongue : The 
FoahtD or language of the Afghani belongs to 
tin same bmidi. 

S. The second sub-dinsion embraces the 
Iranian langugesM India, i^reaented by the 
Sanscrit and her daughlen. 

His Semitic stock of languages he constructs 
from the followiog nations who form another 
oompsot mass, and represent one physiologi- 
cally and histoncally cooneoled .family the 
Hebrews, with the other tribes of CsuaaD or 
Faleatiiu^ inclusive of the Phoenicians, wh9 
spread their lauKuage, through their coloniza- 
tion, as that of the Carthaginiana^ the Aramaic 
tvibes, or the historicid nslions of Aram,'Syriai 
Sfosopotsnia, and Babylons, speaking Syrian 
in the west, and the so-oalled Ghaldaic in the 
«ast ; finally, the Arabians, whose language is 
oonneeted <thcough the Uimyaritic} with the 
^thiopic, tha aniaent (now the saored) Ian 
goage of AbyssioiaL He calls this second fa ■ 
mily, by the name now generally adopted 
among German Hebrew scholars, the ^niitio. 
Cbefalicr Bunsen further remarks as the first 
lesson which the knowledge of the Egyptian 
Isi^uage leaches that all the Rali(ms which 
from the dewn of history to our days have 
■bean the leaders of civilization iu Asia, Europe 
and Afzies, must bave had one beginuiug. 
Jit adds that receat researches have very 
eonsiderably enlarged the sphere of such 
Jangnages M historical nationB, as arc united 
kf thA ties of primitive, affinity. Those re- 
BBBidies have made it more than prc^ble 
thatiheTartary the Mantchu and Tungusan 
bdMg ta «ne great stoclr. that the Turko- 
man, as well as the Tsbude, Fin, Laplander 
and Magyar (Hungarians)' present another 
stock clowly united, snd that both these fa- 
auties ace origiaaily oouoected with each other. 

The- Iranisn family of laagnige seems .to 
be called Arian, by Mr. ll!«rrar. it it the Indo- 
European and Indo'Germaoic of some philo- 
logists : Pictet and Burnous called it Arian 
from the Sdnscrit word Arya meaning noMe ; 
Bnsk called it Japhetic, and according to 
Mr. Vwrrat, it has 8 divisions 

Hiwln. lavsafc. I Uthwuiisn, I Tato^ 
Perwu. 1 Uttin. | SoUwoic. | Celtio. 

Of these it is nnoertain whetker Celtic or 
Ssasotit represents the older phase< Bnl h is 
known (bat sU of .< tbeta an the • . daughters of a 
prinieral form of Isnutngs whiali has now 
ceased to eiist, bmt.whiohwm iqpbksalqfta yet 
undivided raoe ^ a time when Saosmt aed 
Greek hsd as yet only implicit existenob. 

The term Iranian is derived from Aarya and 
the old FersiAn and old Baetriso or Zmd era 
its oldest lepment^ons. Oht Persian is tiielaB- 
gusge of the A vesta; Hazvaiesoh or PeUeri, is 
tJie language in wUoh the eomoMotsries and 
the mon recent Tersions of the Avasia are writ- 
ten : Farduai'a Sbabnioasib is in Parsi or Pazeod. 
Bnnsen says the Srst ooaeiCenn eharacter on 
the BeaUon was Median or west Iranisn and ia 
to be distinguished from the language of tbe 
Zeod books which is Bast Iranian or old Bao> 
trian, worn down. — Jh. PrUchard^ in Bqxnt 
oftU British AgsodaHm. Chevalier Buium, 

IBANl&N R\CES called, also, Ittdo-AUan- 
tics,sl8aC8iicafliana,bave always been known for 
their refineraent, and high civilisation, from 
irhich Europe borrowed through the Bysantino 
^d Oreek culture, and the Persians bave long 
and faithfully retained the features of its national 
ehamcteristics. 'Hiough overrun by the Semitic 
and Turanian races, the Innian has borrowed 
little ornothing from them but has exerted over 
them a powerful influence. According to Kha- 
nikoff « Bur V Ethnographie de la Perse" the 
Iranian raoe of Persia came frofii tbe East of 
modem PerBia,BboutScgestan and IChoraesan,and 
moved to the west in prehistoric sge8,and thongh 
altered by the attaoks of the Turko-Tartar tribea 
from the north, or, where in eontsct, on the west 
and south with Turanian snd SemiUe elements, 
the Mede is every where recogniisble as the 
same as described by Herodotus aod later Qreek 
writers. The arrow headed writing at Persepolts 
euumerStes the Iranian people of that day. 

The form of the Iranian is spare, but elegant* 
even noble, but there have always beeu differ- 
ences between the Eastern aod WMtera Iranians* 

The But Irsnians sre (a) the S^^estsni 
or Khafi ; —(h) Ohsr Aimak : (c) Tajik and 
8art, each of which counts'many sub-divisions. 

The principal number of the Segestan people 
occupy Khaf and its ndghbourkood Buy, 
Tebbes, sod Birjao. 

The people of Khorassan are (creally ister« 
miud withTuiik^XftrMuLelsia9Bk£ 


Tbia hngaBge- ot aWKlern Jauelcn vith 
An^ie udTurkiah words -' but io the East, tbe 
famguBge is much like that in whiob Fardnsi 
wrote Us poen free from words of Arabio origin. 

Tbe Cior Jimak ooasiat of four peoples the 
Tiauri, Teimeni, Feros Kobi and Jamshidi, alt 
of tbem of Iranian origin and all speaking 
Peiaian. Tha Simak wba graia their flocks 
ID tbe Farapamisiia, are bmve and releotlnv, 
and Afghans when tmreUing* whetber pracoed-, 
ing from Batkb, Kabul, Kaodabar or Herat, 
never eater into the Konutaia lyatrio^ of tbese 
intrepid nomad tribes* 

The TtMuH dwell at Gorian and Kuh'sun on 
tbe western boundary of Herat and. in tbe vil- 
lages and towns situated east of Iran, fropi 
Tarbat Shaikh Jam as far as Khaf. About a 
thoQUDd of their families dwell near Horat. ; 

The Tdv^eiU dwell in tbe Jolj^a-irHerat, 
from Kerrulch to Salizww ; tbe few who have 
extended to Pajrrahbeiogstjried bj. the Afghans, 
PanlTan. Efcb member of the Char Aimali 
knowa DO greater enemy than tbe Afghan, and 
all attempts to form Afghan colouiei amongst 
Uiem have fiuled. The Teimeni are of a wild, 
warlike nature though agriealtural. 

Tbe Feroz Kohi^ a small number of people 
ahout 8,000 dwell on tbe steep hill N. £. of. 
Kale No and from their inaecessible position' 
afflict their whole iteigh hour hood with their rob- 
bing and plundering. KiileNoon the summit 
of Uie mcwntain aud the fortified places of Darzi 
Katch and Chsluaran are coDsidered similar to 
the whole nests of the Bakhliari and Luri 
in the environs oi Ispahan. They have a re- 
semblance to the Hazarah, but their forehead, 
chin, complexion and £gure are less Turaniarif 
Thij are decidedly Iranian. They take thdr 
naiDe**tbe Feros Koht^ after the dty of . that 
Ban» about <S miles from Teheran, timur 
settled them by force in Mszenderan, but they 
soon returned to their oirn eountfy. They have 
a few cattle and they sow a little, anil plimder 
the caravans travelling on the Maimani road or 
make inroads on the scatlered tents of tbe 

JcmMhidi are the only tribe of Eastern Ira- 
nians who are exclusively nomsdes. They de* 
rive their descent from Jnmshidy and moved 
oat of Segeslan to tbe shores of the Murghab, 
whick they have occupied from pre-historie 
times. Th^ Ure in the neighbourhood of the 
Bakv and Sank Turkoman and t^y uaii|:Uu 
xmad conical tent of the Tartan^ .surrounding 
U mih ielt and a reed matthig, and tb«r 
dothing and food are Tnrkoman as also is their 
oeeupation, tor, they are great man stealers. 
They excel the other Aimak as horsemen snd, 
for a ebapao, band themselves with men of Herat 
or with the tribes of Turkomans, It was this 
cMue that led Allsh Kuli Khan to transport 
them ttom Khira to ike banks of the Oxns. 


after he had oonqaered them with the aMed 
Sank Turkoman. Afier a resideaoe of IS years, 
Uiey fled and returned to the town of Murghab, 
Tha Jamshidi is polite in word and manner; 
They still retain parts of the Zorositrtap fnith. 
icrarenoe fir^ end pilch their tent door to (he 

The Ttijii is Iranian. He is met with in 
Isrgest number in the Kkanat of Bokhara apd 
in.Badakhshaa, but many have settled i« th* 
towns of Kokand, Khiva. Cbinase Tartary and 
Arghanistau. Tbe.Tigik is of s good middle 
height, has a broad powerful frsme of bones, 
and especially wide snoulder bones, but they 
diverge from tbe Iranian, they have' the 
Turanian wirier forehead, thick cheeks, thick" 
nose snd large month. The Tajik originally 
came from the sources ot the Oxus in the 
steppe of Pamir. The term is from Taj, 
a -crown, the fire worshippers head dress. But 
the Tsjik does not so sty Is himself and regards 
the term a« derogatory. The Turks style tha 
Tajik, Bart. The Tajik is covetous, nnwarlike^ 
and given to agrie Jtnre and trade ; fond of 
literary pursuits and polished and it is owing 
to their preponderanoB in Bokhara that that 
city hia been raised to the position of tbe 
Head Quarters of Central Asiatic civilizstioot 
for, there, from pre-Islamie tiroes, they have 
continued their previous exertions in mental 
culture and notwuhstsnding the oppressions 
which Ihey hsve sustained from a foreifEn 
power, have civilized their conquerors. Most 
of the celebrities in the field of religious know- 
ledge and beUrt leltent, have been Tiyiks, and 
at the prevent day the most eonspicuous of the 
mullah snd Ishan are Tajiks and the chief 
men of the Bokhara and Khiva court are Tajik 
or as the Turks style tbe race Sart. Vambenr 
considers tbe Tsjik and Ssrt identicsl, but he 
recognizes that in their physiognomic peculi- 
arities, the Ssrt differs greatly from the Tigik, 
being more slender, with a larger face, and a 
higher forehead ; but these changes he attri- 
butes to frequent intermarriages between Sart 
men and Persian slaves. 

In Central Asia, the warrior, the shepherd, 
the priest and the laymen, youth and old age 
equally afEect poetry and reciting of tales. The 
literature of the mahomedans oi settled nations 
brought from the south, is filled with exotic 
metaphor and illustration. In the three Khs- 
nat^ the mullahs and ishao^ have written 
much on religious su^eets, but its mystical 
allusions are beyopd tin reach of the people. 
The TTEbeg, the Tnrkoman and Kirghis esteem 
music SB their highest pleasure and often 
break out in song, singing soft minor airs. 
Tbe Uzbeg poetry on religious subjects is 
exotic, derived ftom Feruan or Arabic sources. 
The Tartar compositions are tales and relate to 
heroic deeds, tiuilai toihe>fomauoe]^f<£urepe. 


Mp. Farrtr (p, 70.) gives B. 0. 9000 as tbe 
period of tbe AryAnt ' leaving th«ir oommoa 
home, bat in this h« difTers greatly from 
CbevaUer Bunsen and other aathorities- The 
Eastern Iranian race, came down the valley -of 
lodui and mto India, and Cenktral Hindustan 
or Central India, was the Madhya-desa of- tin 
dlicient Aryans, the middle n^ion or Arya- 
«artaj the Arva eoUntPf, and a elokam in the. 
amflorit work, the AiDind!OilM, defines -it» 
aneEent bonndaries thus : 

" Arlavarlahft punia bhumi hl» 
* Mad'hiao) Vindhya Himava ydho, 

. t, 1L the ArUn ooat^Lry, tbe aacred land 
(Upa) between the Vindhyx and. Uimalayfi/^ 
in this way iiidieatiiig bot)t the.ruling race ud 
the boundiiries of. the oountry heldjby them at 
the time that Amain Sifkha wrote ■\hc Aj«afa- 

There would seem to have bttn two migra- 
tions into India of the Arians, viz. the Earlier 
Ariaiis the descendents of the most ancient 
Iftndus,.^ people aCttte, litefKry, skilled in arts 
but not very warlitc and rather aristocratic 
than democratic in their Institutions. The 
Latet Arians a warlike people, probably ouce 
Hcytbianf, democratic in their Institutions and 
lather eliergetic than refined and literary. 
The Arians of India have cnste and marriage 
laws, with stritft rales of inheritance resuluag 
fVnm their sacred form of marriage, and sub- 
ject to. none of the cEkprices of raahomedaa and 
afmilar laws. Arian is the privnte property in 
land, as distinguished 'from the tribal J the 
property first of tbe Tillage, then of the 
mnily, then of the iodividualf and a conse- 
quence is tha attiKchment of the Arian to his 
dative soil. Especially AVian is the form of 
what we call constitutional as opposed to patri- 
archul end arbitrary government. Tbe Indian 
village or commune is a constitutional dovem. 
men't, common to alt tbe Arians, but there are 
two great classes of Indian Arians, one with 
aristromtic eommnnes and one with democra- 
tic and recognising as equal bU free citizens 
to the exclusion of helots only. Among the 
non- Arians the rule of the chiefs seems to be 
patriarchal and arbitrary. Property in the 
loU is tribal raiher than individual'. There is 
littU local attaohment to the soil. — Fom- 
heny't Sketchet of Cmtrat Aria, p. 838. 
£unseA, Egvpt'g place in Universal ffiitor^t 
iU. pp. 457, 570. Reverend Mr. JFarrar, 
Dr. Pntchard, in ike Report o/ the British 
Auocialum. See Arian; India. 

IBANI-^O&TE of Mahadeva Tatiiain. 9ee 

IRAOTES. SeeSaiaswali. 
inAQ-I-AJAItf, aneieot Babybnn. See 


IRA VAN tir Ilavah. Mian. A caste 
occupation is the extraction of palm wine <n , 
tari frotn palm trees. . 

IRAWADI. The principal river of PqjB. * 
The main branch of the Irawadi, called tfaig 
Nam Kya, has its source in L. 27° 9' K.aodik 
Long. 97** 7' B. amidst mountains, rising pn> 
bably to a height of 17,000 feet. The nio# 
limit fh this disf tlet, as in tbe en^na of tii 
Upper Dihong, scarcely descends below 18.004 
fe^. Th6 springs are reported to be fed ' ' 
large snow beds an9 a few glaclei4. In t£n 
the river begins to rise and gratittally ibcroL., 
its volume till its' waters are. forty feet abov^ 
their lowest- level. They rapidly anbside li| 
October, when tbe ratlia cease and tha noril^ 
east monsoon begins. 

It runs nearly PT. to 8, tbrbagb Bnrmab, «tk 
Pegu aftd discharges itself by nira differea| 
mouths into the Bay of Bengal, after a crftifw 
of 1,060 miles. It recNTesthtf Khyeuth ' 
470;8hwely 180, and the Hoo H6 ufOei, 
it drains lft4,000 s^. m. The Besseitt' 
affords a passage for tbe largest ships foi H^: 
miles from its mouth. No river of sitniw. 
magnitude, presents so fetf obstructions ft 
navigation. * 

The Irawadi runs m an almost tfatber^ 
dheotion as'far as Imt. 27'* N: f rom wheneer SI 
slightly diverjies to the aonth-west. - 

Prom the entrance of tbe Nam Tang down-, 
#ard8, the valley of the Nam Keng^ % genendM 
very flat, and oT some oonsiderable width, aW, 
numerous marshy tracts appear either dSl^ 
of the river. The average length of the HtHH, 
Keog, hrom the mouth of the Nam Yang ddMi 
to its juhetion with the Irawadi at KatikyA 
Nainmo, inoluding the nujCaenHU corvM^aminntt 
tti&3 miles. From the entranecT'olf tbe-liiMlj 
Keng to Amarapura^ the river has a real lenffflfc 
of 269 miles, frcmi Amarapura to the beadof tli|i 
d»ta at Sakkemun, 870 miles. Tbe delM| 
forms a triangle, nearly equikteral, wHh sid^il 
of 180 mites, the enclosed area oonseqttleai^ 
anrounting to 9,742 square miles. 'J 

Towards Pegu and Sitan tbe Irawadi widena 
considernbty, in eonaequenoe of the hceessiom 
of the Pan Ian river, and its limita become Uafl 
sharply defined. 

Of the mountains borderidg the course of ItiM 
Irawadi, the following may partioularly ^ 
mentioned, atthovgh tha beigfatB ascribed^ 
Ihebi are .rieeessari^ only approximations : 

a. ITpon (he r^t Imnlc of the Irawa^ 
mountains opposite Than Tun Tova, in Lat. If, 

36i'Lon^ E Gr Oe'-Sl j'hav«an averart 
height of from 6,000 to 7.000 feet. One ef thl 
highest, the summit of which is visible from tU^ 
valley, reaches apparently ^XWft feet. 

b. -Westward of Let pin ?fn Tova, at • 
IJttle distanto from ttie right bank £Lat, N. 8V 
27' a- Ung. ieir,Ji9&? W^'J.-tht* sniv 



«nU of tke voiuUini atteia a li^ht of f ^000 

HBighU of 800 ind even 1,000 fiiefc an 
■bo DomnoM on the right bank of> the riraiV 
oofy SO to B3 Buloa north of Shue-nnit-thoe 
phya Lat. N. 33° 4' Long. E. Gc. fitt" 16'. 

The character of the whole rirer district, 
including the elevations not above froni S,00& 
to 4,000 feet presents a thoroughly tropical 
appearance. The deolirities of the Mils, as 
veil as the vall^ of the river, are eovered xriih 
the wildest and moat direraiGad v^lailon, in 
the ahape of dense tr^ and grass jungles. ' 

The bore in this river is often severe, but in 
the neighbouring Sltang river its fury is great 
and occasions much loss of life. Quruans name 
thirty feet as the height to vhi6h it occasion- 
ally riaea and this may perhaps be ^be case in the 
benda of the river, where the rush has attuiQeU 
its full speed I before being reflected to the next 
bead. Even la the Hoogly near the bend at 
C^aadpat-ghat,the pointed curling wave may be 
aeea several feet high, tnthe Irawsdl and 
Hekoog basins, there are remnants of tribes 
strongly distinguished from the predominant 
races and tending, with the evidence of langusfce, 
to show that the ethnie history of Ultra-India 
is rery aneieiit and hai audergqne zepeated 

Professor Oldham telle as that in the mifldte 
of the Irawadi, abput thirty isiles »hovt the 
town of Taeiigao and opposite the small vil^ge 
of Tbikar<laD, on aueanng the islaad, llie head 
msn in the boat called out tetrtet t tet<4et ! 
Skying he was calling the fish. OA coming 
down to the boat again, Mr. Oldluim 
surrounded on both sides with aboat fifty 
large fish, some three or four feet long ; a Icind 
of blunt-nowd broad-mouthed dog fish: In 
oae group which he studied more (han others 
there were ten. These were at one side of the 
boat, nearly half their bodies protruded verti- 
cally from the water, their mouths all gaping 
wide, 'the boatmen were feeding them . with 
soma of the rice prepared for their own dinners, 
by tkiowuqr little peseta down the throats of 
tha fiih. Each fish, as It got something to 
cat. annk, and haviug awalloved the pprtioa 
enae bad; to tba boat side for mona. The 
Bea continued oooasionatly their ory of -tet-tet- 
tet I and patting their hands over the gun- 
wale of the boat, stroked dowo the fish on the 
heck precitely.aa they woald stroke a dog. 
TUa was kept ap for nesrly half. an hour 
Boving the boat slightly about^- aod invariably 
the fish oame at «ill and weri fcd as bslore. 
Tha oaly efaot which the stroking down or 
pattiag OB the back scfined to have, w«s to 
asm them to gape still wider fov their food. 
The Ish an foaad io the de^ pool fnahd' at 
lh»bMk «ftlie iahuul^kv tha m ouMnta 

meeting lound lu sides, and the phooagyi are 
in the habit of fettling Uiem daily. It is regard- 
ed by the Kurmansas qoita a siKht, which the 
people oorae from great (listanees to see, as well 
as to visit the pagoda, which is very eaclent 
and much venerated. Daring an annual Mwch 
festival, it Is aot unusual for thd visitors to 
Uhe th» fish intfi their boata, And gild their 
baekswilh gold leaf, as they do in ttte ordinary 
way to pagodas, and Mr. Oldham observed 
remains of tha gilding visibls on one of the 
fish. He wished to lake one of the fish away, 
bat minieed as the people seeai to regard the 
act as ss^ik^ 

The hr^hts of the monntaiBS, nnrth of 
the Irawadi from the valley of Aksam, probably 
between 5,880 and 6,000 feet- 

The valley of Hukum t's elated fo be 1,000 
feel aboTe the level of the sea. The central 
branch of the Irawadi, at Manchi 10 27^20' 
north latitude, where it was visited by Wilcox, 
has an elevation of 1,800 feet and runa over a 
Debbly bed. Its elevation at Bhamo, in lat. 
24^ is estimated by the same authority to bo 
about 500 feeU The valley of Manipur ia 
drained by the most westerly tribulary of 
the Irawadi and it is separated from Cacfaai 
by a mountain ringe, which is 6,000 or 
8,000 feet hi^ih, ami is pine cUd towards 
the summit. The valley of Hultiim or Hook- 
hoom, was visited by Griffith ; it is more 
open, but is surrounded on the north and ^st 
by mountains elevated ^,000 and 6,0(tG feel, 
and is traversed by numerous ranges of low 
hills. Griffith's own aeeounts o( ijie Iiawqdy 
above Bhamo i3,that it keeps up its miigntficent 
characur, as far as he went to the mouth of pie 
MogouDg river, where it is 900. to 1,000 yards 
across, and he descKbea -the appeanmce of ita 
vast sheet of water i\s seally gr«ud. 

At the beginning of the fint defile, about 
five miles above Bhamo, the river is about 
1,000 yards across and itaooitrse iaidefinqd by 
low wooded hills whioh sun cloae to its banks. 
About two miles farther on, thoehann^l'Dsnrows 
to 500 yards and the hilla become evflff- closer 
and haag mora abruptly ovar the stream than 
before, and, about another vile h^ood, a higher 
ran^ of bills ftom. tha south.west comes i^ 
behiod the former one, and both tenuuiate on 
the bank. aa two fcaad Unds. In- the delta' 
of the Irawadi there is a maritime vege- 
tation of mangroves, Sonneratia, Heritiera, 
BxctjBCaria, and other saline plaots, just as 
in simiUr ^altmardies riong ihe eoBst< of tha 
tropics. — SehloffmUmeii, Qmeral B^pwmtirf 
of India, Vol II. p, 101 ; Br. Oldham i» 
Yule't Efuhc*^. Staker and I^omion*4 fhrm 
Indian. See India '; Kakbyea Lawa ; Sisn } 

IBU£NB WABSZr.' ^UiPfiSgkm 



IBDHI, amongst tbe baddbiaU of Ceylon 
a sUte embraning ten Bitperaatnral powers. 
'•^Uariy** Etutem Monachitm, p. 437. 

IR.ELLI-PALAI Tau. Mitonis seholarift. 

IBEOS. Iv. Orris root. 

IBES» tribes from Ireland. 

IBGULI, felM Bar-goli, Tah. Tbe nme of 
a Ceylon tree, vhieb is about fonrteeo iuehes 
in (liamater, and eight feet in heigbt* It h not 
a useful woori.— JBflTjftfwiAe TimSer oj'Vegltm. 

IBIACE^ the Iridaoeee of Lindley, the 
iris tribe of planta are spread tbroughout tbe 
world, and iuoludo 45 genera and many hub- 
dred species. They are herbs or rerj seldom 
uodershrubs, and are more moarkable for 
their besntirul fugitive flowers than for their 
utility. This order of plants however emtaioa the 
saffron (Cr&cw taiitiM) and the irU, more than 
one spedea of which affords the orris root of 
eommeroe. Their properties are of trivial 
imp<»rtance in a medicinal point of view.— 
&Shaitiffhie$iyt pa^t 654. Voigt. See Ixta 
Cbinensis ; 1 Capeneis ; Ti^riiUa concbiflora. 

IBIARTEA. A genus of palma peculiar to 
the forests of South America, might be intro- 
duced into IndiA with advantage. I ExorrhiEa, 
^ari. is the FatUuha or Patciuba of Braait^ 
produces a fruit used aa fl>uit. Tbe Irtartea se- 
tigera, Mart, is fabricated into blow pipes. The 
/. Antieola, Sp, is the Wax palm of the Andes 
and Brazil. Its former name «u Ceroxylon. 
—See Palma. 

IBCDA. See SinKbilese. 

IRI BABOOL. liAHftq Tachella tameftiana, 

ISIEI. Tat. Cordiamyxa.— /'tnn. 
'IRIKU NAB. Maual. Tah. Pibre of 
Calotropis giganlia. 

IBIMA-PASEL. MaLKal. Momordica 
dioeca— Bosi. »'UUL 

IRIUU8U. SiNOH. Hemidesmus Indicus. — 
Bkeede. B. Browm. 

IKIN. FoBHTD. Qnneiu ineana. 

IRINDI. HXKI>> Bidnna eommini{v.-^£inK. 

IHlPA.MAL«AL.Oynonwtoiraniiflora. — £iMir. 

IRI8A. HxRD. Maniasua Usetu Iris 

XRIS DB VLOBBNGE. Vr. Orris root. 


Casol-as-soMn An. 

„ asmanSooni „ 
SboUof Baaa. 
PfamntiM Ui»....Kni. 
fiosan Hm. 

Traa, Ini Hi5i>. of 

BBkb44sBan .^...PntB. 
BeUubaaabhs... „ 
Chilaoli of Sntlcj. 

A native of Italy and Asia Ifinor^ and tta 
nots are the orria root of Euxopean shops. 
This arUde oontaina volatile aerid resin, astrm- 
gent matter, gum, extractive, starch, and woody 
fibre ; in full doses it is emetic and piu-gative. 
Peas turned from the wood are used in issues to 
anpport auppnration. Reduced to powder it ia a 
fit?orite iofpatat in halt and tootb powder. 

Excdlent orris root finds its way to India ani 
is procurable in the baaiiars under the name of 
Beg-banafUia or violet root- Bi^le under this 
head very ooiifidently refera the pateftidt of ooo- 
aerea to thia artide. A apcwba of Iiia ia eal- 
tivated in India. Ita roots aia need ia the aame 
manner aa those ot the Plonatine kind. 
A broadiali leaved species occurs at various 
places ihrougbout the Punjab Uinalaya from 
S,600 to 9,600 feet. Mr. Powell says th« 
Iri^ Vlorentiua, ia entirdy distinct from the 
Kashmir variety, wfatefa luxuriates over every 
grave and blooms on many a house top in the 
far famed valley, a ouatom resembling that of 
tbe anoient Greeks who venernted tbe Iris as the 
messenger between Ood and m&n.—Pomltg 
Band-booh Vol. t. pp. 8Sfl,851. WiHtar'* 
Svrma, p, |5. Mr. Oldham m Fti/^a 
Emhauy^ (fSAanff^tteang, page 654. Dr> J» 
Stewari. Panj'ai PlanU, p. S40. 


IKI3 XIPHIOIDES There are fibrona 
rooted and tuberous rooted kinds of iris and nu- 
merous hybrid species ; the tuberous rooted are 
said to be the most difiioult to coltivate though 
most of the species thrive well in fndia, thej 
require merely a good rieh »w!l*—Biddelt. 

IRJAL. See Kabul. 


variegata. — Xinn. 
IRKUTSK. See Peking, •« 
IBMBI/. SiKSH. Boa wood. 
IRMIHAKULIiE. Tah. HaH*a«ar. 

IRMPANNA. Can. Caryota nrens. 

TRO^. West of Armenia, on the borders of 
the Caspian Sea, we find the ancient name of 
Albania. Tbe Armenians call the Albaniana 
Aghovan, and aa gb in Armenian stands for 
or I, it has been conjectured by Boie, that ia 
Agliovan also the name of Aris is contained. 
This seems doubtful. But in the valleys of tbe 
Caucasus we meet with an Arian race speaking 
an Arian language, the Os of Ossethi, and they 
call tbemsdves Iron. —Mv[t^tLec^re»;p. 230. 
See Klburz ; Hindoo ; Imn ; Sanskrit. 

Iron.« iSiiQ, 

Hedued.M An. 

Than... Bctuc, 



Fer , 

Ei»«n .„ 
Sideroi ... 

Dijr. Sw. 
... Dot. 

. Fa. 

... Gitn. 
.. Qb. 

Mors ot fche alcbeDiyst^ 

B*8i Hajlay. 

Ahan PcHB. 

Zahso M.... PQth 

Aos-panali... ... Fubht, 

BeiMBto,„.,.„. .M Bxst, 

Ayu Sams. 


Hierro. Sr. 

Irmtm Tak. 

brama >. Tn. 

Ars Oormo. 

Lohs....,,... tius. HdfD. 

Fern... ,m It, 

Ferram ,. ;., ^ Lat. 

Lno is fonnd native, when it ia snpposed to 
be geoerally of meteoric ontaa ; cxtensivdy ia 
combtaation with oxygen or sulphur, aa a aalt 
of varioas adds, as carbonate^ aulphate, fco. 
mixed with eartto or other metals. It alao 
exist*iavf8atablas^«n4'^A^tfa^|iloodof ani? 



mal«. The iron of eomnMm is exiiaetcd 
boa iron om. Smm of tko oxides, m miiK- 
■otie uid tpecniar inn ««, are beatod only 
viLh obuocHiI, as id Svedes, Elba, and India, 
wbeo the eariran oombinii^ with the oxjgan 
■tke iroD ia aet free, and jnelted. The oarbon- 
de, iroa [^ritea, cLiy iron or^ red and brown 
kteiMUies, and apathoae iron, am firat routed, 
and then ezpoaed to a fierce beat in oontaot 
with charooal, coke, or SBiall coal, and a flnx, 
eiiber lime or clay, aceordinic aa the ore ia 
argfllMBous or ealeareooa. These earthy mat- 
ten beoooM fitfified, and form a slag at the 
amhte, while Ihe heavy partidea of iron, foiling 
dowB, ran out by a at the bottom into 
mmldBy and tvm pv, or caat inn. Thia ia 
atill impure, from the preaenee of diareoal, 
aulphur, and portkma aOioon and alumiuum. 
It ia again twice fuied in the fining and 
padUng fumacea, and expoaed to the iiifiuenee 
of a current of air, at a high teaperalore, wheo 
Ihe wbtrfe of the charcoal and aalphur an burnt 
out, and the other imparitiea fwm a alag at the 
aarfaoe. The metal ia taken out, beaten or 
pffvaaed, and then drawn into bare, which form 
the mdlaaUe or wrongbt iron of commeroe. 

Inm oree aboond in almoat erery dia- 
irict of India, and the pnmiliog ore ia the 
oaydnlooa iron, often magnetio, and with 
taritj, but speeolar iron we, hwatite* elay iron 
atooa and aulpharefc of iron, ^ao oeenr abund- 
antty. Ia tiie HBlijaft PcninaiUa ala»» the 
oica of iron oeeor in great varietief. 

FroBB a paatage in Kalidasa'a drama of the 
HeroaBdtb«M^mi>h,(p. 316) it ia clear that 
the art of weldmg iron waa known to the Mudy 

Too tell a» gentle Vymph, yonr fair friend innea 
WUh amorooB passion. But you do not we 
The ■rdour that oouaamea this beaii for her. 
ABke our glowing flame. Tbeo quickly aid 
Oar oBwo to eemant, aa doae oomUnoa 
Iron with iron, when eadi flaiy bar 
WiUi Miaal ndian«e g^ws. 

A oonaiderable quantity ia produced in the 
Salem diatrii^ and two Tarietiea are obtained, 
oaa nmarkaUa foriia aoftnaaaand malleability, 
the other for ita ated-lika hardoeaa, which 
adapta it far the fbrmatilon of edge-toola, oold 
ehiaeia, &o. The foUowiog namea are given to 
thia metal in proeeaa of adaptation to ita finish- 
ed maDufaetura. Gulliea or blooma of iron. 
Palme or bare of iroa* Tuttoraa or piecea of 
caat atoel aa it eomea from the dny crudUea. 
OaUiaa or bara drawn out from the elay cruei- 
hke. Inm beada which ooie out from the 
blooma in the blast furnace. Bkxnn iron from 
fhlghaait U readily malteabk and fnraiahes a 
had ated-like iron. The native* state (hat it 
ii a i n ia Hiy to aolg'eet the Uoob to a aeoond 
MoBaadflMah haanniag bofora thtw can 
it to tlw alata of the aoft mniabk inm, 
A diMi it witku aa ttttoie of anaMne. 

Thia Btaiement aeems lo •eonemmd «i(h 
what one might eipect from the difference d 
appearauoe of two samples • the one of 
ghaut, bein<r highly metalhc aa shown by ita 
bright metallio lustre, while the blaok ehorrf 
look of the other aeems to indicate such an ex« 
eeaa of oxide, as to unfit it for the hammer. 

At the Madras Exhibition of 1857, one of 
the rieheat departments of the Sxhtbitien waa 
the eollections of the ores of iron and 
steel from Cuddapah, Hyderabad, Afilliurf, 
Coimbatore and Bangalore. - The pfindpal 
ores of the Cuddapab diatrieft are- mi, 
bwwn, and porple in colour, which yidd iiHi 
of excellent quality and very malleable. Soma 
of the magnetio froa orea of the aamo diataM 
an partionlarly rich in iroB. aDd a fow of than 
oontaia traoea of BHioganew> ■ Of thoaa fraat 
Chemoor and Poolevendalah, the latter is mag* 
netic although earthy and dull red in ths frac- 
ture and bright red in the atiayc. The steel 
gray and granular iron orea of Ohitwail, 
Camakpoor, and Goommeondah an all rieh In 
the metal and rooi'e or less magaetio- The 
yellow oohro and ruity ores of the Mnddenpnlly 
talook are said to yield good maBeaMo inm. 
The steel gray iron srad of Comarole and 
Yand&pnlly in the Doopaud Tdaok an higUy 
magnetio and oentain a Uttla naaganeae* 
The mieaceona iron wa and iron glUMa of 
the Doopaud tdook* an also rich m tho natal. 

The moet pnvalent inn one of the Hydau" 
bad territoriea acns to be thorasty bnws, 
red and yellow odues ; the iron or steel sanda 
wiih mangaoese, and the specular or glanee 
ores : nbpe of Use latter howetrer are magnetic. 
The btaok, brown, and red ceUolar iron ons* 
are abaodant and a great deal of attention a|>* 
purs to have been bestowed on the mioerata of 
this district and on the iron ores in particuhur. 

The BeUary Diatijot yields a Tanefey of iron 
ores, aome of which an very rich in the metal 
and several of (hem aseooiate with manganeae. 
The prevailing orea of iron, of this district ara 
the black and gny ores alternating with aand- 
stone^ liver oolned «ea (which haa been rraeat" 
ediy seat to Ifadna as eof^r on) and red jaa- 
pery day inn stones. They an also aaaociat- 
ed in tbe sane diatriet and in the vhuutty of 
Kurnoot aud QoQty v^ith magaesian .limestone* 
grits, conglomerates, oluminoaii shakh fin slaj 
and bhick dolomite. 

The inn oree of Coimbatore an verr fine 
quality, particularly rieh in the metal and 
highly magnetic 

Uagaetio iron glance of fine qoality ocean 
in Coimbaton, Salem, Caddapah and Vellon. 
M^netie hematitea in Cudd^iah. 
Magnetic Iron sand also in Cuddapah ; nom 
of the iron aands of othw distxiota nagnetie. 

89 I 



uagneltcAiul magnetic hon ores oeear hi Bel- 
luy, MasulEpatam, Bangalore, Ujaon, or other 
districU. MnnganeBe was detected in the iroii 
ores of Hyderabad. Kurnool, Bellary, the 
Bababooden Hills, lijsore and Tizianagrum. 

Meteoric iion ww exhibited firom Mysore 
and Pondicherry. 

MieaceooB iron ores of good quality occur in 
Cnddapah and VizianagTum. Brown hamatite 
andreddla ftt the Bed Hills, in Betlory and 
Hyderabad. Coounon iron pyritea or sooroa- 
mooky atone occurs in magnesian lime- 
atone from Kurnool, Cnddapah and Goaty. 
Bftdiated pyritea ocoun in large piecea in blmk 
marble from Nunduil and near Onddapeh, ud 
might be used for the manufaoture of aulphar, 
■idphoric add. Iron pyritea in small quantities 
in alamiooiu ahale near Bangalore; Dr. 
Hvrne described the oaannfaeture of iron 
in the CamaUo to the Muth of the Fennar 
rirer, which, when tnt smdted, is extrtuaely 
brittle, Tcqniring several operations to bring tt 
into a malteabte atate. Thdre are two varieties 
of ore used in the distriot in which he observed 
the proeesses. The one, an iron aind, col- 
lected in the beds of rivers, consists of the 
protoxide, mixed with much of the peroxide ; 
the other, a red schist, is almost entirely com- 
poeed of red oxide, bat in the oentre of the 
nasi it affeeta the magnet. 

Iron, which hos been ascertained to be 
superior, for many purposes, to the best 
German iron, is made on the western eoast of 
India. Ores, powerfully affecting the magnet, 
exist in great quantity at Taygoor, a village 
of the Koncan. The magnetic iron ore, employ- 
ed for ages in the mauufvcture of the Damask 
steel used by the PerBisns for sword blades, is 
obUined fh>m schist near Kona-Samndram 
around Deemdoortee when the ore is extensive* 
ly distributed. The minute grain* or scales 
of iron a» diffused in ■ aaudstMie-iooking 
gneiss or mieaoeoua schist, passing by insensi- 
ble degrees into hornblende slate, and some- 
times eontattting amorphous masaes of quartz. 
The strata are muoh mkon up and elevated, 
b6 that thci dip and direction are in no two 
places the same; and bear no relation to the 
mountains in the north. The iron has the 
nmarkable property of being obtained at once 
in. a perfetctty tough and malleable atate, re- 
quiring none of the complicated processes to 
which English Iron must be subjected, previ- 
ous to its being brought into that state. 
Mr. Wilkinson found it to be extremely 
good and tough, and considered it superior 
to any Engliih iron, and even to the best 
descnptiona of Swedish. The Persian mer- 
chants, who frequent the iron furnaces of 
Koufl-Sfmudrem, are aware of the snperi- 
ority of this iron, and informed Dr. A^oysey 

that in Persia thn had in vain endeavoured to 
imitate the eteel formed from it. 

The plan adopted for the prodoelion of 
{ndian caet-steel at the Beypore works, by thts 
Bessemer proeess, was similar to that pnrsned ra 
Sweden, but differed essentially from the Shef- 
field method. At Shelfirid and elsewhere 
Great Britain, where the procesa ia in operation, 
pig'iran is melted in a reverbentoiy fnmaoe, 
and run thenoe into the converter or Bessemer 
vessel, which is mounted on axles. But in 
Sweden, and at the Beypore works in Madrwr, 
the crude metal was run direct from the bbat* 
furnace into an ordinary founder's ladle, nrhidi 
ia raised to a sufficient height by roeana of a 
travelling crane, and then poured into the 
converter, which ia a fixed veesd, lined with a 
mixture native fire-clay and sand, and 
pulverized English firebrick. Steam was raised 
to about 50 lbs. in the boilers, giving a pres- 
sure of blast of about 61- or 71bs. per square 
inch, and the air vaa driven into the converter 
through 1 L tuyeres of ^ inch diameter, plaoed 
horizontally at the bottom of the vessel. No 
manganese or other metal waa added to ten- 
per the steel, the quality of the metal required 
being regulated by the pressure of blast and th« 
time of blowing. As soon as the metal waa 
euffioently decarbonised, the vessel was tapped, 
and the fluid ateet run into a ladle imvidod 
wiUL an outlet in the bottom. This ladle il 
swung round over the oasfe>iron ingot moulda, 
the fire clay-plug withdrawn, and the ated 
allowed to flow in a clear stream into the 
moulds beneath. These ingots are then cogged 
down under a Naamylh hammer, and drawn 
into finished steel bars of various aizea. 

The iron ore of the Salem districts of tlw 
Madras Presidency is a rich maj^netio oxide of 
iron, very heavy and massive. It is commonly 
known as loadstone. The yield areragea 00 
per cent, of metallic iron. Much of the ore 
being a pure black magnetic oxide, would 
doubtless yield 73 per oeat. The ore is, how- 
ever, often mixed with quarU, which U n voy 
nfraotory materiid in the Matt fnmaee. Idme- 
itone, and in aome i^aeea ahell lime ia em- 
ployed as a flux, and the eharooal of- some Idnd 
of Acacia is the fneL 

The woods used in Southern India fbr mak- 
ing rharooal for the iron works at Beyptne, 
are the vella-marda, karra-roarda, Indian- 
gooseberry, Poohum ; Nnx-vomica and eaaoia. 

1'he qualities of iron vary according as it ia 
smelted at a low or high temperatme. Low 
smelted iron is malleid^ 

The varieties of OvaliM iron an known m 
guloriand "kheri." 

The apura <d the outer HimaUyaa oonirfB 
fenuginona deposita in abnndanee, and minea 
are worked along the fiida JuufaMh on the 
north andaoQtKiy^l^^^B^ to the Bkt^ 




it 8kU and Kot-khu, Kot-lcangra, Saket, 
Ckamb*, and Handi. Under the Sikh rale, 
tkia in» was extenslTelj used for guB beirela. 

Inw BKiata at Ranigoriun in the Waziri 
Ulb ; it is fbond alao aa a bsnutite in eevctat 
parte of tbeSalt mge and in tbeChiehalli 
nagey ob the other aide of the river. The 
entkvy oS Kisamabad and Oiqrat is, however, 
CTgJnai^riy nunnfaetnred with inipoited ateel. 

iron em of the Punjab are pnwvced along 
ita DoTth-eaatern mouutain frontier ai well bb 
in iba kver hilla of the Sulainani and Wasiri 
nngee» and tboae to the aovth-eaat of the 
Bannoo distri^ and to tone extent in the Salt 
BangQ on the other side of the prorince in 
the bilfy portions of Gurgaon diatrict. In 
the hilla in (fae Ddbi district^ ia a femgi- 
Booa roek, and the Kahmli hill, whidi yields 
inn ore, ia (uw tiiat granp of ontiien that 
fonu s eoatinudoa aa it were of the AraTalli 

Along the Hinulayan frontier, the prineipnl 
^wea ^ prodnction are the Hill States of the 
auDln distriet, Jubal, Dhami, Bishahr, and Bam- 
par. Agntf at Snket and Handi, iron is lurgely 
(tfodne^, and the mines at Kot Khai, Fatehpnr, 
and Bhir fongal of Kangra are famoni. Of the 
ofeeofAeChamba hilla and in the divisions np 
to tte Uazam diairiet indaded in the Kaahmir 
tBrrriteriea, the beat iron ia found at Kqraai in 
#amiiin, while the iron found at Bonf and 
£ntyar in Eaahmir proper is not so good< 

Id the hills dne nonh of Peshawnr, is the 
aouioe of the Bajaor iron which is of fine 
quality^ and ia used in the mannfatAnre of the 
gu barrels of Kohat and Jammu ; and 
little alao, it may be presamed^ in the forma- 
tin of ateel for the blades of Bokhara and 
Pedhawor. In Kamaon, iron ores are abund- 
mt and are largely smelted. A company 
waa fotmed with a eapital of Bs. 4,65,000 and 
teaaoes woe erected at Kalidoongee. Diehow* 
ne, Koorpata), and Bamghnr and ooinpetent 
■aAoritiea proDounced the irea manofootvred to 
bo of naaseptknuble qnality eqnal to any ehar- 
•oal coU bhi at manunctuTM in Eiirope."— 
Balfim^t Xfperi om ike Iron Ores, Jrm end. 
attaoftheMattnu Pretiderwy: Ttof-MaX'Mnl- 
ler^t Leetwre*, p. ttS. Maenltoc^s Commereiai 
DieHoMry, PotoeR** Band'hook/or ike Fm- 
Jab. MadnuEx, Jar, BeporU- Cat. Ex. 1862. 
Carta'* Qeologietd Papert on Western India, 
«. 11, 13. Vojfsey. 

IRON-BARK TRRBS, a eommeroial name 
tfifM ia AnstralU to several species of 
Bualyptfu. E. Sideronlon, ia a vrioable 
timbo- tree of Anstndia, posaeiaing great 
iln^tb and hardness, and mnch priced for 
ib dandnl^ by carpoiters, Aip-bmldera, for 
lop ridea, tne atHsj the ndder stock and be- 
Hying piaa; hf wagon builder^ for wheels 
pdea fcv. iBd by tvnKrs for roi^h woik ; it iet 

mnch recommended for railway sleeperi and ia 
extensively used in anderground mining work. 
I( somewhat resembles the Red gum tree, but 
it is more difficult to get large tmnka of it 
sound in the heart. 

IBON, Carbonate of. 

Carbooaie ot Iron Eaa. I Eohlenaaureaasen 

Fflrri Csrbonas Lat. I oiyd ».QaB;r' 

Cubonate de fer... Fb. I _ 

TBON Bed Oxide. 

Fmi aesqniozidumL&T. 
Vmti penaidnafcH. 
Fftiii oxy^nm mbmm 

SeBquIoxide of iron.£NQ. 


Sadid qI hadld... Arab. 
Than Efcya^. ». Bobm. 
Talbaai.......... UOM. 

IROK, Sulphate of 

Bala-dokta Bbko. 

Hara-tots DuK. 

Qreflii 'Vitriol, Oreen 
Ooppeitaa, SnMiata 
ol IroB, vitriMated 
iron ... ... Ehq. 

Sulfate dfl fer Fb. 

Sehwefelsaurea elaen „ 

Oxydnl Gbb. 

Biaen TitTiol«*«... » 

Peroxide of iron,.. Era. 

Cf oMH Btartii Lat, 

Colootliar Ehs. » 

Peroxide do Isr FB. 
Both eisen oxyd.,, OxB. 

KaimtaalMMt, ..MkrAt, 
IrantbaT^itt ...Tam. 
Tupho, „ 

... EbHD. 

Hera kasls...' 

Hera tatia 

BoUalo di f mto 
VaiTi aolphaa, 
Sal maitu.i* 


Znnktir madai 
Tntiyaants ... 
Uana, Anna bejdi, Xaic 

. ». It. 
... Lar. 

.. Pbbk. 

Sulphate of iron ia the sulphate of the' 
protoxide of iron and occurs in the form of 
green crystals, soluble in water. The salt 
is found abundantly by natural oxidation 
of the aulphuret of iron, a mineral especially 
common in eoal districts. The sniphnret, 
absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere, ia 
converted into the sulphate of the protoxide 
of iron ; this is apt to be changed into the 
red colored aolplute of the sesqnioxide. 
The sulphate, being soluble, is foond in some 
mineral waters. It is also made artificially on 
a large scale for use ill the arts by exposing 
moistened pyrites to the air. It oocursin 
(he Indian bazara in large maaaea of green 
crystals, and in a state of eonsideiable purity. 
For medical use the greenest and most trans- 
parent crystals should be aetected. It was 
known to the andents, is mentioned in the 
Amera Coeia of the Hindoos, and it is used by 
them, as by the Romans in the time of Pliny, 
in making ink. The natives of India have 
long known the use of acetate of iron, they 
prepare by maceraUog iron in sour palm-witae, 
or in water iu which rice has been boiled. — 
RmU Materia Mtdiea. O^SheMghnmif, Baig. 
Phar. page 820. BoyU E^doo jr(nKowe,jp. 44. 

IRB, Hind. Chenopodium album. 

IRRI. HiUD. of Fasgi, Chota Lthoui ke., 





Pyft <tf AniB. liOgDO ferro It. 

Fieng » lisnsm lemum... Lat. 

TKrbdinfe.ftM X>DT. Siaeroxylon. „ 

BoIb de for Fb. Kaw,..,.. . „ ... Sibob. 

Eisenholz Qbb. Pmlohierro Sf. 

Iron wood is a commercial term, applied to 
A ^nat variety of vroodB^ in oonsequenoe of 
tliar hardii^u, and almost every country has 
afrinm-wood of its own. Tbe product of an 
erergnen tree. Sidtroxjflont rentrhtble for tiie 
hardiii»0'aad- weight of its Uaabar, which sioki 
ID wftter, TeeeiTei this name : it is of ■ nddi^ 
and oorrodea like iron. This tree grom 
ehieflf In the West India ielaoda, and ia like- 
wise Tery oommon in South America. Jiava 
ferrea, a tree rurniahing one nf the iron woods, 
ajid which) has raoeived its speoiSc name 
from the hardness of its wood, ii a natire of 
Ceylon and ol -tha peniiiaulss of India, of 
Northern India, Malacca and of the islands* 
and perhaps M. pedunculsta, likewise, fur- 
nishes part of the timber knowb under this 
^ame, but, in Ceylon» the Maba buxifolia 
and Mimuaops indica also furnish the iron 
woods of that island. Ihe timber of the Me- 
tnsideiM vera of Chinsi is called trite iron 
wood : iht Chinese are said to main their nid 
dere and anehen ti it, and, anong the Japanese, 
itissoseereeaad vri«able,-thatit, onoe,wa8 only 
allowed to be inanufaetund for tbe service of 
theic king. The iron-wood of southern China, 
hoireyor, is Baryxylum tufum ; of the island of 
Bourbon^ Stadmannia sidaroxylon, and of tbe 
Cupe of Oood Hope, Sideroxylon milono- 
phloBum, which latter is very hard, close grained, 
and sinks in water. Tbe Ceylonese have also an 
iroa wood tree known under the name of "Kaw." 
of the western provinces of Ceylon, perhaps the 
M.fenea. It is described as used for bridges 
ftnd buildings. That of the Oanara forests is 
from two apecMS of Uemeojilon,' and, on. the 
Ooromaodcd eoast, the term ia oeeaaionally ap- 
plied to the woodof the Gaanarina equisitifoUa : 
in Tenasserioii the term is applied to the woods 
of Ii^a zybcarpa and I. b^^mina ; and to that 
of a spoeies of Dtoapyros. The iron wood of 
Aostrsiia is from a species of Eucalyptus, £ 
aideroxylon, and that of Norfolk island from 
the Notoleea longifoUa^ Tbe iron-wood of 
Gniaua is from the Kobinia paoacoca (of Aub 
Ut), that of Jamaica is the Tagaro pterota, and 
Erythroxylon seisolatum which ia also called 
rMrWood. .^Sgiphilm Uartimcensis and Coca- 
loba latifoUa, are other West Indian trees, to 
^ timbers of which the name of iion-woo* 
iiAa been appU«d, and Ostrya virgimci^ called 
American hop hornbeun, has wood ezeeed- 
iaf^ hard and heavy, whenee i< is ^oendly 
- ^aUad inmpwood ii|' Amerios, asd m wane 
pUoes lever-wood. Under the name Iroa 
wood, two fpeoi«i9iu wen sent by the Cateutf a 


Committee to tbe Exhifakion of 1863; Ow of 
them Fya, fem., a fcree of Akyab, grows to a 
moderate sise, and ia plentifnl in the Sindoway 
asd Aamree distriats. The other Iron wood, 
Fieng, Fem., also, a tree of Ali^ab, grows to a 
large siie, and ia very plentifnl lo Arrakan, its 
wood is very hard, aud used for post^ 
The Iron wood of the South Sea IsWiuIb is 
the timber of the Gasuarfna eqaisitifolia. 
The iron wood of New Zealand is the Vitex 
littorsUs, The Aki, w lignum Yita«f New 
Zealand, the Bate and ihe Pohuiu Eawa of the 
same eeuntry, an all hard-wooded trees be- 
longing to the ganna Hetrosideros*' (Lm^ey) 
and BBferd othw ^eoies of Uebosidena 
have been descrlbedr a>tlves of AnstraUa and 
the South Sea Ishmds as famishing iron-woods 
of commerce. The Metrosideros buxifolia of 
Allan Cunningham is the New Zealand plant 
called Aki, and Is a rambling shrub, adhering; 
to trees, and climbing by means of its lateral 
roots to the summits of the luftiest trees in the 
forests of Wangaroa and Uie Bay of Islsada.— 
Dont DichlamydmtiB PlaiUs, Limdtey VegekAl^ 
Kingdom ; BunuU, Ouilina of BoUny. — 
quoted in Ei^,Cye.SoUsappfaLSfr. FaulJaier^ 
Ur.MeGilUvrc^, Dr^Betrnttt. Ur. Mmdit. 
Ittuon, Oat. CaL S». 186S. JTookI^ocA. 
OoUmel D. HamUion^ 

I&R1GATION.— Goaeroas aa the ladian 
soil asually is, and favourable aa are the sea- 
sons. In the plains and vsJIeys rain is frequent., 
ly absent for many weeks, and without some 
arliiicial means of supplying the soil with niois> 
ture, no crops ooold at those periods be taken 
off tbe ground. Great public works of irriga- 
tion have been made in India; but, what is 
there accomplished on a very Urge scale by 
the India govnrnmeDtSi is, throoghont many 
parts of the conutry, performed by the villagers 
themselves. For miles* the hindoo cultivator 
will earn his tiny stream of water along the 
brow of mountains, round steep dedivities, 
and across yawning gulfs or deep valleys, hia 
primitive aqnedocts being formed of stoneaand 
clsy, tbe scooped out trunks of palm brees 4nd 
hoUow bamboos. Sometimes, in order to bring 
the supply of water to the oeeessaiy height, 
the picottah or the bucket-wheel is employed, 
worked by ma, by ozn, by buffaloes or fay 

In Hindustan, the Ghmges Canal has beea ' 
coostmeted, a branoh of it leading to Oarvpo^ ■ 
has been remodelled, and two branehca ladtoft 
to BtamhandFuttebghar have been re-arranged 
for nangatiout Wiwn that to Btawnh be 
ooaplet^ tiut ehief towBS of tb« Doab will b« 
placed in oounnoieatioB with ikb JqiMa «t 
Dehli. A new canal Us been pi«j«eU4 
from the Jam«a below Detfai at « «0«t of 
£500,000 to Wite iU^UaUra iDd Agm 

distrietl. Digitized by Google 



A canal hat been planned bom UeBanigtiDga 
to innate and dndn the Boiulnwd TeAi or 
Bmwi^ and the dianoeU o( Bohileoad will form 
»Mtwork wiihtbaasmOndh, Gtmkpoor and 
Tirirat an Mtfc of tha Gangaa. The Oudh 
canal fiom Sardah lias hem loeeeufBl and will 
aid io the fartiliaing of Ondh. 

The can^ system in Hindoostan mil &t in 
with that of the Puiijaub. Id Barmah; it has 
been proposed to embaolc the great riren, and 
tmprore the delta of tbelrawadi. 

From the npper parta of the Cauvery rirer, 
channels have b^a coadnoted thropgh the 
Trichiuopoly and Taqjore dittricts, and tbe 
portions within the reach of the waters are 
cultivated like gardeoa. The great Coleroon 
channel. quite like a great river and about a mile 
broad, is led off from the (^uvery, aids to 
form the holy island of. Srirangam and is ex- 
hausted in irrigating the lands to the east. 

A dam bu been emirtnietod on the Ooda> 
my river, another , oa the Kistna, another m 
the CKraa rivar in Kkaadesh^ and a linilar 
dam is proposed to be constmrted on the Tapti 
rinr for the irrigaUon of the coUeetonte of 

In Knd there ia the (nreat Bigari oanal, which 
it wa* proposed to enlarge and to counrt the 
ianndation canals of . that province iuto perpe- 
tnaUy ftowing etreams. 

The Baree Poab Canal is to be eitended b^ a 
dam at Hureekae on die Satltj from whnh 
wator will be taken to iirigata the lower distxii^ 
M &r aa Uooltan. 

The Wesfam Jumna Oanal had objeetionible 
avamp% but ia to be improved and enlarged 
towaxda Sirsa. 

The SuU(|j Canal was projected in 1861, 
and sanctioned in 18<I7. It is to take up the 
iirigatuiB where the Jumna ceases to provide 
for it and will irrigate the tract west of the 
Mariutnda, one>third of the water to be aasign- 
ed to the-l'ntiala Stale. About two millions 
rterling was estimated as the amount needed to 
irr^ftle the vast extent of ooontiy between the 
JuKM and the Barce Skih ^ftttam. And 
Aanoela an pnpoaed to be ent from tiu Ohenab 
and tk» Jhfllnm tM the vallej of Peahawar 

0^ B. lodialrrigation Company's opentiona 
in Oriasa failed as a pr^tahle concern. The 
Gaagea, Jumna .and uaree J)aaA> Caaafo show 
that a profit of five per cent haa not yet been 
maded. Moreover, it is Bot advisable that 
capitdiata should, except aa oontraotore, be 
caaployed oa pnblic wudts affeoiing the water 
a«n^ and the haea of aalUoM «f peasantry. 
Dnni^ Uieadministoalians of Bii Ohnrlca Wood 
aod Bni de Ctey* both monegr amd wea weM 
hirlboab in 1S6M9 about half amiUioD 
ling wu ipoBfc on mm iingitiaB wodn. 

In Northern India, IGdnapore can be pro* • 
teiAed from famUe by utilizing the wateri of 
the Selye River at a cost of £93,$00. 

The Damooddi often bnnta its bai^ and 
oaasss denetation. It tobs through a rich 
ooimtry, but even in the Hraghly dutriot, one 
of Uie wesltfaieetjani^ distress was experienoed . 
by the artisaBs and labourers in the famiue 
of i860. A canal, ita head waters at the 
Baneegnnj coal mines, 100 miles to Calcutta has' 
been noonmended at a eost of £300,000. The 
navigatnn will be es important as the irrigation . 
and ooal will be oheapwed in Caloottat The 
Demoodah valley up to 1868, was derastated 
hf a Kwn epidonio fever whidi wasted some- 
of the meat popukws tracts ia Aria and snbaer; 
qnently spread to Bheerbhumk 

A canal has been pn;>jected to be nu' 
from LUguabel to Oakmtta, to eoat a miUiea' 
sterling, as tfaeNaddn district hae been sob-, 
jeet to innadalione and epidemiea. 

Bengal propw is to have a aeries ofehan*' 
nelsfrom the(Ju&dukriver,toprovideixrigsting-. 
waters for Champamn, Sarnn and Tirhout, 
which suffered mni^ in the famine of 1866. 
; Io the Central Provinces two designs harei 
been sketehed for irrigation wixA* frem the> 
Pmch river north of Kagpote, and from the 
Wurdah to tfae souOi-Wat. In lB68.ft9, a 
project was saaetioned extending tiie irr^lion 
from the Fennar river of the peoiiisula of ■ 
ladiaat a cost of jMO^O. In 1867, itwaa 
proposed to enlarge the great Chembrnmlnu* 
kum tank at a ooet £40,00C. In Mysore, 
theie are aaienta or daeu at Nnndoor, SkI 
Ranadwara and Maaeehnlly, and a great reeer^ 
voir is to be established at Mauri &>nwaL 

In the beginning of 1866, Colonel Stiaobey 
recommended an irrigation aoheme for India, 
at a cost of S9 millions sterling. It was Ijord 
Canning's view to employ privato eompaniea 
for irrti(atiou. In Orissa the operation of the 
East ludia Irrigation Company were disoQib- 
rsged, but it made noble efforts. Hie publio 
oompanies for irrigatinK India, will never pay 
a dividend. A committee waa appoanted by 
Lwd Craning to euisider Um viewa as to 
urigation l^d 1^ Cdoul Sir Aittnr 
Cotton, and CoIoim Oroftoa and thc^ 
dmnded, in favour of ICqor CrofUm's views 
against those of Sir A. Cotton. Of the rea- 
sons given for ita deosion one wss their 
objection (o the construction of a weir aososii. 
the Ganges, below the ecmflnea'ceof ^ Solwt, 
at a cost of JB 1,128,681, bet if any member 
of the Committee had actoally oooutnoted 
weirs aorosa aimilar riven, wUh sandy bedf» 
and low allnvial banka, as in. Madras, be 
wodU not have estimated the cobt of tbift 
wdr over the GangM^ to pals a volams 
of water of 80,000,000 fmUeVmelhi 



above 100,000,600 or nearly eigki tines at 
much, oalj cost 90,000£ ; the Canvery weir, to 
puethe same Tolame as iheOangas, 80,000,000 
oubio yardt, obI; coat a5,00Q£ } tba Kutnah 
weir, to pn« 180,000,000 cnbic jnds, only 
J00,080£-. th9 Toomboddn weir, for about 
doablatbavolameoftheOaageB, ooly SO.OOOJB. 
Tba avemga ctUnate for won on aimUar rinra 
ia Madrai it about I00£ per L„000,000 eabic 
wHs of volume per bour t «wa the' eetiinate 
of the Ganges ' Ganal pommittee waa nearly 
4iO,000£ per 1,000,000. Xbosgk a question at 
issue for many years, the great irrigation wotks 
of Uadru han been yielding enormous pro- 
fts} sueh profits that, if they were tavanabley 
n Sir il.€ottota says they ougbt to be. " tbe 
Ooremment might, in popular pbraac^" make 
ila fortane," by construoting sneb worka all 
over India; borrowing at B- per oeat. to inrest 
in vorin ikat yield 60 or 100 per cent. 
As an instanes of tbe late of profit, tha 
Godareiy irarks hava «Mt abow half a million, 
and are now watering about 800,000 acres. 
Tbe expenditwe capital upon th«m hni bem 
lis. an acre, and for this tke people ar« 
jnying a water-rate of 8«. an aore, or 66 per 
cMt. on the cost. 

tbe Ganges Oanal baa been a diaaakrous 
finanoial failure op to tha present time, after 
aa expeaditure. of three milUona upon it ; 
aad the Indian GoTerament, believed that 
Uie (nilare in one case and suceeas ia the 
other is dae to a difference in tite con- 
diiiniB** of irriKuting Uie two localitias, and 
tfaewCore that the profits of inrigation works 
m not invariablfl. Sir A. Cotton asserted 
that there is no difference in tha prineiple of 
damming a river and leading a oanal from it 
in Beiis^ and in BCadras, and be specified a 
long aerie* of engineering mistakes in the con- 
struction of the Ganges Canal which account 
for its failure and would bare mined any 
>Udraa work just aa much ; and but for which 
be maintained that the Ganges Canal would 
have yielded immense profits, like the Madras 
works. In 1865, Colonel Strachey submitted 
a sobeme to cost 30 millions atirltnc, and a 
naervoir was to be formed near Sholaprae in 
tha Decean, at a cost of £90,000^ 

IBU. Bee Singhalese. 
- IKUOUBU CHfiTTU, also Imvadu, 
Tillage. Tbl. BLukwood. Dalbergia latifolia, 

IRULAU. At the foot of tha Neilgberry 
ffionntains, and for a short distance within the 
forests extending from their base into tbe 
plains, live a race of people, commonly known 
by the Dame of Endar. ■ Th^ are divided 
into t*D lAuBss, ons called Urali, the other 
CuntateL ^Pto word Erali means nnen- 
Ughtenad or barbaroos, from tbe Tamil word 
Xratf daibMSi aad ia a term applied to them 

1>y ibeir neigbbonra. From the wild kind of 
life which they lead it is diffieolt to ascertain 
their number, bnt Captain Harkoesa suppos- 
ed it to be less than a thoosand. Vrali signi- 
fies the rulers of the people and Knmtald, 
the common peo^. Captain Uarknesa 
mentions that he met wUh a gionp fd Erularsy 
all bat naked, men, woman, and dtildiao, 
dancing, jumping and amusing UiemKlvas. 
The hair of tke men, as well aa of tbe women 
and children, was bound up in a fantaatio 
manner with wreathes of plaited straw ; their 
necks, ears, wrists, and ancles, decorated with 
ornaments formed of tbe same material, and 
carrying little dried gourds, in which nuts or 
small stones bad been inserted, they rattled 
them as tbey moved, and with the rustling of 
their rural ornaments, gave a sort of rythm to 
tbeir motion. His unexjwcted visit disconcert- 
ed them at first, but this was soon got over, 
and the danoe again resumed, in front of s 
lUtletkatehedabed, which belearaad wm tb^r 
temple. Whn it waa eonelndad, ti»y ami- 
meOoed a saeiifioa to their deity, or ladier 
deities, ofa:be-goat and three aoeks. Tiiia 
was done by catting tbe throats of the nctimay 
and throwing them down at the feet of th« 
idol, the whole assembly at the same time 
prostrating themselves. Within the temple 
there was a winnow or fiiu,< wliiek tlt<7 call 
Mahri,— «ridently the eml^m of Ceres • and 
at a abort distanou^ in front of the former, 
and some paces in advance odo of the other^ 
were two rnde stones which tbey oall, tho 
one Moshani, the other Konadi Man, bat 
whidi are anbordinate to tba Mahri or 
tut, oeeni^ng tha interior of tbe temple. 
No great distance, from thu, be passed 
their places of aepalobre ^ theie being one for 
the Urali and anouer for tbe Knmtali. These 
sepulchres are pits, about thirty or forty feet 
square, and of considerable depth^ over which 
are placed large planks ; above is erected a 
shed covering in tke whole, and protecting it 
from the weathur. In tbe centre of the planks 
is an opening about a cubk square, over 
which are placed other pieoes (rf wood, and on 
these is ridsed a small moaad of earth in tbe 
form of an altar, tke anrlaaa being decorated 
with pebbles, placed there both as memorial 
of the departed, and as objects of fiitiire 
worship. When a casnalty eoours, and aao- 
tbeir buial beeoaea aeeessan, the moand ot 
earth ia removed, and the body thrown in. 
Some ten or twelve days after, a mound of 
fresb earth ia raised, in room of tbe one whidi 
had been removed ; tbe pebblea, which ia tbe 
first tnstanoe bad been earefally put aside, 
are again replaced, and another one added to 
them in uemoxy of the deceased. All this 
is done with much oeremonyr the pebbles 
being anointed irititw^^^]^Brnitte^Mh Uxakm 


nuxDse, and decorated vUh fiowen. Food 
is also distributed to the assemblj, aeoordiog 
to the abilify of the relatives of the deceised 
The Imlari speak a rude Tamil — Captain 
ffartness' ITei/gherfy Bills, pp. 29, 8&, 92, 
93t 1S6. See DraTidian, also Kurambar. 

IBUL MARAU. Tam. Meaua ferrea. 

IBUMB£LI. Tah. Maba busifolia.— Pert. 

mUN. HwD. YoUcameria fzagrana. 

lUUNDL DvKH P Jatropha ourcaa— £uw. 
■lao Bianu a eommauis. — 2am. 

IRXJVUDU. TbIn Dalbergialalitolia— )r. 
4- A. ii'oxfi. 

IRWIN. Lieut. Irwia, accompaDied Moont- 
stuartElphioatODe to Affgfaanistan, the amount 
of multifarious information he oolleoted ia 
altogether surprising. 

mWIN, £yLES.Esi2., an officer of the East 
India Company, author of a Series of adven- 
tures in the coarse of a voyage np the Bed Sea, 
on the coast of Arabia and £i;ypt, in the year 

18. See Hit. 

ISA, also called Tsaoi, the hindu deity, 
preaiding over the north east quarter of the 
lie&TeDa. Bee India. 

ISA o« ISWaRA. a name of Sira as a dea- 
tnryer. See KaK ; Kol ; Siva. 

UlAlX)BB and Gteaias both mention a 
atatne pillar of Seminunta at Baptaoe, but 
theae and the Syriao ioaoiptionea have dis- 

ISAIAH. See Kellelc. 

ijiamaceoidea,— Linn. 

IdAKAKASI MANir. TsL. Sapindus 
nibiginosaa. — Roxb. 

ItSAKX. The r^snt of the north-east, a 
form of Iswara. 

ISANI. Colonel Tod deaeribes a loRy tfaree- 
pedMd laani mountain, on which is a temple 
dedicated to Aya-mata also called laani, the 
tatdary divinity oftheKoli. This and the efRgy 
of the borse are there the only objects of ado- 
ration among this aboriginal race. This was the 
first time he ever saw a personification of 
Mother Esrth, for such is Isani from Isa god- 
dess and Auani earth,tbe universal onrse-mother 
(aya-mata) whether the worship of the horse is 
typical of the sun the swideat of created re- 
preeentating the swiftest of nocreated objects" 
n does not know but in this they resemble the 
other forest tribes, the fihii and the Surya. Bee 

ISANI.— Among the many remarkable 
ftstinls of Bajastlian kept with peculiar 
brilfianc^ at Oodipoor, in that, called Gan- 
gore in honow of Goari, or Isani the 
goddesa of abundanoe^ the Isia of Bgypt, 
tbe Ceres of Gieeee. Like tho Bajpoot 
aatUBdia, (whieh it IbUowi, it bdongf to the 

remal equioox, when nature in tbese regions 

Eroximate to the tropic is in the fall eipanse of 
er charms, and the raatrooly Gouri casts her 
golden mantle over tlie beauties of the verdant 
YassAoti. Then the fruits exhibit their pro- 
mise to the eye ; the koil fills the ear with 
melody; the air is impregnated vrith arom^ 
and the crimson poppy contrasts with the 
spikes of golden grain, to form a wreath 
for the bentficent Gouri. Oovri is one of the 
names of ha ot Parvati, wife of 'the gitatest 
of the Inndn gods, Mahadeva or Iswara, 
who is eonjmn^ witli her in these ritei. 
which almost exclusively appertain to the 
women. The meaning of gonri is 'yellow/ 
embtematie of the ripened harvest, when the 
votaries of the goddeas adore her effigies, which 
are those of a matron painted the colour of ripe 
corn; and though her image is represented 
with only two hands, in one of which she holds 
t)ie lotos, which the Egyptians regarded as 
emblematic of reprnductioa, yet not unfre- 
qnently they equip her with the warlike conch, 
the discus, and the club, to denote that the 
goddess, whose gifts snstain life, is likewise 
aecessar^ to the loes of it : nniting as Gooxi 
and Kali, the characters of life and death, 
like the lais snd Oybeh of the Egyptians. 
But 1ft the Oangore featfral she is only 
seen as Ana-pnrana, the benefactress of 
mankind. The rites commeuee when th§ sun 
enters Aries (the opening of the Hinda 
year), by a deputation to a spot beyond the 
dtv, '* to bring earth for the image of Gouri." 
When this is formed, a smaller one of Iswara ia 
made, and they are placed together ; a small 
trench is then excavated, in which barley is 
'sown ; the ground is irrigated and artificial faeat 
supplied till the grain germinates. By rttea 
kuovrn only to the initiated, havii^ been 
performed for several days within doors, th^ 
decorate the images, and prepare to carry them 
in procession to the lake. Duzing theae days 
of preparation, nothing is talked bnt Gonira 
departure from the palace; whether she will 
be as fiumptoously apparelled as In the year 
gone by; whether an additional boat will be 
launched on the occasion ; though not a few 
forget the goddeas altogether in the recollection 
of the gazelle eyes <mirg-seni) and serpentine 
locks (nagni zoolf) of the beauteous handmaids 
who are selected to attend her. At length the 
hoar arrives, the martial nakara give the 
signal *' to the caononier without," anid specn- 
lation is at rest when the guns on the summit 
ofthecasHe ofBkling gnrhannonoee that Gonri 
has oommanoed her ezenrnon to the lake. 
The cavalcade assembles on the magnificent 
terrace, and the rana, snrroimded by his 
nobles, leadi the wa^ to the boats, of a form as 

to Coloha. Tbe mnerylf adBuinn^ adapted 





for these kles, the aaoeot being gradual from 
Uie margin of the lake. 

At length the prooekiiott is seen winding 
down ^ steep, and in the midst, boroe on a 
pat'b, or tbronei gorgeously arrayed in yeUow 
robes, and biasing with '* barbaric pearl and 
gold,'* the goddesa appears, on either side the 
.two beauUes ware the silrer cbunra over her 
head, while th« more faToared damsels act aa 
harbingers, preceding her with waodeof silveir: 
the whole ohsunting hymns. On her apjproach, 
the rana, his chiefs and miniitera rue and 
remain standing tillthe goddess is seated on 
'her throne close to the water's edge, whea all 
bow, and the prince and court take their seats 
,in tlui boats. The females then form a circle 
around the goddess, nnite hands, and with 
a meunred step and various graoefnl inclina- 
tioDS of the body, keeping time by beating the 
palms at particular cadences, move around the 
image singing hymna, some in hoaonr of the 
goddess of abundance,othersonIOTe 'iBd chivalry 
and embodyinglitileepisodas of national aehieve- 
^nts ocoariouaUy sprinkled with doable 
entendre, which excite a smile and significant 
nod from the chiefs, and an inclination of the 
liead of the fair aboristera. The festival being 
entirely female, not a ungle male nues in the 
'immense groups, and even Iswara himself, the 
husband of Gonri, attracts no attention, as ap- 
pears from his ascetic or mendicant form bil- 
ging his dole from the bounteous and uuiver- 
ul MoMtf*. It is taken for granted that the 
goddess is occupied in bathing all the time she 
remains, and ancieut tradition says death was 
the penalty of any male intrading on these 
solemnities ; bat a late prince deoned them 
ao fitted for amusement, that he enn. insti- 
tuted a second Gangore. 8on» hoars are thoa 
consumed, while easy and good humoured con- 
versation is carried on. At length, the ablu- 
tions over, the goddess is taken up, and oon- 
reyed to the palace with the same foriEB and 
state. The rana and his chiefs then unmoor 
their boats, and are rowed round the margin of 
the lake, to visit in succession the other images 
.of the goddess, around which female groups 
are chaunttng and worshipping, as already des- 
cribed with which ceremonies the evening doses, 
when the whole terminates with a grsnd dis- 
play of fireworks, the fioab of each of the three 
days dedicated to Ooori The Ephesian Diana 
is the twin sister of flonri, ana can bsva a 
.Sanacrik derivation in Devi-ana, * the goddess 
of food/ oontracted Deana, though commonly 
Anadeo or Ana-devi, and Anapnma, ' filling 
with food,* or the nouiisher, the name ap- 
plied by ** the nwther of maakLnd," when she 
plaoea the reput before tiio Meisenger of 

Considerable resemblance is to be ducemed 
betireea tUi ibitiviL of Qonri and thoee in 

honour of the Egyptian Diana at Bubastis, and 
of Isis ai Busiris, within the delta of the Niir, 
of which Herodotna says > ** They who oeMnate 
tboss of Diana eubsrk in vessda ; the mmen 
strike their tabors, the men Iheir flutes ; the 
rest of both sexes clap their hands and jota 
in efaoroa. Whatever city tbsy approach, the 
vessels are brought on shore ; the women ose 
nngranona language, dance, and indelicately 
throw about their garments." Wherever the 
rites of Isis prevailed, we fiud the boat intro- 
duced as an essential emblem in her worship, 
whether in the heart of Riijast'faan, on the 
banks of the Nile, or in the woods of Germany. 
Bryant furnishes an interesting account from 
Diodorns and Cartiufl, illustrated by drawings 
horn Fooock, from the temple of Luxor, n«ar 
Camac, in the Thebaid, of the ship of Isis, 
carrying an ark ; and from i male fignrn there- 
in, this learned person thinks H beara a myate- 
rioos allusion to the deluge. Colonel Tod, 
howentf was ineliued to deem the personage 
in the ark (kiri», husband of Isis, the type 
of the ana arrived in the sign of Aries, (of 
whieh the ram'a heails ornamenting both the 
prow and stem of the vessel are typical), 
the^ harbinger of the annual fertilising inun- 
dation of the Nil^ eviucing identity of origin 
as an eqninoctial festival with that of Gourl 
(Isii) of the Indn Scy tlio races of Rqasfhso. 

Heavealy stnnger, pletse (o ta^ 
Tb«u bcmntiM, yrmcli ourNoutiaher, fMm wlwaa 
AU perfect good, unmeunred out, dneeods. 
To us fw food and for d«lighi hstli oaiuad 
The earth to yield.— Parwtfias ZoM, Book F. 
W7, 401. 

The Oermaa Suevi adored Isis, ud alao 
introduced a ship in her worship, fbr which 
Taeitna is at a loss to account and with his 
usual candour aays ho has no materials whence 
to investigate the origin of a worship denoting 
the foreign origin of the tribe. This Isis of 
the Suevi was evidently a form of Ertba, tlie 
chief divinity of all the Saxon races, who, with 
her consort Teutates or tieaus (Mercury,) wen 
the chief deities of both the Celtic and early 
Gothic races : the Budha and GUa of the Biy- 
poots ; in short, the eartb, the prolific mother, 
the Isis of Eg^pt, the Ceres of Greece, tlie 
Ana-purana (givor of food) of the Bajpoota. 
On some ancient temples dedic^d to th(a 
hindu (Teres, we have 8cal|Aured on the frieie 
and pedestal of the et^nmns the emblem of 
abnndanoe, termed the cnmatmmps, or veaael 
of desire, a vase of elegant form, from which 
branches of the palm are gracefully pendent. 
Herodotus says that similar water-vessus, filled 
with wheat and barley, were carried in the 
festivsl of Isfc ; and tiie Egyptian god Canopns 
is depicted ondez the form <a a miter jart or 
Nilometer, whose ooVexingbe»a thehatdof 

Oairil, Digilized by VjOOglC 


Colond Tod thinka it probaUft that TTeaas 
u denTod from Eswara, or The god Totb 
was the Egjptiui, and Teutates the ficaUdl- 
niiTian, Mereunr/ aod he has stL^napted to 
trane the origin of the Suevi, Su, or Yeut 
of YeutUnd Uuilaiid), to the Y^te, Qtte^ ot~ 
Jit, of Centnii Aaia, who carried tlienea 
lh« rrligioa of Budd'ha into Indi<i, a« well 
AS to Bftltio* l^hoToi^ iiitlc doulib 4'hBJ"tilw 
necs called Joiaar, Jster, Jolan, Jaet, and 
Tent, arbo foUcNnd Uie Aii into StMBtUoavfa, 
Bigrated from the JtUitea, the land of' the 
fremx Oete (Masaqtctie) } the leader .waa sup- 
posed to be endued with supernatural powers, 
like the Budd'histtcalled VedianAn or magician, 
whoae hauDta adjoined Aria^ the cradle of the 
Uagi. They are deaigi^ted Ati-pubta,^ 'Mfldei 
the aijtD <tf a serpent, th« type of Budd'ha, or 
Ari-m&aus, the foe of mau.— Xvrf'a ^aWhaOt 
Vol. l.pp. MO, 672; 593. 

ISAFABOHA GADiU'hlao Chippa ban 
gadrii. Tjil. Panicum. ooffjrgsbirom.— 4ro«6. 

ISAPA OALA VlTTOiiU.i. TBL.. Plaalago 


ISAUA. TxL. AiialolooUi lodiN.— Ziim. 

JSA&MSL alw lanabel, Jahurmool. BsHCi. 
Hind. AiiaUoloehia laities.— vCisi*. ■■ 

ISATIS INDiaOTlCA. In Chiu, ookiriug 
natter, for djeieg blue^ ia ddrived from two 
apedea of 'planta, the Polygonni tinotorium 
at the aonth, end the tien taing o« lutts indi- 

?)tiea, culiirated at Shanghai and OhoaaU. 
be Shauglue ibdigo, IsaUa iiKligotica» ■ ia 
larxelj ouUivalad the Ke-wang-meow dis- 
trict, a few miles to the soath. — WUliamt* 
UiddU Kiagdan^ VU. 8. p. 106. See Dyes. 

liiATlS XIHCXOHIA. Dyera-Wead. See 

ISLAND. HiHD. OorDhom olitornnr, Jute ; 
abo-CX trikMiUaria. 

ISBAM&LAUOURI, Mihd. FagaMm bar- 

JSBASQ. See Aabarg. 

If^CARAjftl KAKHA^Xbl. Isearasi wood. 
ABGi.o-T£L.:QC ihe' Korthnnk Circars, is 'pro- 
baUy froaa the Sepindus ndngiaosuc. • 

ISCm. Ualbai. Siagiber. ofBelaalis.-- 

ISKNKHAM-VARER. Dam. Hanl*are. . 

I&APGHOL, UiHOt'i'Uiitago anq>lexMBulis, 
alao P. iap»gbid»«od Pt^aujor } alw a apeeiaa 

JSTJOUN.oaevf Ihft 8birf-toiriia.of Peraia. 

ISFALm U. Bittt^. . 

laPANAJ. PBia. BphiBga. 

JSiTANJ. Arab. Sind. esaa. Sponge. 
. ISFANAK. Hind. Spinacea obiEaQea. 

ISFENOYAB. the Brawn bodied, hie son' 
Bahaaa, aaraamed Ardeabir, a prince of great 
icBowu ia Ane of the moat eonapioMos names 
aaaoogat (be bom of tbd ah«h Buuk See 


ISQAND' HiND. Withania KnuOfen^ 

lSUA.,0ee ban, Osiria. 

I9-HAQ Ab. Isaac, son of Abraham. 

iSUA]UT£, an AfKbau tribe. See Afghi^i* 

iilSHAlUtEL. Hind. Aristolocbia longa. 

I^HKIU UzKD. Squill, SoiUaindioa. 

IBUUAELi aon of Isaao ia auppoaed by 
mahoowdans tp ha?a been the aon whom 
Isaac took, to o£fef ap in aacrifioa. His lineal 
deaoemlanta wart oalled Arab-ul-Moataraba. or 
mixed Araba- They occupied the Uyai ind 
amongst thair deaemdanta waa tribe fif 
Kpr^. SefAdnan. 
. ISaUi^iSL KUAN. See Kbyber. 
idUX -A^tU- Xbl. BapinduB rubigiooaaar 
RAxb. >... 

ISUK-FBCmA HiHB. Fharbitis bU, syn. 
of Ipomaaa .Cflemleai ; the dmbb neana Lere'a- 

I^iHTA. Sans, from isb, to deaiie. 

ISUTA DEVATA Tbe eboaoB or ebeted 
dei^. : tha deity whom • biBda electa to wor* 
abip. A personal or tatdary-fteily. • 

ISHUfLMUL. HiHD. Aristolocbia iBdica, 
lMtm.Ro*h.. Indian Hirthwort. 

ISIAi'ANQAM, also Vuttunghy. Tav; 
Csssalpioia aappan. Sappan wood. 





HauuD blase 

CoU di pesoe 

PalojSpong ilGKa.,.MALA.T 

Ari-ikau „ 

Klei rahoi Rvss. 

KarlukM.»..w ,, 


Loo-pa Chi!!. 

Sounds Exo. 


Aiivbag „ 

Swtvtming Madder, „ 

FiA maws „ 

FiUi aonnde 

HitutMaas Fn. 

CoUede poisaan ... n 

The Greek name for iaiBglaaa, IctfayoecAIa, ia 
derived from a fi»h -«»XXa giue, IaiRglasB« 
ia derived from the Gennan HaxttaMaUj 
from haumt the great aturgeon, and hioK, a 
bladder, being one of the eoata of the swim- 
mibg-bladder of fishes, chiefly of tbe .geoua 
Acipenser, or sturgeon. Fish Maws, of fish- 
souudfl are exported from Galeutta. Btargui, 
Malabar, and Sind and Shafk Fins, from 
Mergtti, Cannanore, and Bind, Boiibny Fish, 
mawa'are compoaed of a aao-like membrane 
slit open ; some are small, thin, and trani* 
parent, othara three and fotir inches aonns ia 
both dinmeteia, aomething of the shape of short 
poraM with apring idaaps, of a light eolour, and 
aemi-CranspaienI *re8embling in appearanoa 
the ordinary qualitiea of laingla^ eapeeially 
some of the BrasiUaii kinds, Ur« 'utrrell, pro- 
nounced both kinds to bo the sound of a fish 
appKrantly allied to the gnmiwds, which he 
thought might perhaps be the same species, 
but at different agea, and it is interesting here 
to obserre, Cuvier mentions that, in Ihdia 
^re are ^ecies allied to Trigia htrundo {or 
tbe aeppbirine gurnard). Fish-mawa oi 
Fiah woada, havfl totg^bceiKximq^yvaj 




the CbifieM kom tlie vietriity of OHloiiUa, 
at the rate of about a sMHln; a- pound. 
In Bombay tSno a commerob has 'lonjz' been 
ntabUsIied in Fish-raaws, at about double the 
prioe of the former, vithoat its bang ganeritlly 
koowa that ib was isinglaaa which was thus 
exportod, and Madnia shares H Ihs trade- 
The Ghibese/tterefoM, obtain fMm Itsflia, «h«t 
fiurope imports irOtt IWUMai *ad BmU, md 
in this respect exhibit iio gteslw atraDge&ese 
of iasta than Bqtopeatis do^ Ftor diey give 
inly nboiit llho unia>- priee <jBl4) which ■ is ob- 
tained in the London Market for Isinglass o^ 
the same quality, white Rurope nve as macb 
ae between' £60 end JB7(^ lot tho'lnt ^(nd and 
betw^n £90 and JBlOO when it is reqaired 
ft)r coDBumptioA.' The oMciat MisoOnts of the 
oxport' and imports froBi the thiee Indian 
presidencies . show that to the value of ftaarly 
forty thousand fbnnda of shark ftns and Fiefa- 
mave WIS exported in ona' ytar from Bbdibay 
to China, being' iist imparted, ftom. a great 
variety of ptaoes Aid sold at 

From Ra. 60 to 105 per msund in '18SR-37 
„ 92-a to 95 ditto in 18S7-S8 
„' 18 to- 28 ditte in' IStft-S? 
„ 26 to t6 ditto in 1M7-«S 

and the (bllowing quantities and vnlin of shsrk- 
fius ; and fiah-mawa were imported into and 
ezpoiifd from Bombi^ in two yeais 



^« Sg?^ -frf* ■■33 

. . af 

n tt> « 19 « scTs * s e * 

■ ... M . ■ 

■ ta 








i 1 :■ i : ■ . 1 
„ Sea 1 S I JSS 

tdiwA 11 


: e«t 

From OeylQn and Tranqoebar. 61*~ 

From Oanjam, VizsgapataQi, Kajtih- 

mundry and along the Coaat. lOS— 

JSiripdrif . 

1*0 China and Straits of 3CaTB<wa:.,1)(48— 
From Tanjore to Stndtc bl Xe-' ' 
Irfwai... jfiLi- nsst 

■ — " I ■ ' ■ M l I . II I ' t M l I I ■ 

. In the four, veers endibg UM».-M theca* 
porttrede of Madras, in these two-iartklM 

was to the following enbrot : 


SiiAita-Fias. . 





«wt. - 





■ ■ ' 

Besides these in the year 1837-38 Shark-Fins 
and Fish-Maws were > imported into and «i- 
]p9fiQd from iltdnts as fiDder.; 

The shipments being to Bombay, ^ited 
Kingdom end -Utilaoea Btraita. But the 
graates-portioa doabtloM ftnds Its way ta 
Gbinti .The roodbess of the Chinees for all 
fE«latinoua subsUnces is well ■ known, '«ml has 
been dfessribed by all tnveUers who have i^sited 
their eouatcy and fuMakeii of their banquets. 
In addttiou to oiSpleM^ animals and parts o^ 
aniaiib^biDb an n}>oted in other 'eountries 
as artifllee of bod, they import various substan- 
cea whidi can be valuable only lia yielding 
gelatine of different dOerees of purity. Of 
these we ham examplsrin Agar-A^r. Tripang, 
Birda^ieats, Shark-fih», and Fish-niaws. 

The BwimmiDg bladder of fishes oonsrsts of 
three hiemhraaes, the outor or peritoneid eoat/ 
the middle meaibranoas Md muscnlar om^ and- 
the innttvgles^, highly vascular eoat, whMi has 
a pulpy appearanee and is the membrane whfclr 
forms the best istoghsS. Tho speeies^'orlBah 
which yield the Buropean suppliaa are the igreat 
Stosgeen^ Ossetsr,. Bevmga and Steriet. also 
the SiluruB glanis, BarbiL Cyprinua bAmt^ 
and C. earpio and Perea luoiopaea, which do 
oot belong ie the tribe of atHi|;«oas. In the 
fisheries of the Caapian end Tolgn^ when th» 
system is most complete and the divieion of 
labour the greatest, the sounds and tOee are 
extracted immediately the fish are caught an4 
delirwed ovet to the isnighiBS and caviare 
makers. Tbs fresh soindrare first split open 
and well washed to separsto the Uood and 
any adhering eitraneous matter- and, onM* 
Lake Baikal, waraa arater is used abeonHagto 
Georgi ;. they are Una dpmad oat, and ex- 
pooed to the air to diy, with the imer silveiy 
white nembcane tumed ntnvards.' This which 
is nearly pure gelatine, is oaitfutly stript off, 
Uid m damp eiotha and left in the outer eo- 
vering, sad fordbly kneaded with the hands. 
It is then taken out of the doths, dried in the 
form of ieef isinghus, or H^lsd up ftnd drawn 
in a serpentiae Loaiinet ^nlO'v(<{i^LiMiB ^ ft 


hMtt,bwie-»Uoe, of tyn (lowg imd ahori sUple)* 
betwMB thrae -on s bowd coverad witb 
tbeo t hen tfaof an filed in tbeiu' plwvs by 
woodea sluwon. Wibeii they . an Mmewhal 
dried thos, ihey m busg on line* in the shade 
till their miHiiMve i» Mfcurety iliaaipeted. The 
oblong pieoei Mnotiowft an (olden in the form 
of Boot Uii^asa. In order to obtaja fcood 
ieinglaae, it i* no oewa r y to bivo well vri#K<^ 
MOM to di7 U in. Bat ium^an ia not the 
only prodoct obtiined Iron fiMoaowids. Ac- 
ooiding to Falla^ at the lower parte ■ of 
Volga, a fins ^atioo ia boiled oat of the 
freab awimming-bladder and then poured into 
all kinds of forma. In Gurief, a fine, boilfd 
PiBfa*gltte ie pr^jMured, perfectly trMB|)areutr 
hsTing the ooloor of ambers wbicb is oa»t into 
ifa^ and plates. OsUaks also boU their fisb- 
gh» in a kettle. The oaounofi eakii iainglasa 
is ftmned of fragment* of the oUier aorta, 
tbeae an put into a flat laetalJio pai^ ^ith a 
very tittle water, and heated jiut fPQaK^ 
make the parte, eehere like « paueake, when 
it ie dried, i'arts of th« aoondaof Silarua 
gbttia mmI Barbel ve ala^. bwled, but as the 
ghw doaa not ei^rely diisoln^ the liquid ia 
itiaiaed to aapaiato j^aaenlt ttom, tbf gpialine. 
Besides tbesa, tba eartUi^sinons vmI tywdinoua 
part of sevenl fishes art boiled form 
fish-glue. Tkoiighiiinglauof the.fiaestHualitya 
%ud in the largcet qoaotiUei^ is yielded .^Sp 
is not ooofined to, the sturgeon tyibe ; for evqn 
io Bassia. the Siluius glanis, apecnes of Cypri- 
aus, and Barbel yield it, sod we meet in c<An- 
meroe with Brazilias, KewYork, and Hudson's 
Bay iunglass. The fishes wbtob produce it 
00 the eoaat of Brnzilt Mr. Yarrelt informed 
Dr. Boyle an probably species of th6 geaera 
Fimelodua and Sihirus, or of closely allied genera. 
The epeetmens shown to Mr. Yanvll appeared 
to him to belong to seven different species of 
fish. The Braiilian Uingla»s h imported from 
Para and Maranham. It ' is very infeiior in 
quality for domestic purposes lo the best iin< 
ported from Bussia, fvhich sells for p*tt lb. 
and the other from about St. to 3f. 6^ but even, 
aa low as 9<2. per lb. It is ui the form of Pipe, 
Block, Honeycomb, Cake, and Totigne Isinglass, 
the last formed of a double swimming-bladder. 
Hie isinglass obtained from North Ame- 
rica in the form of lotig ribbons, is prodneej, 
aceording to Dr. Milchiti, by Labrus squea- 
teagw, at New Totk, called weak fish, which 
ia about fifteen inohea tn length, and above 
ax poiinda In waightj formil^ one of thdr 
■oilabiuidant fish and fornishing the princi- 
pal Bui^ty for their ta'bles. Oue author states 
that ita thick silvery swimming bladder^ are 
pleased, and anoUei that the aonnds of the 
hake (Merludus vnlgsiis) are also pressed 
between iron or wootkn itoUers to form thin 
isiag h aa. The Xjafaius sqiUiB^agw i» CMntUtbus 

regalia of Cuyier (the Johnius regalia of Block)* 
of the tribe SeiBOoide*, 'J'li.ssf are allied to 
ttift Perches, but have, mon variety- and a more 
complicated ftrueture in thsijr natatory bUd-. 
den I pilmoat aU are good for eatiogj and many 
of Buperipr flavour. To dbe genua Oloiilbua 
also belong some indian fishes, as O. rersi- 
coloTj Cut. and O. ruber, Cav« the prreha 
piei^e of Pondioherry, eaUed there " panen," 
which is fift^ inches long, and -^ught ia 
B^dancK all tiie year, being esteemed aa food. 
This genua is closely allied to Seieena, of which, 
^MoieS) as S. Aquila tmajgro of the Brenob, 
and umbrina of the Bomsns), fcc ^re found in 
the Meditenoean. S. Pama or Bola Pama of 
^uolianan nseablea the *\ nuigres," but baa 
a BinguUa n^taiot; blaHder. Wbea twelve or. 
fifteen ^hes long, it is erroiiaoualy called 
wbitiog at Calcutta, and furnishes a light and 
salubtioua diet, U ia eavght in great abun-^^ 
dance a^ ^he aovtha of the QaogeSi but never 
a^sends highfr .than tha tide. In Aew England,, 
tbe intestii^ of the common cod (Morthua 
vulgaris) anient into ribbon isinglnsi; in 
lodand aUo tlw cqd ia said to yield Ifioglfss, 
so also the Uog (j«ta mplnOi but Ur. Tarreli 
informed Dr. H^yle thlit bft had no reason to 
believe Uiat isinglaaais so pnpared. At least, 
in the aouthern parte of England, fish being, 
biought alive in well- boats as fir m possible^ 
cod mid also ling sounds an mostly preserved 
soft, by saltii^ utd are dresfed for table aa 
subatitnto for fish. Eence wa see that IsLu- 
glass ia not confined to the tribe of iturgeona,. 
nor to the rivers of Russis, but that it is found 
in fishes on t^e irarm coast of Brazil and the 
cold one of loelaad. It is also yielded by som» 
of the gnat variyty and sh<mU.of fishes, on the 
long exteqded eoaata of Saltern and Southam 
Anoi and some quantities are imported into. 
Britain, A trade in isinglaas, and in some oi 
ita Bubstitatca, baa Iwig been estabtiabed on the 
Qpast of hidia^nd itihaaioag beau imported by 
the Chinese frau Be<^}. Indeed .on invcsti- 
fcating the subjcpt^ the diaoovery is made that. 
IiringhNuiaaxpofted in UMWh larger quantitiea 
and from a much gnater variety of plaoes tbau 
is gemnlly aupposed. So laige a ^ntity na 
80Q or dOOpaunda of the aouudaof fish, that 
is«f iaioglase, being ftimaaUy exportipd la China 
Cnun the neighboarbood of Cahnitt*^ The first 
who appean tq b«ra drew» «tl«ation to this 
s^bjeet, anonjmeus oomspondent in 
Parbiw'a On9»tiA HemkI in 1639, who stated, 
that \h» GbinQa* bafl hwg.beea angaged io a 
trade with Calcutta in Liioglaas. jUao that 
this was affnded by a fish called " Soileah'* 
in Bengal, aad thM from a haU a- pound to 
th^cB^narttn of a pound wfts abtajaad froga 
each fisik. This iafomaUoD waa enorgetioalty 
followed up .'by Pv. UeiUMiand of the Bengal 
IM^wl ^fi«^ .LSI^ fiwiHfp«(^b4d b«eik 



preTiou'sly niffgeated by Dr. Cantor of the 
samo avrvice. Dr. Modelland't int pRper-Vaa 
publiehed at OiilctiUs in JunA I8S9, in 
Jouraal of the Aeiatio Societyj Vot: Vin< p. 
20S. In this he informs ue, that 'having 
procured a spedmen. from tlie buaar, of the 
lish yielding the [stniflRss, he waa sarprieed to 
find it to be a apeoiea of Folyne^ua, or para- 
dise fisli, of irhich several specieis are knoWn 
lor their ezoallenoe as artielea' «f food. Of 
these he ftdduoes the Mango Tiah or tbpaee 
matchee of tlw Bangaleea (Polyneditls risna. 
Sttah.) as a fanHlUr instance, though tbta ik 
remarkable as being iritbovt a awimmiiig- 
bladder; vhile the other apedee-have it large 
mtt stoat. These 6c(9ar in tite seas of variff 
climates ; ftra are described by Dr. Bttchanan 
in bis Gangetic fishes, but only tivd are of 
oonaidernble sizft, oocarring in thd evtuar^ of 
the Hoogly, and probably in those of the 
Ganges. One of these, with ahotber- lai^ 
species, is a!ao described by Dr. Il^ssell in his 
work on the flahea of the Mridrtls Coest. That 
figured in his tifb; 18i and called tiiiagA*booshy 
is Pol^nemua anmemiiB of Gbvlbr, while the 
maga-jelleej tab. -183, -nadwA) P. tetradaetylas 
by Shair is probably Teria of - Bdehanan. 
Both, bnt especially the fir^t, Bussett -sayv. are 
esteemed for the table and ealied Uoebatl by 
the Engliahb Dr. Modelland Aaoertained that 
lihe species affording the Isinglass, is the Poly- 
nemua sele of Buchanan, ScAe /or 9utea of the 
Ijeagalese, described but not figured in bis irork 
on the Gangetic fishes (p. 286). Dr. M. has 
botreTer published in the Journal of the Asiatio 
Society of Bengal, a SguK fironi'Dr. Buchanan's 
unpablislied collection of drawings, vliieh are 
kept, at the' East India Company's Botanic 
garden at Calcutta. This figure, * Wo ' atnteb, 
cottTeya a good representnKon of the Sele, 
about the half "site of a apeoioen, ftom wfaleh 
lie obtained aixty-eix graiM of I^^ss;:'' Dr. 
Buchanan deseribes the Sele aa afl(>rding a 
lixht nourishing food, like mo«t of the flahea 
which he has called Bola, but ati inferior to 
mnn; of them in flavour. It ts eonrac^n in Ihe 
eatiiariesof the GaQgee,Bnd is often fonnd weighs 
ing from twenty to twenty 'four pduftifai ; alM may 
perhaps be the Emoi of Otaheiti, th^'P^/rtetnns 
nneatus of Laceitede, the P. plebius of ' BrMs- 
sonet. This,<acooi>Jing to Block, is by'thO'Eng^ 
lish called ici^g^lish, and ia th6 Kata mitf/ Zbttt. 
of John, fntm l ranquebar, and aMind^l fnLtbe 
Kistna aad Gedavery. Buebanan ' lather 
statea, that the has a atm^'iMembl^ee 
to the above naioMd *' ma^ baoshise't of Dr. 
jlnasell. As the anonyiDDua author Kbove 
referred to, abated that him iukt- a psnnii to 
th'reie quarts of a ponttd may be obtaineti 
f^om each 41811, Mr. MdCteUand supposed 
either that P. Sele attjnna a mneh Iai<ger size 
thou iffeoty-foar poanda, die Uiut ginn to it 

by Btichitnati, or that isinglass t« also afiTordel 
by a far larger trtkeciei, namely, P. tetndae^ 
lua, Telia, -or teriys bhan^n. 1%ifl, as wt ' 
haVe seen, is identicAt with the ** maga jelle*^ 
of Che Coreinandel Coast, atrd 'irbitih'BuettaDW 
often saw six feet long fo the Chloutta bstsOT,' 
and was infoimedj sometiawa att^nbd SSO 
pottifda avolRiupoia ia weight It ia oenafdrtetf' '■ 
by the natives as a tfholesome dirt alM6iigli 
seldom uaed 'hj BuropenDS.- Mr. MoCl^ad 
aaya he hat fre^iently seen ihim of a uliifara 
ei26, that must havaweighed^ f ro'm fH^ loa 
hundred pounds at least, loRdiug t^tAa OmA* 
cadis {>f carts on their way to the Calcutta! 
bazaaV during the eold season. Both the 5>de' 
and Uie ** teria bhangan" must eonsequently be 

; very 6omm6ti tb^re from November to ManA. 
Pi Seta is supposed to' be' s variety of P: 
lineaiu»i which is ea4d to be ooramon on ali 
the aho^ tb the eartirard } but if so, Mr. 11 
says, H a^nte strange' that' the Gbhtese ebouM-' 

; ^d^-it to the Hftogly. The tame mighV 
bowevet, be sard of -the Cod, whb^ thenglr 
caught in abuodAioe bn the ooasta of Oraai 
Britain, is- also 'diligently' sought fproa the 
banks 'bf Kewfeatidliind. He aim inquireB' ' 
whetbef Polynettiu ettoS and P. plebiri^' 
supposed byBuebanan to eorreepend Mth hie ' 
Sele; odnVain the same Vldnabl« aiilMtnnoe, and* 
whether ieither of tttissetl'a apeoieB, the «bov«^ 
namied maga-booriiee and magn-jelle (/lufiail- ' 

JftAM, 168-184), yi«ld it. 

*' Pahgpong or ari ari i&an of the 
Malayaa, loopa oC the . Chinese, appeara' to* 
have formed an article of exportation from 
the islanda of the Indian Arohipelago aa 
eariy aa they , became visited by the Ghioesv.'' \ 
When these people commenced to settle in the 
Straits, they not only coltecied 5sli-mawa there 
but also from distant localities, and Bombay, ; 
Ceylon. Madras, Bengal, Tenasseriiu' aud inoai { 
of the Malfljau Islands contribute to the aniiuat { 
supply, which is bougbi up by Chinese dealers i 
at renang, Malacca, and Singiipora. By them i 
the maws are exported to China. Since 1843. ^ 
Mr.W. T. Uwis, Assistant Besident C;6ud''| 
seller of Fenang, made some very suecessfuf , 
attempts to imprnye the production of isingUsa j 
in Prince of Wales* laland. But Eurdpea^ : 
merchants there appesr unwilling to engage' ii^ ; 
fats novel branch of commerce, as ihe aupply 
from want of proper care is unoertun, end pro- - 
curable but in comparatively smnlt quantities, 
These^ howevy, are no objections to the 
Chinese dealers, as they are sure of aprofitablo 
and quick return ,of their outlay, ^e fishea; 
from which Isioglais ia obtuned at ruuudi|^ 
■i*e,_ '."'* ; . . ; /■ 

Lutes hfpt^daotjrluSfCluii ,8iyakupi^ 
PoIyneQitu iodioua, (Ikan kurow.) 



Otoiitbaa 'bUnritUR, (Ikan BaTamui^) 


UtoUthofi maculatuE, UanuDg gigi.) 
Jobuiua diaosDthus, (IkaD tMubarflo.) 
L»botea eratp, (Ikan'batit.) 
Aiim trVDcatufi, (Ikan salodti.) 
Awim «cnis, (Iku ailudu-) 
Aria* milkirii, (Ikiw w)udu.] 

The totfel quaalitiw and; value oC fiihomswa. 
umpmitA into aad exported from Prinoe of 
WalM island, firum 18S3to 1842, m» 









. 73*842 " 

Oa the Malabar Coast excellent Isinglass is 
obtained from two species of Otolithua. One, 
perhaps the O. biauritut. Cantor, is named in 
Mal^alim " 8iUe iorra," it grows to ■ Itirga 
sbenndia bighty priced for the i«iiiglaa» it 
Jidda ; tLe 0. rwder, also yields goodi isin- 
Blais. Dr. Mason deecribes tbe Ooitiaua eoi-' 
tw, or Indian Whiting, and the PolynMoua 
aela aa yielding this aubatanioe in TenaMeripi. 
Corviutt* eoitor is freqoeutl]/ se^a in tfae^'Hani' 
main bazaars, and be^dea bring » good .fish 
fox the table, ita air-bladder makes excellent 
isinglaaa. He thiiika be has obwrred more 
speoee thkn one sold under the same native 
name. Two or three speeiea of fish eommbn in 
Oihsalta that are called whiting, from their 
reanaMance, both in form and flavoitr, to the 
£aropean fish of that name. 

King-^k. — Polyntmu Baeh. 
F. ple&eius, Brouss. 
P. ImeiiliUf Laeep. ' 

P. getatinotut^ Mcaell. ; ka-tha Bwm. (Me 
fOMMff,) O'Rilfy. 
Lmkteap {Arracan^ 

Polpnemua sele, is found from Calcotta to 
Otaheite. It produces isinglass of the best 
qoalitj, and Mr. O'ltiley estimated, that tWo 
tboosnnd pounds mieht be obtained 'anAually' 
aff Anhent atone. ¥he aonnda are a eoBsttut 
arttelB of traffie among the Ohiaeae. The larg- 
est soanda were exported from Rangoon; and 
they sell in Tenasserim at about half a nif ee a 
pound. 4bont ten thousand of the fi|h, 
large and small, are taken annnall,v in Artacan, 
and the sounds sell there for about a third of 
a rupee per pound to the Chinese, who export 
them to Fenanp, were tlifiy are a^d to bring 
more than a rupee a pound. 

Spceimens prepared in TndU for the Eoro- 
pean market were oomplained of. aajs Dr. 
M'Clelland, " as being too thick, if intended to 
come into competition with the superior vnrie- 
fies of Hussian isinglaaa. The first quantities 
sent from Indiabrooght onlx.1'. 7f^.,'otbers have 
been aoM for St., and a fe# samples hare been 
Tmloed fit 4m. per poond." Aeeordi^ to 
Dra, Jerdoa ami Cantor, the foUowing ue the 

PlmelncluB artus, Bueh. 

more.inporl&nt of the fisbct, which prodace 
langlasa.on the coasts of £«siern and South-' 
era Asia. ■ 

Arwt aritu; Buchanan VamfUon. ' 

fk&Q Satadii or ^Kan 
Sordndn, 'Ml\.at. 

Total length 1 foot ; 10 inch. This fifh in- 
habits the (ea and eatuapps.Qf Penang, Malay- 
an Peninsula, Singapore, Pondichfrry and 
GanRetio estuaries. At Fenang small indivi- 
duals of this species are very numerous, at all 
seasons. They form aii article of food, and 
contribute niorb tbflR any other, of the 6^- 
roida, to the expoctatiott of Xsinglaas. 

Arhte mHHarUf Linn, 
Silams milikaria, liiaM. | Oateo-geneioaua, B. 

Length I foot, ntehfaB' Inh^ts tbe ten 
and estwnries of tbe'UahiyAh peni^hla, and of 
ita isknda^ of Malabar, Coromaudel, Ibe Ganges 
and Irawaddy. Th*ir air vesahla are preaerred. 

Ariut iv^cai^, Cut. and VaU Length, 1 1 \ 
inches ; inhabits sea and estuaries of Feiiahg, 
Malayan Peninsula. ' Its air vleayet in smalt but 
very thiqkand ia IransTersfly' .divided into two 
compartments. The fish ia held in esteem by 
the natives, but at Penang it ocenrs so rarely 
that its air vessel does not^eontrSbute- much to 
the ganeril stock of iaingUas^ : .• - 

Capoeta macrolepidaid, Kuhl. Length 1 1 
inchev. Inhabits Feftatig, Jm* wd Tenas- 
serim. (fresh *aler). The mrvwsel is verr 
large, thin, white, eoaBialing of tiM elongated' 
oval portiofn, of wbieh the anterior is tmncat* 
ed iti front. 

(hrtiUui ooUoft 'Blyih. Inhabits the eatuariea 
of the Ganges and Irawaddy. Ita air-biadder 
makes exoallent isinglass. . _ 

Ooniint.ehapiU, Balo ehapiis. The Bola» 
inhabita the Malay ooaa^: funuahea isinglass. 

/o&ntw maeulaUat Blooh, Schneideiv v&rf - 
SaiiXnlla, Taw., BmmJI. \ Cortina maoaUt»/r.^F. 

Inhabits sea of Penang. The form of ita 
air veasel resembles that of Johnius bttlengeri. 

" Corviua dusaumierl, C ^ y. 

;The total length of this fiah » 6| Inches. It 
inhabits the Sea of Penang, i6e Malayan Pe- 
nioiula, Singapore and Malabar' The length of 
the air veasel is about i the total length. The 
isinitliaa is reputed . good, but owing to the 
small sise of the fish little ia procurable. 

LutgaSM Alacimtbtw, 

Johnius oatalens, Cut. 
Nalla K^tchelep, Ruuell. 
Katohelee, Rutteli. ' 
gkiii^*DaootatB> <7.|>F.' 

Cocvina oattilea, Bekm' 

gtr VMd Bleektv, 
Corvina nalla EBtohrlee» 




llikfisk gimto S fi!tt9 indiei. 14 iofa» 
bits ilw na of Vmntig, Malayan Pe&innda, 

Sinjcapore, Malabar, Coromaodel, Bay«fBaii- 
fial, Gangetic ea^aries, TeDassen'ta, Canbon, 
Oiiioa aeas, Mrulura and Jara. the air-veesel, 
id oF tbe length of the fitK is of a broad lanoe- 
olate shape tapering beliind into a very 
elongated point. This fish is not only valda- 
Ue as an article of food, but also on account 
of the quantity and quality of its lainglKsa, 
which sells in the China market at from 40 to 
45 Spanish dollars per pecul. 

P^rca maxima, .8o]Mwr«& Cofu«T«c4l, ffttti. 

HolooflDtre heptadactyle, ^tes nobitia, C. «C- V. 

Iaape4e, HicAardtont Blecker. 

Faudoo laanbo, RmutU. Ikjraa Sijrakirp, Malat. 

Thii fish inbalnta ihe sed and estuaries of 
Fanang, Ualayan Fmindtfla, Sinfiapore and 
Madras. It yields tBiDg1aa8,'or fthioh hovever 
in the atnriti of Malacca, but little la oolleeted, 
partly on account of the comparative aearcity 
of the fi«h and partly owing to the thiuneiM of 
the air-vesael. That of £ fiah when drlrd^ 
weighs upwards of one ounce. Ac Fenang 
this kind aelb' »t tbe rate of SS fo 30 dollars 
per pecul. ' 

Loboie* 0rate^ Onv* and Fa2. 

14. Farkarii, O, A V' 1 Jkanlnfen, orttan^hat 
1 |iriek> Malay. 

TMal leoftth 9 fe^ ft inohea. It inhabits ilte 
Sea of Penang, Malayan Peninsula, Singapore, 
Java, Madujra, Malatwr, Ceylon, Day of Beitgal, 
atid eaiuarves of the Qaagpa; 1 he air-?08ael is 
very large, about i of the totnl length, silvery, 
white and of a lanceolate shape, ll is ezoes- 
sively thin and so firmly adhering to the buck, 
that but a small part om be removed. The 
isinglsss is considered by I he Chin^ deafen 
to be of good quality, but the small quantity 
procurable rwiicters • the fish lesa falu^lain 
this Kspest 

Mvgil eepka^Vitt Ouv. Md Vml. 

Xugil onr, BorAaU ■ I BmtaS, Tah, SkiaiUi 
Jnninal, Malat. I Hole bhaauoau, E«ml, 

M. Ceph«lu8, EuMttt. \ ' 

Total leo^h, 3 fest It inhabits Penang, 
Malayan penrnsals, Singapore, Macao, Lancavy, 
Ghusan, Hadnrti, Ooromande), Bay of Bengal ; 
Gangetic Bstnaries, Malabar. The air-veasel i« 
IflTg^ elongated, its parietes very thin, pesrl- 

•OtoUHitUt Sp., perhaps 0* inauritutof 
Cantor. * f 

■ Thk Ash grown to a Urge «na. It if found 
on the Malabar ooost and highly prised for the 
Isinglass it yields. 

OUiUAtu Hmriim, Cantor, Xotal length 
8 feet. lahabits 3eit of f«(MD^ Malayan 

-Pemnsula, Singapon, Lsneaiy. Tmsserim 

Province, and aoMffdlngto Jerdon, the IfiiUibar 
coast, where it is called Sille-kora, in Ualayalin. 
llie air-vesael is nearly one-half of the total 
length, and in shape mi^kt be compared irith 
an elongated antique urn with two haadfes. 
From the anto-tor part of each of tfad latt« 
proceed five faranehea^ foar of which give off 
smalbir ones to eaoh side, and the fifth is tonu* 
ous and smaller than the rest. It yielda a 
large .quantity of iginglass, which in Uie Cbmase 
muiket is ocuiaidered to be of the best quality, 
and fetekes 40 to 60 Spanish dollars per pecuL 

. Ohtitkia mbtr. Block and Sckaeider, 
Jaiaa-gigii Uaui. 

The total longtk of this fish is S feel. 6 ineb- 
es. It inhabits the sea and tttusries of P*> 
nanff, the Mabysn Pouasidfl, Singapore, C<n«- 
mandel and Malabar. The sir-vtwl ia la^e« 
flattened, broad tauoeobte, termifiating behind 
in a single point. The ifinglass is oonsideraft 
very good and sells in the Ohinese market 
from 40 to 46 Spanish dollars per pecul. 

OtcUihiu macalatm, Kakl andvm HauetL 
Jaran-gigi, Halat. 

Tlie total length of this fish is 2 feet 9 inches* 
It iuhabjia the aea and estuaries of Pcnaiigii 
the Maiayan Peninsula. Singapore and Bataiijaj 
It is highly valued for the sake of its an-ras* 
set, which yields a considerable quantity, of tte. 
best kind of isinglass. 

OiolUhu$ vtrtieolory Ouv. and Vol. . Bunellt 
109 Fanna, Tam. The total length of this fish 
is only 6i inch. It inhabits the Sea of Penang. 
Its ' air-vessel is } of the total length. Jerdou 
says this fish is one foot long and very com- 
mon at Madras. 

PempJterU molucrA, Cuv. Ijength 8^ inch* 
Inhabits eea of Penang, Moluccas. Batsvia and 
Japan. Us air-veaael ia large and thick. 

Fanpherit vwlucca, Om. This fish grow* b> 
S| ioohes. It inhabits the Sea of i'en&ng, the 
Moluccas, Balavia and Jspsn. Its aifvcssd 
is Urge and thidu 

Platttx arlhriticuaf Cuv. and Vat. 

Eoonbootia, £eU. 

C. and V. 


The total length of this fiah is 1 foot 7 inches. 
It inhabits tbe Sea of Penang, Sumatra, Java 
and Singapoie. The flavour is excellent, buC 
the large air>Tess^ is too thin, and yMda too 
little isinglass to become of value. 

Tolj/nemuB- The several species of this genus^ 
furnish ^ considerable portion of the isinglaaa 
of Southern and Eastern Asia, viz. 

Folynevvua hepiadabtglui. Total length 4| 
inches. Inhabits Penang.^ Batevla, Gherten 
and Snmanng. D,g,i,,dt>y Google - - 


P. 8cle, BaohanaD. 
P. woammUt C. tc V. 
P. p1«toas, MoCMlHid. 
P. UnMkai, MoCleUaqd. 

&o*-1mIL« "Etta. 

WtiMttlaSm: Tail 

Kfttbui (h«VlMqg( Bar- 
titikwali Amean. 

Itsn kuTOW^ SCaut. 

King Fish......... Eno. 

Tt^ toUl le^th of i^ifi Gsh ia S feet- lt;in- 
iiibite tko Sen of FenaQg, ^Qgapore, Malnyim 
penipBuln, Surabaya ; eituariea of the Gaztges ; 
Tixaeapatam ; Hadras and Pondtcherry. The 
strnebur^ of the air-ves«el of this specie? is the 
Bost atiiking character by . which it may at 
enn be diatingnished from P. plebias. Ila 
BKBiJmiie is siWenri Utck, tbe xeoeral form 
OV'T. U oobupies, the vholei laaj^lh of the ato- 
■aeb (emioatinK behind in a very'sharp point, 
which peoetcat^ the thick of the tail over 'the 
first isterspinal of tKeanaL At Fenang Binitle 
iij^lrriduda occur at all seaaona : .but nifosbers 
are takea from June to August. The . weight 
is c9inmo«ly from 4 to 6 lb. selclom exceeding 
10. The air-Teasel of a good aized fiab, when 
dried and read; for the market in China, weighs 
ODwards of 2 oz.» ia conndered very good 
isiD^laas/ and fetches 25 to 30 dollars per 
pecul. The fish itself ia valued 99 an Nrticle of 
food, though leM so than P. tetndaotylus. 
Mr. O'Riley estimated that 3,00U lbs. of iqia- 
gbas from this fish, nughfc be obtained annu- 
ally off Anberst ^ne. Mr. Blundell said 
that the lar^cest sounds were exported from 
JUi^ooB, and that they sdU there at about hfilf 
a rupee a pound. Msgor BokIo wrote that 
about 10,000 of the fish, Urge aiid sraall^ 
were takoi annuany in Arraean and that the 
sovudasold there for about a third of a rup«e 
per pound to the Chinese, who ei^poried them 
to Penang where Uiu are wid to br)P$ more 
than ■ rupee • poand. 

Pdljfnenuu pl^nu% Brou^aon^t Zituu 

Block ; Skm ; Chv. «fii FaZ. 

Boa b«n ' ... Eko. I Pols kate..^ ^ Tax. 

P. lisesiBa, laMfeie, \ P. oocniersoiui, Skato. 
P. aUotieos, Sfew. I Byooi, Bruce. 

This fish attains to , 4 feet as its fall size. 
It inhabib the Ooromhndel coiut, Otaheite, 
of Fime and laletff Tannij. lis Vfelne as 
a fish-fieUiog iatnglasa Yeqaires to be aicer- 
tained. ' 

ToXjfnmit $exUii%vk, Bloch-Schnetder. 
TUa fish is onU four inchra long. It Inhabita 
Ftnsng, Batavia, Tranquebar and Connuandel. 
Ila air-Teasel is minute, being of the shape and 
■ae of a grain of oats. 

ToVfnesw* ktzometum Gn, ami Val. 1 inches 
kmg-- Inhabits Fenang, Batavtef . Bamarang 
aad Pasaman.— Castor. 

p. (I'ladrifilis, Ca/Uoir, 
Mng.i jelle, 'RtUiett. 

^TenaUla..-. Taw. 

VsIyMinaB taria, Graf. 
Ikwliaasiatica, Linne. 
P. nUiah, CMtcr. 

InUabita Fnaag, Sbgapore, Malayan Penin- 
mla, LnncavyrBay of Baogal, Oan^etie esta- 
*rir«, Attbtratia, China, Bantan^ Batavla, 
Tjilft^ap, Swmnng, Bttobaya, BaogkaliaDg. 
This speeiet baa 110 «ir-Te«aelj 

Pritiipoma ^tioraea, Owif. ekd Vat. 

Perca gruQolenii.^ffrifer. I Avthias grnnuieDsj Bioehi 
OnorakE, Jturndt. '- ' | Seh»ttdir. ' 

This fish is one foot long. It inhabita tliq 
Isle of Tanna, Batavia, Coromandel- and MatiQ 
(fresfc water). Its air vesael is very thin, from 
which I'ta isii^^laas is of little value.. 

, Kmirinti RiimUi^ Owf,- Vol. ^tcAenbdw. 
Qualar KatdidM, Taic< | Ikaa igalsma, -Maut., 

Total length 6 inches to one foot' 1- Inhabits 
SeftofPnnang, Malayan Pcnninsula; 'Singapore, 
Ticaghpatan ; Indian M China Seas. Ita 
iBfn|;lass is eottrfdered of good quality. Ru»s^ 

The IncHan iainglasff is not ' prepared with 
suffitiien^ eare to obtain a place in the aurketa of 
Europft. Veagat isinglass, however, haa bees 
f6nna to oonsht of "gbtatlne, albtmen, a smaff 
portJOB of aalineftnd'isMrfhy nbatance, «mi« 
■ome, and n ninilte tmce of an eddnsfc oil. In 
the Indian isinglass, it ia proboMe ttat its de- 
feats are in a great mesMW to bfe attributed to a 
want of iuffident eare in its prepatation, and it 
is evident that good Jsioglas* canhot be made' 
witboftt considerable attention be paid dnn'n^ 
theproeeases of washing, ^ beathtg, senptnf^, 
and drying • all of'which have a very important 
hiAneaoe on the goodness of the finished lain- 
Klaas. The imperfeet stability <rf some; And 
move espeeitil^f of the thicftrpieces, is occasioned 
by the pteifeMe <of- a eMftiderabte ijnantity of 
albtfniM or intohlbte HMnnbraiiona matter 
having modtfoftho pvopertiesof Alhoiden whieh 
1* «ot only ilseif ihseiable. bnt in addition 
renrien mkeh of th* gehtiM^ ^irith' which it ii 
assobiaiedf KbewisD'ihsolitUe. It f« more than 
prebaMatbitt Ute gmttr partofthia aHjumi- 
mHn sbhstanen mii^t be vaadily tenoved by 
anfioiently scraping the isinglass ^iirlnj^ itn 
preparation. Attention -shoeM also be directed 
tn-tbe prooessbif dijrirtg, as, if not ptoperiy 
dried, ft Alight poHsiblyumfergvhsHlthtehange 
erdeoomposhiidft and MN»nia pswinlly Mnv^<k 
ed into a moA inaoNble fbna bf edaiine* 
A mm important ofajeMiM i»th6 which, 
tmwevnv may iikawiie, to sMe eitent, be traced 
tothft {wepatition. It if probable that by 
to im ae d eue in->«leMHHg «kI dning fcy ^po- 
eurvto aii; wse'of tbttae defeuta may- be 
ramovAd esperiaHyM we shall observe in eem- 
paring the two preoesMs, that noeh greater 
care is bestowed On tbo' prapanttien ia Rtimia 
than i« India. - BoiNng^ w^th frekh made obai^ 
ooal would ptobnbly have the eflfeot of depriving 
inferior isin^asa of some of the smell and 
ootoaring matter when repaired for the por- 
poMa of-a jelly. .Xhe.iaisg(iM»«ot^a^thfeeds 


is unAuiUble for the Eng^b narket, noiiritik' 
eUoding tbat UingUtt for ifitaUis out infto 
-fiaethr<Qads,>«« nion^< ooavenieflt-'for genonU 
use, and formakio^ jvUie^and Nups, iu lionse- 
qiieoce of the extetiMve turfaoe which U eacpoA- 
ed rendering it (uore easily aodl quickly obluble. 
But there is a great p^judice ^In the wholesale 
tnarket to buying things in a cut or powdered 
state iu conseqiiBnoe yf the innumerable , me- 
thods adopted for fobiiryiDg and adulterHting 
atmMt every dn^.' 'Machinery is used iu 
London' for cutting tlte isinglass ipto thread? 
of any degree of finecess. and as it is iropracti- 
cabla afpresent to riVal this tn Tndia, besides 
hiring tb oonteitd BKainst prpjudioe, if "sent in 
this state,, it, is preferable, and Avill be cheaper 
to prepare th« articld aqd send it as nheet isin* 
gUsB» that is, the for^ of the slit Sft^nda them- 
adres, or their pureat iqen}bran* waahed, clean- 
ed, and dried in the beat manner.. Tba Indian 
isinglass, fs lU, present prapar^d, is caqiplained 
of as too thidc. i£ intended to come into oompe* 
titioB with the aupftrior varieties . of Rniaiaa 
isingl^ Some of 4t may, without diffieufty, 
ba rendered (Muufsr, for .wen in the dried state 
Uyem-of ifembianc: which display a fibrous 
(itruoture may be- stfipped off, and -whioh no 
doubt coiiUiiL the greater portion, of the inso- 
luble albumeq,, It might also be made thin- 
ner by baling, ortpressiag between iron-xollers 
or marble slaba^ as is done with American and 
some kinds of BraBllian Isinglaaa, The extra 
labor which ^Bia would require mijiht be profit- 
ably aaredj by not tearing it into fibre*, in 
which state it is disapproved of in the market j 
but it might still be. cut or iMpaci into a state 
fit for domeatio -uae. The refuse sbould be 
turned to AMOont-^ tho aoluble: parte- of the 
aounds, aapBi<^«d. .ficom jthQ iasoluble. «od 
ponied out int»'t1un. pjiiU»#ud dnaA oa net^ 
B« ia dooe< vith eome of the igelatins of «om- 
merca. In frdertfl; ascertain Irite :.Taluoof the 
article .(merely stripped -qraU impantjes -cal- 
culated to 4f^nre its quantity without any 
regard to appearatwe, a otmBiderable quantity 
was seat to jGngland by Dr. M;cClellanii. I^^roai 
the aeg^t. interred, of tha aale^ it appears 
that thia <i4WgliaM readied, only la,-7d, per 
lb., K;hich W4a ^ooDaiden^Iy under its p^ime 
coat. Fovty-fou aAunda and ten seen, of 
fiah aounds baring be^ bought, for , forty 
rupees a mannd» requind an expense of 100 
lumea lor (Claauag, after pnrcuisofitofli the 
fishermen^ thu ooattng altogether about ia. 
7(^perlb. Thia qoaotily, or MS5 Ibs^ at 
la. Id, per lb., realiaid £l7ft ISa. 8d.. ; but 
the cfaargea ia-lndia and in England, consist- 
ing of packing, demurrage, fnigh^ inaurauce, 
shipping charges, export and import duties, 
warehouse, brokerage, commission, interest, 
&e., were so heavy that tlie whole did not 
realize quite one-third of the outlay. Oueof 

the cut eamples had been bleached, but vaa 
of no more valae than the one nnbleaabed- 

Thou)th the first quantities li^om India brtn^t 
only la. td. 'others have been sold for 8*. 
and a few aamplea h^ve been valued at is. pM 
lb. — Drs. HoyU on Ziiitjfla$f, P* H ; Oamtmr 
Malayan Fishet. in )A>ur». Ah^. 4a. Sti^t 
Maegn'e Tentuaerim, ' . 

I31S,.B goddess of the E^yptiana. Hiicto- 
l)iua tells us, thatlua **iawor8hipped in eveiHr 
religion, being either the eafth 'or nniVeraiu.' 
nature, under the influence of the aun • fb^thia 
reason the whole body of the Koddeas is covered 
with bre&sts (lu this respect resembling ' the 
Diana multomamma of Ephesus] because the 
universe Is nourished by ihe earth or.nat^rv. 
Over the door of the minor temple 6T this deity 
at Pompeii, are wreatbs of lingam and" yom. 
MilTter^s Seven Churches, p. IQ. 'To^s Bc^as^ 
t/ia». See Gburi ; Isani ; Kali. 

tiogtonift aoutaliKuta. 

ISKlRUO, the eapiUl city of finltiatitn, 
or Baltf,(ealla(tby £nKli«hgeogriiphera,*< Litllo 
Thibet,") a country a good deal to the norths 
east of Koishmir, and north-west of Xatfak. 
Gilgit ia a aavage country, lately conqnered by 
Goolab Singh, to the west-north- west of 
Iskardo. The Chorbat district is a dependency 
of the government of Iskardo, which, like 
that of L*', is subject to Kashmir. Tho 
desert country by which Nubra tknd Chorbat 
aie separated, has, for the present, acted as a 
barrier to the further extension eastward of the 
mahommedan religion, which is now uuiversatly 
that of the people of the whole of Iskardo (ot 
Belli) district, as well as of Drag. On the Indua, 
and in the valley sooth of .it, Nereis no un- 
inhabited tract between the two, ao thai fhe 
mahomedan and bnddhisf popnlation are ia 
direct oontaet. The leault ia, t^at dahome- 
danism Is in that part gradually, though very 
slowly extending to the eastward. The name 
Iskardo ta a mahommedan corruption of 
Tibetah name Skerdo, or Kardo, as it is v^ry 
commonly pronounced. ' Thp mountains wl^h 
surrouud the lakardo plain rise at opce witl^ 
great abruptness, and ^ very iteep arfd .bmre^ 
The ho^8ea of lakardo are very much scattered 
over a la^ extent of surface, so lhat there ia 
no appearance of a town. — Dr< Th9l^90l^'s 
travels in Western Himalayet and Tiiei, m. 
304,2 1». Jfra. Bervey's MveaiMms of a 
Lady in Tartary, Vol. J, p. 313-14. Seq 
Balti ; India ; Kabul ; Maryul ; Bikh ; Skardo ; 

ISKIL. Arab. Squill. Scilla.indica. 
ISKULlKUNDRrUJf. See Feriia. 
ISLA. See KHZziHiash. 
ISLA. DOS NEGROS. See Papuans. ' 
ISLAM. The mahomedan name of the 
mahomeJaa ve^^oa,, ^Ulcriv^^'^coia the 


Araliic verb, Salm, be was 8aveil> otUurparU 
nt Ibe verb being in use as salaid, mussulmau, 
The repressive inftueDce of Islam has placed 
sbaekles on tbe independence of liuman thought, 
stifled free inquiTy, and iuaprisoDed the iutellect 
in the close dark cell of dogma snd superstition- 
Islamism, is regarded by the Jews as the second 
gTvat faeresT of theif faith.— Cof Bn-, 
S87. See Khi^h ; Btahomed ; Konn. 

ISLAMABAD, on tho Jbelum, a scat of the 
shawl uaniifaetate> 


Bnca... M...JAV. I 

Tfaa researches of, Darwin hare shown that 
tlw coral potype does not butkl frqm the fa- 
tlKwIeas depfchs of sea which immediatd; sur- 
nwjul thaooral reefa^afid iplaitds. He seems to 
imply indeed that the coral animaH cannot 
exiel at a .greater deplb than thirty fathoins, 
but, living corals exist and build compound 
pDlypidoma at far grAter depths in porthern 
IstHwiea. Darwfn nuintains' that the whole 
area of the F^ffeii -slowly sinkfiig ; that all 
the reeb aad ialaadi an the Aummtts of fotfdier 
■ountaina; that alL tho «orid atmetuiea weve 
ociHiaaUy attachwl to 'the ^nd at a shallow 
depth, bihI that to wlialem d«pth Mow. th^ 
MW extend, it is ooly- in a dead oenditionf and 
has been effected by the jMibeidence of the aop- 
portiDK laud earryiog the -coral with it, while 
tlus successive generations of the living polypi, 
em working opwarda on old dead fonsda- 
lion, have maintained a living coral stmoture 
Bear the surfnee, and that uearly in tlie same 
outline, and from tbe original foundation. 
Utfwin desci^MS bund islands aa of three 
fonns ; the Atoli, or Fairy rin^ of the Ocean, 
with a lagoon in the pentreiharnerrrae&atretel^ 
iag along a vast extent of Doa*t: and ooral 
leaiFa which are merely fringea of coral along 
the Durgin of a shotB. Von Buah Is of opinion 
that the coral ring of the atoll is merely tbe 
eda;e of a submarine volcano, on which the 
eoral insfwU have built. Au atoll diiTers from an 
eocirclittg barrier reef oidy in the absence of 
Und within its central expanse ; and a barrier 
reef differs from-afringii^Teef in i^ing placed 
at a much greater distance from the land with 
reference to the probaUe i|ielination of its sub- 
marine foundation, and, in tfaa preseoce of a 
deep water lagoon-HkC'^paoe or moat within 
the reef. An atoll aooMtimes oonstitutea a 
great drcnlaf dtuaenobsing a deep basin, biLt 
opening by oneorjoora dcephreaoliea-into the 
sea. Sometimes they surround a little island 
ky a girdle of reels, or form the immediate 
edgii^ or border an bland or continent. 
Atotls occur in the Vacifio, in the Chinese seas, 
usMigattbe Marianne and Philippine Islands, 
Maldives and Loccadivea, and there are also 

the atolla of the 8nn^a group. Id ihe eastern 
Archipelago and the Pacifio ooean, are many 
of tlie coral islands. 


ISLAND OF PERQI. See Fbrlm. Aden. 

ISM. A name, or attribute. In exorcism, 
amongst mahomedans, certain names ([Ism, 
sing. Ismapl.)are used such as the ism- 
jallali, or fiery or terrible attribute aUo 
the ism jamali, the watery of air altribute, 
and with these tb^ pretend to cast out devils, 
and conunand tbe presenoe of getiil and demons. 

ISM. A&ab; a netiin, lam-al-nisbah, As* 
an adjecUve. 

ISUAEL. Bon of Abraham. Sucishmael; 

ISM-I-AZAX. tbe great attribute of the 

IS M'l-J ALALIA, '9he terrible or 6ery at- 
tribute of the deity. 

ISM-1-JAU.IlU. Tbe ami&le attribute 
of the d«ty. 

iSMAD Ai,so KOHIL, Aa. Aatimonvi 
sulphurot of Amimony.i 

ISMAEL, SaMANI. « fark, the founder 
of the Sam ani-dy nasty, A. D. S6i. He 
conqueied Tranaoxiana^ Khorasao, and Af- 
ghanistan and fiud tba Mst of hi* governoieiit 
at Bokhara. The Saovni dyuanty fenled for 
120 years. It was tbe itfth of this dynasty 
who possessed a Taztir slave namBd Ahiptagin 
wlw was made goremor of Obasni and Canda- 
bar and on the death of hie patron assumed 
independenoe. Atsptsgin- was niooeedbd A. D. 
970. by bis purchased Turki slave Sabaktagin. 

ISMAIL, tbe first king of the Sriff^vean race, \ 
aseended the throne of Fershi; in A. B. 1499, 
and pTOidaimed the sheak fidth to be the natiOQ- 
al religioD of that eottatry. 

ISMAILI are shiah sectariaas, who take 
their name from the imam Ismail,: son of the 
imam Jafar Sadaq. The Ismaeli-are.the sect 
of tbe old man of tha mMiataitt,'th4 Sbeilch- 
ulJahL Tbe sect in its originM form waa. 
a branch of the diiahf whioh ivfas called . 
Ismaeliau, from Isaiail the oldest son of 
tbe fifth Imam, whtun they - reoognised as 
bis father's successor in opposition to the 
rous of the shiahs> Their doc^ne took 
the form of a sort of gaosticism, giving a non- 
nstia-aL sense tu all levelation, from, whidi they 
had the ndme alao of Bathmius from batio 
Ab. within, ■ word sonifying ** eaoterie'* 
Uasaan Sabah, sob of an Arab at Bsi, one of 
their convwts in Persia, put. himsei/ at. the 
head of the sect in that conntry^ and about 
A> D. 1090 made himself .master of the moun* 
tainous part of Irak Ajami, immediately south 
of the Caspian. This ragioa inotuded many 
strong CBitles, and att Oj^^ ^>^vth&<D9«er of 

105 n 



his lUcoesBon eztcwded to the gates of Ispahaiit 
^tom its character the country whs called by 
the Arabs Ballad-u].jibal. ** the Hill country," 
and buioe the chiefs title. This was also 
applied to the head of a branch society which 
hod iti aaat in Sjrria and became well known 
to tbe Cruaaders. The name of ** Assassin" is 
now, by many supposed to be derived from 
hsshish, the drug under the influence of tthieh 
flie emusariea of the society acted, but it is, 
more correctly, obtainable from Hsnan Sabah, 
honoe al-Hasssni — McUeotm'e Bittory of 
Pveiot Vol. I. p. 347. 3>'Ohsson, book ttf. 
ck. w. Yule Cathay I. p. 154. See IndiB } 
Kabul ! Kh^ah ; Khoaistan. 

ISMUD, alBo KohuJ. Abab. Antimony. 

ISMAR\aDON. Gb. Emerald. 


Nechatfcy kslsagn... Tah. | Ghl-kit^da ... Dm. 

This grows in low, moist grounds, and its root 
is eaten by the common people.-— ^uwIm, p.ii9, 

ISKHES. Abab. Daphne meEereum. 

ISONAKDBA, a genus of plants, belong- 
ing to the natural order Bapotaoes, one species 
of the genua I. gutta funushes (be useful gatta 
percha. The genus consists of large trees, 
growing in Cejrlon, and in the two peninsulas 
of India. Dr. Wigbt» in leones. has, 1. Oan> 
doUeana, lanoeolatsj peraha* Perottetiana, poly* 
audra, and viMosa. 'J^hwaitea mentions, in 
, CeyloB, I. ctnalieulata, 3%«., a miildltf sised 
tree in the Caltura dialriot ; I. granUis, Tkio., 
a targe tree of the central prarincea and fiaf- 
f ragam districts £rom the s^s of which an oil 
is eitiacted and which ia used similarly to that 
of the Bassia lungifolia. He also names 
I. iGeriroIia i I. pAudflont ; I. rubiginosa and 
I. Wightiaua, as trees of moderate and large 
m.—Dr. IFigiU lo. Tkw. Sn, PI. Zeyl. 


Baasla Boamin&tA, Beddmt, 
Indhn Gntta tne... End. { PubouU HalbaI. 

Qtows in the forests of Coorg, the Wynaad 
Traranooie and in the Annamati mountains. It 
grows to a height of 80 or 90 feet.and fur- 
nishes a good wood and capable of receiving 
a good polish. It exudes from tbe truuk a 
substance haviBK similar eharaetera to the 
gntta pen^a of eonmerce, this ia procured by 
tapping, but the tree requires an interval of 
lest of eome hours or even of days after fre- 
qoent inoidoii. In five or aix hours, upwards 
of \\ Ibe. Waa eolleoted Ikom 4 or 6 incisions 
in the tree. When fresh, this is ttf a milk 
color, the larger lumps having a dull red- 
color. The gum is hard and brittle at the 
ordinary temperature, but becomes sticky 
and viscid on the increase of heat such aa that 
from ftiction in a mortar, and when this condi- 

tion ia reached it does not, until after the lapes 
of several'days, resume its original consistence. 
Boiled with water it becomes of a reddish 
brown colour renderingthe water turbid and 
slightly saponaeeoas. With aome chemical re- 
agenta the behaviour of the gum was exactly 
like that of the gutta percha, while with other* 
only a alight similarity Was observed. After 
solution In naphUw or- turpentine, gutta 
peroha resumes ita original condiUon, but the 
pauchonta continues tiscid and sticky, and if 
again much cooled becomes brittle and friable 
aa at first. It is not found applicable to ail 
tbe purposes for which gutta perdia is used, 
but 20 to 80 per cent, of it may be mixed with 
gntta perdiSf without destroying the qnalitiee 
of the gutta.— ^af/imr im Repori of Madnu 
Govt. Central Miutum* Madras Contervatxn^t 
JieporiylSBS, p. 6. Year Boot Facts, 

A middle sized tree of the Galtara district 
of Ceylon.— 2%w. En. pi. Zt^l III, p. 1)7. 

Mearia'||aas»..M».** SuoK. 

AlaT|;e tree of the GBotral provinee, and 
Saffragun district, of Oeytov, growing at an 
eleratioB of 8,000 to 8,000 feet* An oil k ex- 
tracted from sesds which is used in the same 
way as thnt from the Bassia loogifoKa. — Tim» 
f num. f,l, JSefl, III, p. 1 76, 

Muer Wood tree EifO. | Qntta-pereba tree. 
Tabao Halat. ( Niaio Maut* 

The Gutta-percha tree, the Isonandra gntta 
of Sir W. Hooker is a native of the Malayan 
Archipelago, of Somitm and Borneo^ and pro- 
duces the Percha whtoh is as indestrueiible 1^ 
chemical agents as caoatchouo. The tree flonrish- 
ed for centuries In its native jungles, exuding 
its jnfce only to be received by the soil, until 
the discovery was made, in 1842, that its 
gnm was suited for an infinite number of ap- 
plications ; and now, there ia scarcely any vege- 
table product more extensively useful, or one 
more generally sought after for mercantile pni^ 
poses, a regular supply being of much con se- 
quence to some manufactures. Gariefal vigilance 
is needed for protecting the trees whence so 
valijable a product is derived, but we know 
that even thdr admitted financial value has not 
been sufficient to protect them from thoo^leaa 
jnnd unnecesBM'y waste. Br. Uontgomerie, of 
the Bengal lledical Establishment, transmitted 
specimens <tf this snbatanoe to England, on 
the Ist March 1843, and received the gold 
medal of the Society of Arts for Its introduction, 
*' as a new and hitherto unknown substance, 
likely to be useful for various purposes in the 
arts.'* It is one of the most valuable vegeta- 
ble productions that has ever conduced to the 

Qg Digitized by VjOOglC 



eomfort and safety of nuDldod, or aided com- 
Biinittes in tfasir commercial traffic and in 
tbeir hard-wrought and difficult progress to 
enitineering perfection. Dr. ICoDtgomerie, in 
I84S, obeerred in the hands of a Malayan 
vooduDau at Singi^wre, the haadle of ft parang, 
made of a substance quite new to him and which 
be found oould be moulded into any form, by 
timply dipi»Dg it ia boiling wat^ until it was 
heated throoghout, when it bocame plasUe aa 
eby, mod wbeu eold, reguaed, unchanged, its 
original hardoesa and rigidity. Thedisoovery 
was conunaDtcated to the Medical Board of CaN 
eutts, and subsequentty, to the Society of Arts in 
Loudon, and became nipitUy known to the world. 
Sir Jamrs Brooke reports the tree to be called 
Niaio by the Snrawak people, but they are not 
acquainted with the properties of the sap ; it at- 
tains • oonnderable size, even as large as six 
feet in diameter, ia plentiful in Sarawak, aud 
most probably alt over the island of Borneo. 
The tree is stated to be ooe of the lai^st in the 
forests in which it is foond. The liinber is too 
loose and open for building parpoaes, but the 
tree bears a fruit yhi^ yields a ooocrete oil, 
ised for food. Outta Peroha, in its orude state, 
differs, in tapay particulars, from caoutdwuc ; 
it is of a paM yellowish, or rather dirty white 
eokwr — It is oontained in the sap and milky 
jaioe, which quickly coagulates on exposure to 
the air — from twenty to thirty pounds being 
the B¥«rage produce of ooe tree. Ifor collect- 
ibe sap, the trees are felled, barked, and 
left dry, and useleas. Heuoe the foreats will 
soou be cleared of the gutta treea ; whereas, 
it is believed that a coustaot and moderate sup- 
ply migltt be secured by incisions in the bark, 
as in the ease of eaoutchouc. The gutta ia re- 
oeived in bhMks, or in rolls of tbiti layers, being 
ia the first place, freed from impurities, by 
kacading in hot water when it is left soft, plas- 
lie and of avhiUsh grey< Whui thus prepared, 
the gutta has ma^ curious properties. Below 
the temperature of fifty d^rees It ia as bard aa 
wood, but it will reoeire an indentation from 
the fingar-nail. When aoftened ia hot water, 
it asay easSy be cut and moulded, and it will 
harden aa it oools to its former rigidity ; and 
it Buy be s<rftened and hardened an^r number 
of times, without injury to the materml. Un- 
like caoutehonc, it has little elasticity, but it 
has each teuaeity that a slip, one-eighth of an 
inch substance, sustained 42 lbs. weight, and 
ooly broke with a preasuia of 66 lbs. When 
drawn out, it remains without coDtracting. 
It has been made subserrient, to the ma- 
Bubeture of tubings, mouldings for picture- 
bamet, oatheters, and other surgical instru* 
Bents, whips, thongs, cricket' balls, driving 
bands or straps for mechanic purposes, soles 
for boots and shoes. In solution, t\ao, like 

oaoatchoQOj for water proofing cloth ; it ia 
likewise employed in masticB. oements, and is 
burnt and made into printing ink and paint, &o. 

moderate ssed tree of the Saffiragam district of 
Ceylon and at Beigam Oorie. at no deTtttira. 
»n«. in, PI. Zej/l. Ill p. 177. 

moderate sized tree at Katnapoora, in Ceylon at 
no great eleTatiou.~ril». Bn, PL ZegL III. 
p. 177. 

large tree of tlie Baffragan district . alul Hini- 
dnou Corle in C^lon growing up to aq elcTatiou 
of 4,000 feat.— fift*. ^m. PL Zryi III p. 1 77 


I. Perofctetiau, A. D,0.\ L laneeoUta. W&Te. 

Wight, le, I Kiriwsratagasa... SiaaB, 

I. CaadoUeaaa, W. Je. | 

A moderate sixed Ceylon tree, one variety is 
extremely abundant at an eleration of 2,OU0 to 
5 000 feet, another variety growa near GalaganiH 
and a third variety is at Newera BUia. — Tk» 
E». PhZeyl. III,/). 177. 

ISOP. (Jjsa. Hysaopus offioinaUt. 

ISOPODKS, an order of Craataeea, the 
geaen aad apeeies of which aoeordiag to Milne 
Edwuds, may be thus shown : 

Oaoxa. laopodea. 
Sao. IsMiodas sMrdwuts. 
Faw. Xdoteidea. 
Tubs. Idoteidea arpeuienaaa. 
IdoUa ruffosa, B<ho. Indian Seaa. 
^ inoiea, EdK. Malabar Ooaat. 

peroaif, Bdm. Australii. 
„ ttb*Upee. Edw. Oapa uf Good Hope. 

Fam Aaellotas 

Tb3B. Aaellotes Hontopoilaa. 
Ugia brandtii, BdM. Oa{ie ol Q. 
Tribb Ctoporttdaa terreatraa. 
Poroallio truDcatus, Jidve. Hauritiiu. 
Armadillo nigricaaa, Edw. Cape of Good Bupe, 
„ flavesoena, Bdw. 

DivmoN tylostens. 
Sko. Isopodea natatoree. 
Fah. Sphnromiena. 
Sphnroms quoiaoa, Ed». VanDiMnan^s land. 
„ gaimardii, E^. New Holland. 
„ pubaBceoB, Edio, „ 
„ annata, AAe. New Zealand. 
„ dieantha, Btbf, King laid. 
u perforata, SkPaal. 

ZoBsars diadeBiao, tttAk. New HoUand 
„ ArnaU, Edw. Anafamlia. 

Cercttia trideutata, BdiB, King laid. 
Fam CymoOioadiena. 

TaiBB. Errans. • 

Cirolana alongata, Sdm. Oangas BUmtb 

M Boulpta, Edw. UalaMi 
AUtropuB typaa, Edw. Bengal 

« aculeate, Sdm. Indian Seas 

AnUocra oapeosla, Edm. Cape of 6. Hope 
Liroaeca rajnaudii, Edu. Cape e^GoM Hwe 
indios ^^uaati^CjOOQlt 


ValimWli— * Tam. 

Valambiri kaya T^L. 

Nitliti ; Syamali,...., „ 

Ada SyaiQkli 

Kavanotu ... „. 


Oymothoa nutfaaef, Ed«. SeyohellecL 
„ frontale, Bdu. ABiatio Sew. 
M trigooooophaU, Bdto. Chiaa, N. Hidland. 
,t biuikaii, Sdm, Gap« of 0. Uope 
Ssonox Isopodeci Mdentsriif Epioirides of La- 
Legion, BraikohiopodM. 

Hdicteresima,.. ^tien. | H. Boz%urghQ...£Aee<fe. 

Antumoni Bbkq. 

Thii-gnay-khyso... BCRM. 
India aoceW plant... Esd. 

Marori • ; HtHd. 

laora Harri Malkal. 

ValuM^ri... , 

Good wbito fibres, onlled " googuH" in 
Tamil, are obtained from its bark and are 
made iako ei<»llsnt ropea, varioQs parts 
of tbii, ptftQ^ vtp employed in medicine; its 
wood 18 employed to obtain Gee by fricttoo.— 
Mad. Sx, Jwr. Bep. 

IVOBT 6L&C(C, animal charcoal, eiten- 
sively used in the arts, procared by the incine- 
ration or doae distillation of irory, and of the 
horns ot bones of nniinala. — Wateritm, • 

ISORA MABRt lUxAU.. laora oorylU 

ISOTOMA. AXILLARIS. A beaatifnl plant, 
the flowers kiok like a large lilaa jaaaanune, 
and an onltiraled Hke tfas lobelia.— AUiia. 

ISPAGHOL. Ispagola or Ishabghbl. Pkks. 
Seed of Plantago. 

ISPAHAN, the former capital of f^rsia, 
is a very anient city. An attempt baa bfcn 
made to identify it with Ecbatana, the capital 
of BDfueat Sledia ; but the arguments in fatour 
of thia auppoeitien are more ingenious than 
sound. Bwataoa waa probably modern Ha- 
madtn. Upahan oooupies the oantral- part of an 
oval plain, which is enclosed by a range of moan- 
taiusi presenting a singularly serrated outline, 
the lowest part is on the N. E. and the high- 
est on the 3. W. side of the city. From an 
elevated pass leading through the rugged and 
rocky belt on the latter aide, there is obtained 
a fine view of this mountain baain, whose cir- 
oumferenoe is about 80 miles. A distance of 
about IS' miles separates the mountains on 
the western aide from those of the eastern : the 
ehorter diameter being abont A milea. It well 
watered by tha teituona Zend*md, which flows 
through U rather aouthward of ita oentre. Ita 
foreign Imports, embrace objects of oommeroe 
from India or Snrope, but the cotton and 
silk stufTa, the relvets, glass, pottery, 8m., of 
the country are obtainable in its bazaars. At a 
period not very remote, Ispahan contained up- 
wardsof 600,000* souls ; but its population lat- 
terly decreased to 150,000. The north and 
north-eastern parte of the cify are leas deserted 
' than tiioae to the south and west. 


As the people of Shiraz are notorions for 
turbulence and blackguardism, so are those of 
Ispahan for obsequious flaiteiy and deceit ; in 
these all PeraiaQs are wonderful adepta, 
and deeperate aiiil unfathomable liara, but 
the citfiens of Ispahan surpass tiie rest 
of their countrymen in this viee. The 
Afghans undir Mir Mahmnd in 1722, be- 
sieged Ispahnn. The horrors of this si^e, 
equal to any recorded in ancient history, have 
been described by the Polish Jesuit Krusinski, 
who persoutlly witneesed them and ihey are 
noticed in the " Hiatoire de Perse depuis le 
oommenoement de ce aiecle," (the eighteenth), 
of M". la Mnmye CIdirac, on authorities whicli 
cannot be disputed. The inhiU}itiint3 of Ispa- 
han were compelled by famine to deyonr not 
only mules aud horses, but do^a and other 
creatures whidi their religion taught them to 
oonaider as nnOlean* A woman endeavouring 
to atraogle a cat was heard to' exdaim at eveiy 
scratch or bite that she received "Thou strive^t 
in vain, I'll eat thee notwitbstantfing" The 
leaves aud bark of trees were ground into a 
kind of meal and sold by weight, shoe leather 
was boiled and used as food ; at length human 
flesh became the chief support of many miser- 
able wretobes, who for a while were content 
with vbat they cftuld collect from bodies that 
filled the public streets ; but some were induoe^ 
to murder their fellow citiauus, and, it ia'even 
said, that parenta killed and devoured their owq 
children, ^rom the BiS- memoirs of All 
Kazio, wa leqm that ** a emst or lump of bread 
was sold at so.bigh a price as four or five gold 
asiira5." A pound of bread, according to Km- 
sinslti, attaioetl, in September, the price of 
thirty shillings : and, ' in October, of above 
fifty. Among the calamities of this memorable 
siege, Ali Havin laments the destruction of his 
Kbrary which comprised about five thoosand 
volumes, Arabic and Persiuii, many enriched 
with the mai^tnal notes of his learned ancestors. 
— Bittory of the Ravotution of Persiot pub- 
luhed hy the Pere da Oerceau, quoted in 
dMeleys TraveUf Vol. Hi. p. 44-45. 

ISPAND. Pkrs. The seed of the XawSonia 
inermis, in Persia burned at marriages. 

ISPAT; Hind. Steel. 

JSPOGHtfL VEBEI. TahI Spogel'Beed, 
seed of Plantago ispaghnla. 

lSPBIN.ri, a tpwn of Baluchistan, occupied 
exclusively by the BangoUye Baluch who also 
spread into mawl and Mustang and in winter 
repair to Talli, near Lehri. 

ISPR,UK« a coarse powder made from a 
species of Delphinium, growintr in Affghanistan, 
used in dyeing. — Smniond'a Diet: 

ISRABEL. Hind. Aristolocbia Indies. 
ISRAEL. Though Jews were Israelites, yet 
the Israelites wete not ^ws. TJie word Jew 


Digitized by 

{Jodniu) is really " JudseM," and datea only 
fnm the nUim from Babylon^ when the tribe of 
Jadah became the head' lepresenUti^e of the 
lution. The Samaritaas always oaU themaelvea 
the diildren of Joseph, &nd the Jvm Yehud- 
bim,or Judathites. — Among the laraelites, the 
whole subject uf another life was thrown so 
completely into the shade that we are left in 
doabt whether the noblest minds smongBtthem 
ereii believed thai there wns any future for the 
human soul, or any knowledge olr device or 
wisdom in the grave. They remained 400 
years iu bondage to the most deeply believing 
nation, and adopted from their masters all 
Banner of opinions and cerpmonies, yet re- 
mained apparent exeepiiona to the whole hu- 
nan nee in thtar ahsenoe of beli^Jn immorta- 
lity. Moat of their oosloms, related to this 
life ; the blooil sprinkled on the door-posts of 
Uraet in Egypt was a sign that the destroying 
angel was not to enter, the inmates being under 
the divine protection. A similar preaerilng 
token is referred to in Ezekiel ix. 4, where the 
man " clothed in linen/' having a written ink- 
hora by hia side, is commanded by God to set 
a '* mark" upon the foreheads of those who 
grieved for the abomipationa of Jerusalem. 
" Behold my sign 1" ssjs Job xxxi. 35, sMord- 
ing to the marginal reading ; or, ** Behold, 
hen is my Thau** (a mystic mark), as Calinet 
rmders it, endently referring to some di>tinc- 
tivB badge which he won ; find Paul, probable 
alluding to some acknowledgsd saored sign, 
observes ** henceforth kt no man (rouble me 
for I b«*ar in my body the marhs of the Lord 
Jesna." Portions of"^ St. John's Gospel wtira 
worn by the early Christians, and verses of 
Barfptnre were even placed upon horses, Ho- 
dten, where the Israelites were allowed to pitch 
th«r tents and tend tiieir flcjAs, was in Ka- 
mrwes or HeHopolts, derived- from the word 
Goshe, or upper lands, perhaps; they called it 
the land of Goshen. The/ were Bhemmo. or 
strangers in the land, and hence the Israelites 
eaBsd themselves the children of Shem.— 
8han^9 Hutwg of Sgifpt, VoL I, p. »8. 
See Kurdistan ^ Serpent. 

ISRAFIL, according to. mahomedan belief ; 
the angel who will sonnd thp. trumpet at the 
last day. 

ISBANJ. A»AB. f Eea lead. Cinnabar. 
ISai-VBL. Sahs. Aristoloohia Indlca, 


ISBBB, a ootton hkrit* Visagapatam 
XsfM : Nelhm white Fercnlah. and Jyemprt- 
tafa Soocey an of aeeurate woiknaaahip.— * 
Jmr. Bep. M. B.oflW. 

IS8EDONE3. See Kedah. 
ISSVH. Bus. Raisins. 
I8TAKHAN. Vxas. Bones. 

ISTAKUR. An isolated hill north-wese of 
Persepolis, having a fort which seems to have 
served as a state prison. This isolated hill is 
the key of the pais which ppens into the plain 
of Persepolis, from the hilly oountiy of Arde- 
kao. Istakhr or Persepulis was always n 
favoured spot with the afuaents. It was the 
cradle of the Ahmed race, and it was in its 
vicinity tha^ Yezdijird on his return from Khu- 
rasan placed himself for the last time at t)ie 
head of his subjects, and was 'lefeated by 
Abdullah, thii son of Omar in A. I). 650 
The 8har/ Ncmeh or History of JCurdestaiij 
represents the castle of Istakhr >s a state 
prison in which Ahmed was coqRned during 
the space of ten years. Among the celebrities 
of istakhr, we mfly mention the famous im- 
postor Mazdac, who propagated the sbaurd 
doctrine of the community of women, which 
in the early part of the nineteenth century 
was renewed by the Saint Simonians. Mazdxo 
was a native of that town, and flonrished in the 
reign of the Kasanian monarch kobad, in the 
sixth century of the Christian era. Ouseley's 
Travel^, Fol. II. p. 404. Bafon 0. A. De 
Bock*a. Travel* in Luriitan, emd Arabittan,, 
p. 165. See Pars i Kabul. 

ISTALIF, a townin Afghaniataii, in^pwof 
the most piotureaqq* spots wb'ioh can be 
oonoeiwd ; nil th^ « oombiaation of uat«ra) 
basntiss osp aebieve we beheld hsre. in perfee^* 
tion. It is, near Kabul, to the north, and is 
celebrated for its gardens. The inhabitaats of 
the surrounding country are Tajik and an Ua-^ 
biilent and vindictive. The hills produoe 
good pasture- The houses; an erected along 
the skirt of the mountain. Near this pldoe is 
a beautiful village esUed Istarghich, on the way 
to Charikar. This latter place is Inrger thui 
any other town in the valley, but is sot IuumI-* 
some. The emperor Baber, in his Meiuoirsi 
thus deeerlbes the Beg-Kswan or moving 
sand. BetweeR the plains there is a small hijl. 
In which there is a hne of aandy grpand, reach* 
ing from the top to the bottom* .Tb^ <nll it 
khw^ah Beg E^wan ; they say in the summer 
seaaon the sounds of druma and nagareh issue 
from the sand." — JfoKn TraveU^ p. 

i6Qi< JfoMofl's Jourit^*, Fot. Hi. p. 120. 

l^TAQBAL, the mahomedan courtesy of 
advaurinK to reoelve a distingaished goest. 
A deputation is usually ssnt forward to meet, 
weleome, and conduct to the lodgii^s prepared 
for him, any stranger or guest to whan it is 
designed -to pay high respect ; snd the more 
numerous and h^her in nnk the persons of 
whom this deputation is composed, the greater 
is the honor conferred. In the courtesies of 
mshomedans a host advances to reoetve a visitor 
and on Ids departure eoiivm,him (murajat) to 

109 Digitized by dOOglC 



the sAme spoL^Froie/s Journey into Kkora- 
ion, p- 131. 

ISTABAKAH. The Ziiut al Majalii des- 
cribes the castle of Istsnkah, as one of Jama* 
shid's works.— OiMeZ*y** Travels, Vol. II. p. 

ISTAUAKU FALA. Tel. HolarrhenaDs- 
tidys«nterlca. — WalU 

JST[BBDSU. Tdkk. Wbite lead. 

Bword fish of tbe C«p^ haa a large doraj 

ISTIMRAK, « form of land tenon in 
British India. 

ISTBARRI. Hind, corruption of the word 
strawberry. Few mabomedaus being able to 
pronounce letter " s" followed by a conioiiant, 
without prefiiinp the letter i. 

I3TAFLI17 JAZK. Ab. Ths carrot, Daucas 
carota — Linn. 

rheedianum, S'pr. — W. le, 

I8VAEA VAUMA. See Inscriptions. 

I8VAEA. TbL. Ariatolochia Indica. — 

I8WABA, in Sanskrit, siguifles " Lord " 
and in that senie, is applied by the hindoos. 
to three forms, Brahma, X^hnu and Sirs, 
whom tlMgr adore, or rather to each of the 
forme in which they teaoh the people to adon 
Brahm or the supreme Imng. The Furaoaa 
any that Brahma, Yiahna and Sira were bro- 
thers, and tbe Egyptian triad, Osiris, Horua 
and Typhon were brought forth from tbe sitme 
parent, though Horus was beliered to hnve 
sprunit from tbe mysterious embraces of Osiris 
Imd Irifl before their birth ; as the vaisbnnVB 
hindooa also imagine that Ham, sprang myiti- 
eally from Ids brother Heri or Vishnu. The 
Osiris of ihe Eiiyptians is the analogae of Vish- 
nu, both being bbck, and according to the Pu- 
ranas, Vishnu on many oocaaiona took E^vpt 
■nder special protection. Krishna was Vish- 
Du himself aee(nding to the most orthodox 
opinions of the vaiahnava sect. The titte Sri 
Bhaghavat, importing prosperity and dominion, 
is applied to Krishna, and the black Osiris 
had also the titles of Sinus. Beirina and B ^c- 
okuB. ft ia related that Osiris and Baeohua 
imported from India the worship of two divine 
bulls, and in this oharaoter he was Siva whose 
followers were pretty numerous in Egvpt. 
The bramaaa give to Brahma, the colour red ; 
and by the Egyptians. th« same colour is 
given lo Typhon or Mahadeva, and both are 
named Iswanu Iswara attempted to kill hii 
brother Brahma, who, being immortal, was 
only maimed ; but Iswara finding him after- 
wards in a mortal shape, in the character of 
DakshBi killed him as he was performing a 
•aorifloe. Ur. Wilford discovers in this the 
story of the death of Abel ; and offers very 


learned and ingenious reaaons for the belief,^ 
Tbe number three is sscred to Iswara. or S 
chief of the Tri-murti or Triad, whose sisti 
adonis the junction (San^ium) of alt trip 
streams ; hence called Triveni, who ia Trineti 
or three-eyed ; and Tridents, or ' god of 
trident ; * Triloea god of the triple, shod 
heaven, earth and hell ; Tripura of the trip 
city, to whom the Trip<di or triple gates 
sacred, and of which he haa made Gane'a tl 
jauitw, or guardian. The grotesque 
pliioed by the bindus during the ssturnalia 
the highways, and called Nat'ha-Bama (t 
god Kama), is the counterpart of the fio 
described by Ftutarch aa representing Osi 
" oesiileil printanier, " in the Egyptian Satu 
nalia or Phamenoth. Even BHm-iaa 
Ravana may, like Osiris and Typhon, be men 
the ideal representatives of light and darknei 
and tbe cliaste Kta, spouse of the Acrj 
prince, the astronomical Virgo, only a zodi 
sign. Iswara or lord, and Mahadeva, 
grest god, ace synonymous, and are daimed 
both vaisbnara and aaiva hindooa, as appdl 
tions of their respective deities Vikhnu and Sn 
and, in this view, their Vishnu or their Sits 
their Supreme Creatw. In the doctrines of 
Sri Sampxadaya, a aeefc of hindua, '* Chi 
meana the "spirit** of Vishhu, thi^ wi 
'* acfait** or matter and Uwm god, or ml 
b^ng the three predicates of the universe, 
their views, .Vishnu is Brahma, before all m 
creator of ail. Iswara, the lord, ia the prj 
ticnl deity in the vedanta. See Argha ; Kal 
Kali ; Kartikeya ; Priyanath ; Siva ; Va^wai 
Vidya ; Tavana. 

ISWARA. In Hinda astronomy, the 1 1 
year, of the cycle of Jupiter* 

ISWARA GHBTTU. also Telia and Ni 
Iswara, Til. AriatoloAia Indicaw— £m«» 
ISWARA ICAKADL Tn...Xanthoehya 

ISWBT. Rds. Quick lime. 
ITA oa NEQBITO. See AbeU, Negrit 
Papua, AUura. India. 

ITA CHE ITU. Tkl. Phomix sylvest 
— Uoxi. Elale sylvestria date palm. Iia-ak 
Txt» The leaf of Elate sylvestris— £<mm. I 
Pandu. Tel. lu frnit. 

ITAR GANDAM. Hiho. Wheat straw. 

ITOHAHELLI. Tah. The leaf of Ell 
sylvestris.— j&tnn. Itchnm Maram. Tah. T 
tree. Itcham pallam. Tak. Tbe fruit 

ITCHOORA. Sams. The root of Barle 
longifolia.— . 

ITALIAN HILLBT. Fanieum itali 
— Linn. 

India, Kapila. Sanscrit Veda, K^lat, Krish 
Semitic races. PolyandsfT^^^I^ 

Digilifed by "OOOQ IC 



!TA MUNGEtlGK. Tel. DoUcho»rel- 

ITARI. Tkl. Bniis. 

ITCHAPOOB. See Kimedy. 

IT^IIUBA. Saks. JEtool ofBarleria lon- 


Sams. Saccharum offl" 


rrEA NTITANS. Selar, Hjkd. A pUnt of 

ITHL Tm. Plicenix fimnifera. — Boicb. 
mUHASA. SeiiVeda. 
1TL Tim. Ualbal. Dalbergia latifo- 

m-AliU. Kalbal. FieoB nitida.— 7%m>A. 
Km benttmitui. — Xtmr. 

•MmU rork printed at HUsn ia 1608, after 

rbsg of tbeidand of SayK aajs, thai " to 
wtnrd of thif ihera i» another called 
fluiiii, whid we name Taprobane, diatant 
tm tk city at Galechut about tluoe montliB 
Hp^** Thtt inrormation appears to have 
mm obtained from an Indian at Crani^anoref 
ai Ik eoaat at Malabar, who visited Li&bou in 
IWl—Uanden'B Hut. of Skmatra, p* 8. 

ITI PALA. Til. GlocMdion mtidnm, 
fm^ the Brarileia nitida of Eoxh. 
nC MANGI TIGA. Dolichoa falcatus. 
lUHINEA. The colour of the flowers of this 
amcBtal garden jdmt are purple, red and 
jfAov, ind ma; be cultivated from seed, or by 
drriding the roots.— 'BiddeU, 

HiVD. also written atr, otto and altar, 
OTttriMg seented essential oil. 

Iisn:. HiHD. Trianthema pentandra also 
Ihttiuthfla mgoana and Boerhaavia diffusa. 

ITZABU. A aqoare nlver eoin of Japan 
awlh atNMit ]«. 6tf. or la. 8d. U ii the com- 
an CMD of Japan bv which prices are fixed. 
ITKNI. Til. Henna. 
ITEE^ Edward, a medical officer of the 
Sritidi navy, who wrote a vuyage from England 
lalailiaiD 17S4, and an historical Narrative 
4 As operations of the army in India under 
A^nal Wataou and Colonel Clife. Lond. 

iriNBI i alao Irvria Ivir. Favj. Oorylos 


lafl.— ... Ab. Spur. 

IUmb.^ Daw. 

hmt »...Pb. 

■Una „...Okr. 

bpfaM . Qs. 

bnatb^bai-.... Has. 

■ Iiabbim.„„. Heb. 
Iinndnt„ HuiD. 

boy is obtained from the tusks and 
helkflf the elephant, the narwhal, the walrus, 
■ai tke hippopot«mus. The best and lar- 
ifit Hpply u kowever from the elephant. 

Oading danta, 


Daata. ....... 

.... Sams. 





The inale elephant when full grown has two 
tusks, varying very greatly in size in different 
animals, but most valued when they are large, 
straight, and light in colour. Tliese tusks 
are hollow at theu" insertion into the jaw, 
and for a considerable space tiierefrom, bat 
become solid as they taper towards the ex- 
tremity. The principal sources whence they are 
obtained are the western coast of Africa and 
the East Indies ; but the African tusks are 
most esteemed, as being denser in texture, 
and less liable to turn yellow. By an analysis, 
the African show a proportion of animal to 
earthy matter, of 101 parts to 100 ; while in 
the Indian it ia 7(i to 100, The applications 
of ivory are so numerous that a large demand 
of elephants' tusks has existed for a lengthened 
period. The imports into Great Britain 
amounted in 1831 and 1882 to 4.130 cwts., of 
which 3,960 cwts. were retained for home 
consumption. Now, reckoning the medium 
weight of a tusk at about sixw pounds, it ia 
evident that the imports of these years would 
require7,709 tusks, or the destnirfibn of8,8S4 
male elephants. But since that pmod Uie 
imports have so greatly risen, lhat in Sheffield 
alone 180 tons or SIflO cwt. of ivor}- are- 
worked up annually into knife-baitdles, &c. 
It is also affirmed that of the quantity of tusks 
imported although eome weigh from 60 to 
100 pounds, yet the number of small tusks 
is 80 enormous, that an average nei^cht of 
nine pounds can only now be rerkoned on ; 
in which ciiso 45.000 tusks, from S3,00U 
elephants are required to supply the demand 
of this great cutlery mart of England. 
Sheffield atone, has been said (o consume the 
ivoiy of S0,000 elephants, but Uiis seems an over 
calculation. Occasional^, broken or shed tmka 
are collected, or those of animals which die 
a natural death are obtained ; but the supply 
from these sources is never very large, so 
that the slanghtei of elephants, after all de- 
ductions madp, is going on at a rate which 
leaves it a constant wonder that the breed of 
this noble animal has not been sensibly dimi- 
nished. Ivory is wrought into the forms of 
chess-men, billiard-bRlls, the keys of musical 
instruments, thm plates for miniatures, mathe- 
matical and other inatmments, and an immense 
variety of small objects of use, amusement or 
ornament. At Zanzibar and on the East 
Coast of Africa, tusks we^hing 100 lbs. each 
are eommon ; those of ITfilbs. are not rare, 
and a pair has been seen whose joint weight 
was 660 Ibt. Lately about one million have 
been annually imported into Britain, which, 
taking the ireight of a tusk at 60 pounds 
wtiuld require the slaughter of 8,383 male 
elephants. The tuska of the hippopotamus 
afford a very hard and wliilft-^irory. Thine 

■y^'Y Digitized by KjOOglC 



are usually slioit and innc^ curved, hollo* 
at the place of inMrtion* and covered ^ith a 
filosBy eDamel. They vary in weight from three 
or four pounds to ttiirty. Tbeee are highly 
prized by the dQotistSt and are better adapt- 
e I than any other ivory for rankiag artifioial 
teeth. The thick coat of enamel which covers 
(hem has first to be removed, for this entirety 
resists steel toola, and under it ia found a 

?iure white ivory, with b slighi bluish casi, 
he parts rgected by the dehiiats are uaed 
for imall carved and turned works. Tlie horn 
or tftoth of ibe narwhal ia also hard and 
siiaeeptible of a fine polish, "the largest sise is 
ten feet long ; at the lower extremity it forms 
a alender bone of a twisted or spiral fijiure. 
Fossil ivory supplies almost the whole of the 
ivory-turner's work made in Ruaua, Along the 
banks of the la^er rivers of the Bueaian 
empire, and more particularly those of further 
Siberia, thousands of tusks are annually dug up, 
wliich once constituted the weapons of defenoe 
of a species of mammoth now extinct. These 
have not undergone the changes usually under- 
stood ia coDuexion with the term fossil, their 
substance it as well adapted for use as the 
ivory prooared from living species. So nu- 
merous are these tusks, that they are ocoasioa- 
ally exported from Jlussia, being cheaper than 
recent ivory. They are rarely to be met with 
in England, except in museums. Mention 
is made, however, of one which measured 10 
feet in length, and was solid to within 6 
inches of the root, weiKhins no leas than 186 
lbs. : this was out up into keys for piano-fortes. 
African ivory, when first cut,, is mellow, warm, 
and transparent, almost as if soaked in oil, 
and wiih very litile appearance of grain or 
fibre t the oil dries considerably by exposure, 
and a permanent tiat then reraaiosk a few 
shades darker, than writing paper, ^sialic 
ivory is more dead-whlte at first, but is more 
disposed of the two to t^ru yellow afterwards. 
Ivory comes to dhina pnocipally from Coohin> 
China and Africa, via Bombay, and always 
finds a ready sale at Canton ; the Ivgeat and 
best tusks weigh from 16 to .35 pounds .each, 
decreasing to five or six pounds. The cuttings 
and fragraeDts also form an article of trade, as 
the. workmen oAn employ th,e smallest pieces. 
Bones and horns, espedally the long horns of 
buffaloes, an in China worked ii^lo handles, 
buttons, &o. Hhinoeeros* horns are brought 
from Burmah, from Sumatra, arid from Africa 
through Bombay ; they are highly Vfilued by 
the Chinese from a notion that cups . ma le from 
them sweat whenever a pcusoooni mixture is 
imared into them. A . perfeoi horn sometimes 
sells as high as $300, bat those lhat come from 
llrioa do not usually rate above |30 or |40 
each. The priaNpid nee of these horns is in 


medicine and fbr amulets, for only (me good 
cup can be carved from the end of each hotn i 
and consequently the parings and fragments are 
all preserved. The hard teeth of the walrus, 
lamantin, and other cetaceous animals, ^Iso 
form an article of import into China from iho 
Pacific, under the designation of tea-hoim 
teeth ; they weigh, one or two pqunds a piece, 
and the ivory is nearWas compact, tltouuh itot 
so white, as that of. the elephant. — TWUnf-^ij 
Boltsappel ; HotC^te Mr. Morrison"* Camp, 
DeK. Madras JBxhibltion Juries S^. Hamil- 
ton's Sinai^ Blackwood's Magi^tnt, Mairch 

irOff? CA^n^GS, froiA diffeteOE paru 
of India w» much to be admire^ whether for tlief 
size or .the miiiuteneas, for the elnboratenves 
of detail or for the truth of representation. 
Among these the ivory carviQKB of Iferhampore 
are conspicuous. A set of chessmen from 
India at the Exhibition of I85I, carved from 
the drawings in Lnyard's " Nioeveh," \Vere 
excellent representations of what the worlcinea 
could only have seen in the above Work 
aud show«l that they are capable of doing new 
thin]£S when required ; their representHfibns of 
an elephant ancl other bnimals were true lo 
natuEB. Theoarvings in the same'puterial in' 
a slate diair sent from Travanoore liete greatly 
admired, and, from the truth of representation, 
on a minute scale^ where an elephaot v/n en- 
closed In the shell of a pea, from Calicut. 
Chouries, or fly-flappers, where the ivory, or 
sandal-wood, is cut into loug hair-like threads, 
are also specimens of their mechanical skill. 
The delicate carving of Chinese wcrkmen ia 
well known and hna often been described ; many 
speciraeiis of it »re anuually exported Few 
products of their skill are more rctparkable lhaa 
the balls, contuiuitiK ten or twelve spheres out 
out one within another. The manner of cuttinit 
these is simple. A piece of ivory or wood U 
first made perfectly globular, and. then severial 
conical holes are bored into It in such a 
Bsnner that their apices all meet at thecientreia 
which is usually hollowed oat an inch or lea'ii 
after the holus ace bored- A long crooked tool 
is then inserted In one 6i the conieal holes, so 
bent at the end and stoppered on the shaft that 
it cuts the ivory at the same distant)^ from the 
surface when its edge is applied to tUe iosidea 
of the cone. By sucoesstWy cutting a little 
on the insides of each oonical hole, their 
incisures meet, and a spherical is at last 
detached, which ia now tutoed over and its 
faces one after another brought opposite tha 
largest hole and firmly secured, by wedgn ia 
the other holes, while its sorfaoes are smocked 
and carved. Whsn the central sphere is doa^ 
a similar knif^ .somewhat larger, is again 
introduced iDtoDlJ^eJg|^^t^^ sphere 

ivoBT cixmtoa. 

ud Munllbed 4n the ■une way, 
ud tlwD aootW, until the whole are «oib< 
ptett^, eoA being polisM aikI ca^v^ he- 
fore IhsffBkt entor ooe i« oomneneed. ' itbw 
been vippeMd bf aotH the! tlMMf tnirloM 
fcij«weT« nade of heAkpheiiM nieety iMed 
togcAer, «sd the^ fasw bMn hotted in oil tev 
Im honker t^tepttnt* tiMM e^lvv tbS 
■jilafy of thm ooncftrMibD. VmmAmrA 
mnmeumd of woo^i ivory* ttind mother 
of piul in^dtfinf^TO, with «u ^fihondepeu 
ffUfh ilNnitB the gMtt akill and fPtiieDW of 
tkeworkiMB* wd at ti)e.,iaae tiqehiih bait 
telle u .dliuring^ the %uir9. houHM, 
ud othw otyeota beiog groH{jed in yioJation 
tf jil pupfiety and .pe^npe^tLvft BMUtifql 
vnaneBtii m iqade by cuyiug rof^ qf, plf^tei 
bnecfaw, gnurled ,kBote». &c.( into jhoUsti^ 
pe^fe of bu-de or aoiau)U| tbe artut taJLing 
Mtrutag&af the natural form of his nuteria)a< 
ModelB of pagodas, boats, and bppses are alao 
estirely coiistrnoted pf iroryt ev^n to repiiesenL- 
ag Uie ornameatal roofs, the ^en working 
■t tbe oar, and women tooktng front the bil- 
coaies. Baskets of elegant shape are Woven 
from irory splinths • and the shopmen at 
Cinton, cuibit a nriety of seds, jfnper knfres 
dnmrai, counters* ecnhba, &c>; exceeding in 
tuk and delicai^ the same kind of W(nk found 
adhere die in the worid. The most elabo- 
nAe coat of arms, or complicated cypher, wHl 
■ho be imitated by these skilful carTers. The 
utioDal taste prefers 'this style earring on 
plaaesnlaeesi itia4feen.<m tike -vaUs Qfiioasea 
lad graoile stabs of feooes, the wood wovk^^of 
boita wd shops, aad od aitides of fumiUre. 
Some oflt« pi^ty, but tlte diroropwtion and 
nmped position of the figarea debact from its 
beasty. The ivory csrving, ebony anS other 
kud wood oniaaiMts, tbe ImmzslraDd -pMoehdn 
^mens of China are all exquisitely Woi'kfed. 

1b ik6 deren veata, 1 860-1, to 18«0^1, the 
npnufiom British ItlBia of ivoiy anfl^^- 
vA«,tiriiidp&Uy to'Qpefft Bfltaiii, ChftUi and 
Awmea were as under • 


£ Value. 







' 41L0BjS- 

— a:9' 



Tasb are largely imported into Bomhay ftom 
^ AMcan Coait, Zanzibar. &e., and tf»ohi^y 
R-exponed to England . Tht "natirea of Indih, 
ibo, diaplay great akiU add nealnesa, aa welt 
*»WritBal taate, in their work boxes of irory, 
Mnor pennpine quill, ebony ud sandalwood, 
M has and anibrei1«a,ehontiea, and khuakhos 

othtt baskets, ^ookah-snakes, imitation fraita 

awl A«wer«f teiya and puules. Tbe elegant 
carving (tf the Ohinisae, ' in i»ry, and tbe 
oheapMsa af the drtieles, eaaaes a ftat^ sale of 
the nbat^nteFul to; all parte of ttie world. Fans, 
ssali, |M(Mr-)emvea, ehe«men, &e., 4o., are «x- 
[Mvttid piiufiipaUy to thȴnitod Statea, to India, 
to South America, Eaiope, &o. Under tha 
old system, iOO ivory fans wera estwatedlo 
weigh 6 cati, 4 tael aud paid 6| mace doty. 
Of the Chinese mauaCactures in ivory, the most 
elegant are camp baskets, consisting of seve- 
ral piepea placed upon each other, sunaouiited 
wjih a han^e, richly earved i—Woijk jbaskela 
9f verieuB sbapes ; — Fans 8(Hneinoptn work j 
others wjbth figures and ornaments raised, or in 
felief f — Hand Screens wrought in a similar 
manner i-^C/ard Kacks, l^c. But the most 
singular article is th«i wrought ball, which 
oogtains from nine to fifteen internal globes, 
one within another, wrought from a solid piece 
of ivory> throngh apertures not more than half 
an inch in diameter. Fine ivor^ carved work 
can be executed in Bhorapore, m the Bekhan, 
of a peculiar and very delieate deserrption. Thfi 
consists, of ^urea of deer and birds, fiowersi, 
as also comba, large and sisaU, cups, &c.^, fcc. 
Any.ord^ fmr wUoh vo^d be executed with 
peculiar core, 11 woul9 be impossibler to define 
tbe prices of tbeae artidest as they would 
depend upon the size and work required. 
At tbe Madns BxbilHtmn of 1855, a very 
interesting and complete series< of earrings 
in ivory was exhibited by tbe rajah of Tra- 
yancore. It comprised many of the commoa 
animals, reptiles, fruits and flowers of thV 
couotiy, all carved w^ taste and carefully 
fioisbed. Tbere was a good deal of graeo 
and spjril in the action of the animals, some of 
which were in natural attitades partiealarly a 
bull and cow, two deers, a cheeta and a rabbit. 
Of the reptiles, a frog and lizard were well re- 
preaented, and a pair of pajper cutters with 
oroameutal handles were luirtienlarly deserving 
of notice one for the judidous adaptatioK of a 
common garden flower to the design, and the 
other of a lizard in a spirited attitude. The 
fruits and flowers were well represented and the 
whole series evinced a perception of the natural 
beauties of the objects represented. The ivory of 
Madras exported is lbs. 4,S10, value Bs.f 1,007. 
The laritest pair of dephant tusks sent to the 
ezTiibition, weighed ISO pounds, obtained from 
a wild elephant killed in Uie Traranoore forests. 
Onetnsk weighed 71 ponnds, tbe other 67 
pondds, and showed a fine white oompaot kind 
of ivory ; of these two, one measnnd 6 feet 8 
inches in length, and the other 6 feat 6 iachea, 
the dreamfisnnce at the base being 17 iodieo 
iaaach case. The domestication of tbe ele- 
phant ia usually attended by deterioratioa of 
Uie Isngth and quantity of the ivory. Ivory 

113 D g lizeOby Google 


paintiag is earried on with vnequaUed nooei* 
at Delhi, as u •!«> Uie, att of maldag jevfillenr 
ill the Eucopeao Cnhion. — WUlicm*» MiddU 
Kingdom, Vol lUpagea 141 an4 408. 
Emhtusy, p. 59. H«d^*s Nitgnaki. Mon'hle 
Mr. Morritou's Compmdiottt DMoriftion. Mmi. 
Ex. Jur. BepK Bee Carving. 


Fftlme de iiurfilt..<£!pan. | HomMa,Tndiaair(tf]Peni 
Ti^aa, Indiana of Hagdar | PnlUpanta „ „ 
■ laia and Dariatf. | 

The irory palm is the Fhytelephas maerCH 
carpa or P. microcarpa, a tree of S. America 
between Lat. N. aud 8" 3, and L. 70« to 
79 W. It iahabita damp valleys, blnks of 
livers and rivulets on the lower coast region 
in Darien and on monntaioa 3,000 feet above 
ihe sea in Oeana. Tbis ioteresting palm- 
tree ia generally fouad la separate grovea sel< 
dom'intermixed with other trees or shrubs. The 
fruit, a flollecUon of from six to seven drupes, 
formsdusters which are Miaxge u a man's head 
and at and at first erect, but when approaching 
maturity its weight increasing and the leaf 
stalk whicli had, up to that period, supported 
the bulky mass having rotted away, it hangs 
down. A plant bears at one time IVom six to 
eight of these heads each weighing when Tipe 
nboat twenty-five pounds. The drupes are 
covered outside withharA wood; protuberances. 
Vegetable ivory is exported dhiefly from the 
river Stagdalena and in some years no. less 
than 150 tons of it ware im|>ort6d into England, 
and 1,000 nuts may sdl in Loudon for seven 
ahiUings and six pence. The Indiana use its 
leaves for thatch* The seeds at first con- 
tains a clear inupid fluid *ith wlueh 
travellers allay their thirst ; afterwards, 
this same liquor becomek miUy and aweet 
and it changes ita tasle by d^rfies as it 
acquires solidity until at last it is attnost as 
hard as ivory. The liquor contAl'Aed in the 
young fruits turns acid if they are cutflrom the 
tree and kept sometime, Vrom the kernels 
(albumen) twrnere fashion the knoba of Walking 
stidca, the rerls of spindles and little toys 
which are whiter than animal ivorjr lind equally 
hard if they are uot put under Water, And if 
they are they become white aflri hard When 
dried again. Bears, bogs and turkeys dtVour 
the young fruit with avidity, ^is uteful plant 
raiKht be introduced iuto India.— Ss«Man vt 
Butanical Magazine^ May l^l%,pag6 WS. 

IVURU M&MIDE. also AmbaU Chettu. 
Tel. Spondias niangifera. Ptas. also, aicMrd- 
iug to Boxburgli, XanUmcbymus pictorius. 

IVT. Hedeni helix. See Climbers. 

IVYLEAVGD 8NAP-D&A60N. linaria 

IWAN. Ak. a saloon, properiy, aiwan. 

IWARAN-KUSHA. Bino. Aadfopacott 

IXIA CUINENSIS and I-eapensia, beaati- 
ful flqirers, wbioh vary in colour and forai, 
they an mostly from Ue Gape of Good Hope, 
require the muba euUivation as plants of the 
lily tribe^ and are pn^ugated by dividing th» 
bolbf. L. C hinw i a, L. iaa tjn. of Paradanthua 
tMamirii JTiti.. BidML 

IXOBA, a genua of plants belonging to tha 
Mb* Ginehimaoeee and the genas Bubiaoeie so 
named, it is supposed, fma the Indian god 
Iiwara. They form ^nibs or small trees, 
with opposite leaves, and stipnles arising 
from a broad base, but aeute at the apex. 
The s[>ecies are numerous, and chiefly confined 
to India and the Saatem Archipelago. Dr. 
Wight, in Iconea, gives aeuminata, allui, baod- 
bttca, barbata, bmhiata, ooeoinea, cunet fo- 
lia, falgens, laneeolaria, nigricau, bretts, 
parviflora, polyantha, stricta, tomentoaa, 
anduhita, and villoia.— IT. /e. 

IXOBA. Species. Telia Kooroowan. Tel. 
A tree of Oanjam and Gumsur, extreme 
height SO feet, circumference 1 foot, height 
from the ground to the intersection of the Grat 
branch, 6 feet. The fire sticks used by the 
shikarees for night hunting are taken from 
tbu tree. It also yields an oil which ia 
applied to the sons of cattlA The tree is 
common.— Cap^tn UaAAmoZi. &f*<^hwn. 

Styloooryne Web«ra--jl; I Whibe-floweied ixoca. 

A Tenaaaerim wild flower . that oagU to 
be broDgkt into oultiVation.— Jfiimi. 

IXOBA BANOSUCA. Jutigle gertniuns. 

Baadhooks, BtdUuka, I Buckblee „ flcnx 

HlMD. 1 

A spreailiog shrub, smaller than 1. oooeioei, 
but eqniilly common : in flower aloioat during 
the wiiole year — of a pal^ crimsoh ook>ar ; 
In the Kotah gardens and jun^ea it is A beau- 
tiful bnsh, eorered with buiiierona scarlrt 
flowers all the year and wobld be vary orna^ 
mental in gardens. Than ia also a white variety 
whioti bmaoms during ihtt mios. Izora 
ooocinea aikl other hpedes of that genus, are 
among the most common shrubs iti Cbiuese 
gardens flowering in profusion, in the clefts of 
the rocks, and its scarlet heads of bloom un- 
der the Hong-koug sun are of the iuost 
daialinc biightnesa. — ZMelL trvUe, 6m, 
Mod. Top. p. 179. ^ortun*. Maaon. 


I. graadiflora. B. Br. 
tjoarlet Ixora. 
Pan-sa-yeik Bcaii- 

Fltme of the Forest. 
OrimsoD izora 

ehatfc) «... Malba. 

Hietti...... Tah, 


"Digitized by 




Tliu Bpeciu of ixon is sometimes eilled by 
tbe Earopean residents of Teoasserim '*Uie 
coanbj genuum." 

8fH. of Ixon eoccinea.—- ^'ra. 

IXOBA PALLKN3. Mjlboh. An indi- 
gesottt spedes of ixon is frequently met with 
Hi TenasMrim in noantuns ud pliins whose 
floven m of ft much psbr bne than those ^ 
I> fooninf Hfflioii ■ 

Panttft indioa.—- Zmn. 


L slbs. MoA. \ W«b«n easjaiboMi Sm. 

„ pareita, Andr. I jff«*. 
„ dMipima, D. C. \ 

Kursng oottiQr>" — Tam . 

Korea Tii» 

Koiimt pall. 

Eorivi pal*, Cir«ars „ 
Konnia Ohstta... .„ „ 

Putt»pala.„ t$ 

Tedda „ „ 

Gandal Biii^iia,..BETO. 

Haona gwin C^. 

Voreh tree K«0. 

Oudhml.T Hna 

Saaghn.} „ 

Kaon Habs. 
Soode eottAy Tah. 

A snwU treej common in the jungles and on 
the ghats of the Bombay eoaa( ; but seldom 
saffioiently long or straight for household par* 
poses. It ^rows in the Godavery forests, in 
the CiroaiB at Nagpore and in Bepga^ and on 
tibe banks of tanks at KoUh. The flowers sre 
wiy sweetly scented and it bloisoms in the hot 
weather ; and would fonn a very fit ornament 
for gardens and pleasure groundi. It furnishes 
a hard but very small wood, rather of good 
qoality, whidi is sometimes used for beams and 
poaU in the houses of the poOT of the Ma4ns 
president ; but, throughout Indis, it is more 
■sed for torches than for any other purpose, as 
it bums very readily and clearly, and on that 
seooQot its braaches are often made into 
tordKS by people traveUing at night. — Voigi. 
GiUoH, Aifuli»,vp. 179, 203. J(mne. 4 
/. R. Captain Beddome, Flor. Andh, 

IXOBA ALBA, R<mK syn. of Ixora parvi- 

IXORA DEaPIBNS, s^n o)[Ixpr« 
|vnflon<— faAI. 

IXORA PANICULATA, £«»., syn. Pa- 
vetta indiea.— Ltnn. 

IXOBA PAVSITA, ^nrfr.. syn. of Ixon 
parriflora. — VcM. 

IXORa PaTETTA. itttD«. ayn. of Favetta 
indica.— Zian. 

pns ohaloooephaltts. 

IXOS LEVCOGENTS, the Bulbal of 
Kashmir, is about 7i in* length bill, hesd 
and logs black ; plumage generally olire green- 
ish brown with a white spot behind the ^e 
and white tips to Uil feathers. Crest black 
and curved forwards. It is qnarrelaome and 
noisy. Its note resembles tbat of the English 
black-bird but it lessfull and mosical,— 7vn«. 

ITAVAN. Tah. An outcast^ a worker 
in Iwther. 

ITENGAB. properly AvugUa amoagat tl«B 
Tamnl people an honoiifio title to biahmana.— . 

rrtTaboTu. Halat. Sharks' fins. 
IZAR. Hind. Tnwseca, hsnea laar-band, 
the trowsers waist string. 
TZABAKir 8ti7ehma nux Tomica. 

<— Zinn. 

IZKHAB. Hufo. Aodropogon iwaranouti^. 
gul-i-iakhar. Uie flowec.of Cymbopogon iwa- 
raochusa, used in flavoring spirits, 

IZESHIKB OB YA3SBN, a «el{giaufl book 
of the ^arsce or Zoroastriana. 

IZASHNE. SeeSiMlra. 

l^NEE, a fuqeer who aeta as a maasenger- 

IZNEE SHAH, a Qohurmm foqeer. 

IZ.VD-DIN HUSSAIN, the founder of the 
Oori dynasty, was a native of Afghaniitan. 
While an ofl^oer of rank, of Musaood, son and 
sueoessor of Mahmud,^ Iw married his msster's 
daughter and received the province of Gor, 
A. D. 1161 ot 1153. His son A4*-ud-din oomr 
Dieted the overthrow of the Ohszn^vi .dynasty, 
by t^ defeat of Bahram, the lastking, who 
fled into Indis, the real founder of the Gon 
dynasty, at Delhi was a priqce, 3iJub-nd-diii|, 
who took the title of If ahem«l. 

IZZA. O9AX1V. Oo]itt 


Digitized by 



In i\a English alptmbet, tbu lettct has 
only one toand, m in jam, jelty, job, just ; and, 
Ihe Tamil excepted, each oT the orieatal Ua> 
jiuages has a letter with a similat sound. The 
letter j baa a different aound in the languagee 
of the other European DBtiooB, from that oi 
the English ; and the Prench obtain the Englifth 
sound by prefixing the letter d. thus djam'l 
for jam'lj a camel ; djab'l for jab\ a mountain. 
The Germans give to this letter the sound of y, 
and have proposed to obtain the aonnd of the 
English letter j by osing an accented g*. 
The people of Egypt often give to thj) tetter 
the sound of s, ana those of Temen glvt it the 
Bonnd of hanl g, so that jab'l is prononiiced 
gab'I, and jam*l U pronounced g&nn* ; ' 
JAB. Uuro. Saccharum, Bp. 
MBA. Sans. HiUspiiv ro^-Gi}inea^.— 

JABAD. Malay. Civet. 

JABAL. Ar. a mountain* 

JABAL-ARAVAT. anciently eailed J^bal 
Hal, the mount of Wrestling in Prayer, 
and now Jabal-ur-Bahmat the " Mottnt of 
Hercy " is e low pointed htltock, of coarse 
granite split into lai^ blocks, with a thin coat 
of withered tiioms, about Due mite In drcum- 
lerenoe and rising abrontly from the hiw gra- 
velly plain— a dwarf wall at the touthern base 
ftinning the line of demarcation — ^to the height 
of 180 or 200 feet* It is abont i eix hours* 
march, or twelve miles, on the Taif road, due 
east of Heoooh, Near the snmmit, ia a white- 
washed mosque with a minaret, lookhig like a 
■mall obelisk ; betow this is the whitened plat- 
form, fi-om which thepreaeher, mounted onadro- 
medory, delivers the aermoo, to be present at 
which is an etsehtlaf part of the mbhomedan 
pilftrimage to Meccab.— JTdmi^toR'tf Senai, 
ny'iatanS8oudm,p. 131. Button* t Pilgrim- 
tat io Metxah, Vol. iU, p. M, ft57; 

JABAIj DlBAVAND,a mounUin in PersilT, 
rising abovt 10,000 feet above the sea level, 
near Bai. the andent Bhagse, 

JABAL HAOURAN. The waters of the 
Nahr-nz-zerka, the Jabbock of the Scriptures, 
first collect to the south of jabal Haouran 
at this point, they enter the jabal Belka, 
and after winding through the wadys in a 
westerly direction, finally empty themselves 
into the Bbariat-ul-Kabir (the Jordan)-— 
Auuon'i TraiteU, Vol. it. p. 171. 

JABAL SHAMSAN, the highest wall of 
the Aden erater, where Gain is supposed to 
have been buried. 

JABAL-UL-JUDA. AghriDagfa, or Mount 
Ararat, the Ararat of modern geographers, 

in the provinoea of Erivan i« in height aboufc 
16,300 feet. In the last volume of Coenos, 
Humboldt records the height of Demavead at 
19,715 feet, which is but 1,785 feet under the 
height attributed to il. According to other 
authorities, Ararat is only 17)112 feet high. 
General Mqntetth, who passed three yeen at 
the foot of mount Arar^, nuuy mean* 
to aseeitsin ifs ejevatiqn, and 0Di84e it 16,000 
feet above the Uvdl of the ' Araies. At a 
distftDCB it has a reseublanee to adiifi, II 
is called by Armenlns mountaiu of (he Arl^ 
and by others, tho Moilntaio of ^oah^ 
Agridagh being the name given to ft by thp 
Turke ; and the Armeiuans also c^l it 
M^oi* - bat all unite hi revering it as the haven 
of the gnat Aip whinh preserved the fekhar of 
mankind ivoa waters of the detnge. 
Ararat is called by the Anbs, jabl-ut-Judi 
and by the Armenians, also, masslsssinsar, or 
roountahi of the ark. Berosus and Alexander 
both tfeohire ihtt in their time it iras reported 
that some planks of the remained on thn 
hilKet the date of the accession ^f the Abbaside 
eallpfas A. D. 749— i'orfe/< ihnelt, VoL 
I. p. 193. ffennv? MoiUeUhU B^ort, Seo 

JAB&Ii:ZABABAH. In %ypt, the Ba- 
maragdus Mons of the anuents, has tho 
tnnous emerald mines which were work- 
ed 1650 B. C, in the t^me of the Onat Se* 
sostris n, by extensive galleries. It was aghm 
woriced In the early part of the reign of 
Uahomed AH, pacha, and recently a BriiiBb 
Oompany undertook it. The mines were 
on the Kosseir road from Koptos to Aen- 
nnm (Fbiloteras). Welhted thinks (Trav. 
ii. 333), that the locality indicated by Bmoe 
was the island of Wadi ^emal. and that 
the Arabs had so called it', because of it« 
proximity to the only emendd minea on the 
ad^aoent continent Emeralds axe now brought 
from Egypt, Germany, from tiie Altai monn- 
taina ; the finest from Kew Grenada where 
they occur in dolomite, and, as ia said, from 
India.— j5«a«m'f Eft/pt, WtUdtd, ii. 303. 
JABAT. Malay. Castor. 
JABEB CASTLE. See Mesopotamia. 
JABLI, Hill bedouins near Lahtg. 
JABL MALAN. 3ee Kelat. 
RcB. Potatoes. 

JABLONNOL In 1848, the territory be- 
tween the Jablonnoi mountains and the northern 
bank of the Amoor was ceded to Kusak by the 

JABLOTA. HxMD. Jairopha curcas. 

116 Digitized by Google 


JABLPUB, t town in the central pToyincM 
^ IndU ia i. S3" 9" 7 ' L. 79° 56" 3' ia Malwa, 
ItiiaUr^miUtaryatatioo, 1^ tfiiim turn the 
DCbtbukof the Neibudda. dak i\nat>k' 
bail l,SS&lwt above t^aw^^* See 

J&BOONA. A nw of Ki afcw g w ri w in 

JABUSiaKBIS. A riw warS^l^uUiflHf 

iABBiU M Oumoti in B«nr, tbi {bitiM 
vonkipH uawd w vndar,-- 

Aara or Aanu- 

Marri . 

Juia Bai. 

and htr 


iM ii vttialiipped at; 8il4 vw. ^U^cl^^ 
mi turn te be Uw an«el QabritU, w^on ma- 
kaedtu etjle Jabnil. I91 the alUieretwa 
bbiiaeC tbe orienula the.tof « Jalu«l a^ ia 
Mnoalj wd and the aUve^ figure, th«t of » 
w, u am anwad tke Deek^ Njear Ogonotit 
ihokiiiBgtcethwUh ixwei|u oaaHanof nod 
ititofoo^ wUeh Uw dfaer vf Aalgaua laid ma 

&dciaeth, ia a deitjr of Oonniotit whoM 
fonbip pn^£Qlt fran snake*. 

Ia Uk Chaski pau, in the Lakeawara Sfog^ 
rlu^ tkiBi the wi^enJml b«t«cea the Q^roff 
mi the Taptee, abowt 10 vnUe* Dortli of 
Awupbad, tbm ia . a ahrii^ of th« daily 
aUti Utnoba to whieh frofa a droh pf « 
bidfcd niltg, people of all 9a«tes iwn^ 
hoinia and nuTra and dher, but ohiefly tW 
lUraUakonbL Thejatra ui hel^ i^tl^a^th 
and laata lor four^ d^ya^ dunog 
aUck malqr aheep are-offeied la fficiiGce, It 
iia tlie KNithexn eide of Uiqiii)^;. ft |n«re Mock 
tfiloBe, with imaller Wopju id; fook all 
lamcd wiA red lead. tt)e Qfajef:^ 
nil4 aie vboUy persona^ hw^ing M^^-deiiy 
tsg^re or piMTOt their chijdie^, theiif Aooka 

UCAKA Tbu aiogabu hird is a ipal^v<; 
al U» K. W. Htmalaxv aD4 of . Cfiijia 
■d ii diiUiigHisbed not Ipsa bj the scace 
iu foraL than bj its affapji^ion to the 
haHtici for which n«tun haa pUotted it. 
hned f« trar^Bg tiie moctuv and Iqtus 
the water it supports it«elf 
weed* and learea hj the 
nfawrdinery span of the toes aided by the 
■Mnl Ugbtaeu of its body. lake the moorr 
li^ of whoae habits aad manwrs it largely 
pniHuM, it is dooblless capable of awimpiii^g, 
kloBg Mid pendent tail feathers being elevat- 
u aot to dijp in the water. Its scientific 

• X17 

mmdnirfaoe of 
ipa the floating 

aatne ia Para sinensis. It may he seen 
in the North West Ui^lalaya squatliag on 
the broad learea of ibe lotiu, NeUuubiunx 
specioBaai> and marsh marigold (Caltha p»lus- 
tris). Its flight is not strong, and is composed 
of nany flaps ; the call is rough, Hhe the! 
of tl»e water-hen. The curved taif festhers, 
the brSUant yellow patch the bind part of 
the neck, and ahining brown of the back, whita 
wings more or leas tinged with btaek> will aft 
opce, serve to diatingtdal^ it— Adiufit, Wil^ 
liam* Middle Kingdmx p. 363. . 
JACHAKTr Bus. Sapphire. 
MCUtA.< Fob, Bnasia Mher. 
^APf* HiMP- J'aiounnm grapdiflonio. 
. J4^K, Bft William Jack was appointed 
tp thf Bengal Medical Service in 1813, aod 
was in the farliec part of his csxaer employed 
in the ordma^y dii^es of his profeasion. Bur- 
isg the Nepa) war of I814-15 be was attach- 
ed to ^ army under 0e|iai!al Ochterlony. and 
b^d aQ.9ppoi^iiut^ of seaiag the outer valleys 
of {l^alf a opuAtjry wlfioh at that time was a 
t«xiaim;o^i(a io sciaaae* Ip 2SIS, while at 
Caictttta, aa a'visit to, !}r'.W«Uioh, he met 
with Sir StaoUwd Bafflfs, the Governor of Uie 
9ritifh settUmwitt in 9uvpt«aiwho offend kin 
an appaiatpmit on Us staff, {Mvmuiog hiiq 
«req iaeility for the explosatlon of the natuxal 
Ustofy of that isli^nd. fhe eastern or Malayaa 
Peninania of India was unknown botauicaUy 
till i^ was, viiited biy Jack* whose, desoiiptiopi 
of Malayan plants ware punished It^ th^ Us1m[« 
aa mis(»IIaniBB, and have bcfn repr^iduced b^ 
Six Willlw* Hq^kec ia the o9a^aQion to Urn 
$otimi0sl UagBiEina, ^ by Dr. M'CleJland 
in tha G^euUa Joucriid of l^lnr^. History. 
Pnforta^ately fai^ qaiew was «,Teiy short one, 
fs haaau ufidec , the, affects . of fati^ and 
eapofaxe oa th^ Ifitk September IS22. on 
be^rd the ship oq whiph ha M embarked on 
tka nmrious daji pfoqeod to. the Gape of 
Good Hope.— JTboiw* nnd. I^Jmitxm^ , JPt 

JAOKA, Mf V The fauit ot t^e Artocarpua 
integrifoUa. — Zitm. 
JA^£;IN 9^f. Qpniaadia 

JACK TBEB. ADgIo-UifL4J, fche Arto- 
carpns integpfoUa* The dy;^ obtained fxom 
ita-wqod, aa prepared hy the natives, i« a tirit- 
Uantorapn yellow, -and M otitaine4 ^Uf thp 
additiop of an iofssion a^ade fxsm the kav^ 
of th|B *Don-yst' producing a brUlianpy 
c^or i(ot ezceUed by the bwt Englidi djers. 
The neir aacenlotal dresi of the Poongyea 
or bndd'hiat pue^ta of Burm^h. o^inoe the 
effect of thia process* and the dyed articlo 
will be found to surpass most of the British 
range of djes of ita cliu^ aqd ^ a process not 
requiring the B{^Ucstjon of asv of tM metalUo 

Digitized by VjOOgLC 


bases as a mordant, tbe jaok<wood dye vould 
dimbtless bMome an articlo of inquiry and of 
coDseqaent standard Taloe. 

Laptu mir«u,£<nMfi/«r. 

JiAbals^....*.— Pvt. 

Kola ....... ..^aiAHB. 

SrigalB -.Saki. 

Cukli KunmlnAiaaMfBtdg 
Nazi .. ...... Oav. Tijc. 

Jackal Bho. 

Shioal Dux. Fbm. 

NaOa Til 

The jaokal is found in a great part of Asia, 
in Syria, Arabia, Persia and in all India vest of 
the Brahmspntra. Over South eastern Europe, 
Central and Southern Asia, both the jsokal 
and the hynna are more or less plentiful, 
affieoting also the mountainous regions to 
pretty high altitudes. Along the line of the 
Congas, in lover Bengal, they move in paefcs 
and eat indiacriminatdy. In the Feninaula, 
they are of larger sise, an seen singly or in 

Jiairs, and in the Ddchan, lire much on wild 
raits, the coffee bean of the plantations is 
hrgely eaten by them. Their cry when moving 
at night is very disagreeable, and even when 
elicAceting their eall ia unpleasing. Among 
mammals, the jaekal, hyena, domeatic swine^ 
and dog; and among birds, vnltvies, kites, 
erows, minas, and the adjutant bird Leptopttlos 
arguls, Omel., are the chief earrion eaters of 
south Eastern Asia. The jHohaland hyena are 
of noetnmal, bold and stealthy, habits and 
though the hyena hunts generally singly, tbe 
jaokat does so in packs, and anything 
in ttie w«f of flesh, putrid or other* 
wbe, is aeoeptable. The swine, the buffslo, 
the eow, the bnlloek and even sheep, in many 
parts «f India are driven daily to the pnrliena 
of the towns. Theory of the jackal is peeoliar^ 
ft is eomposed of a aneeession of half-barking, 
half-wailing ariea,ondiiEerentiioiea. When pro- 
perly prononnead then u no better nhutratkm 
of it than the following words, set to the ora* 
sic of the animals voice 

—A. dead lundoo I A dead hlndoo I 
— Whttre-whSre f whtfre-whVra f 
~Hez«.hflra; hm^Mra? 

The iaokal in the peninsala of India and 
in the low country of Ceylon hnnts in packs, 
he^ed by a leader, and they have been 
seen to assault and pull down a deer. The 
anall nnmber of hares in the districts they 
infiBst is ascribed to their depredations. When 
a jaekd has broaght down his game abd killed 
it, its first impulse is to hide it in the nearest 
junfcle, whence he issues with an air of easy in- 
difference, to observe whether any thing more 
powerful than himself may be at hand, from 
which he might encounter the ilik of being 
despoiled of his capture. If the cosst be 
clear, he returns to the eonoealad carcase, and, 
foUowed by his dompattloas, carries it away. 

rees aie frequent 
then md 

Bat if a man be in sight, or any other animal 
to be avmded, the jackal has been seen to seise 
a ooooanut hnak in bis mouth, or any similar 
substance, and fly at full speed, aa if eager to 
cany off hia pretended prize, retuming for tbe 
real booty at some more oonrenient season. 
They are snlijeet to hydrophobia, and in- 
of oattle being bitten 
(lying in eonseqaenee. Aa 
exoreseenoe or small homy eone about hdf an 
indi in length, and eoneeam by a ttift of hiir 
is sometimes fonnd on the head irf tibe jadtaL 
Thia the Binghriese esll narrS-eomboo ; 
and th^ aver that the possessor of this 
esn command by its instrumentality the 
realisation of every wish, and that if stolen or 
lost by him, it wiU invariably return of ita own 
aecord. Those who have jewels to oonoeal 
rest in perfect seourity,if, along with them,they 
can deposit a narricoomboo, fully convinced 
that its presence is au effectual safegnard 
against robbers. Tbe words of Psalm Ixiii. 
iO, ** they shaH be a portion for foxes,'* 
appear obscure : but if they be rendered, * thtj 
abdl be a portion for jackals,* the anathemli 
beeomea phin and striking to a hindoo, in 
whose eoontry the diluting sight of jackals, 
devouring hnmen bodies may be seen every 
day. So rarenous are those animals, that they 
are said to ateal infants as they lie by the breast 
of the mothers and sick persons who lie Mend- 
less in the street or by the side of the Ganges, 
are said sometimes devoured alive by these 
animals in the night. — Tennattfa Sietehe* of 
tie Naiurai Butory of Ceyion, p, 36-87. 
SolAat*9 Travett from ike East, p. 861. 
9W« fimioM. AMm'e NtttwatiH ws 

JACKDAW, the common Ihin^n Jaek- 
daw, Cbrvwa moneditla vlt Europe, Siberia, 
Barbarf, W. Aaia, Feehawnr valley, and 
Kashmir, may be seen in flocks in winter in the 
northern frontier of the Punjiub, associated 
with the Cornish chough and the rook. Hie 
first two oome from Cashmere, where they are 
found in great abundance, during the summer ; 
but the rook, if ever seen in Kashmir, is only 
a cold weather visitor and seems to come from 
the west, inasmuch as it is said to be common 
in Afghanistan. It appears at Bawul Findee in 
flo^ about the beginning of September, it is 
fonnd in winter as for sooth as Lahore and 
disappears entirdy in Sfareh. The hooded 
crow has been brought from Northwn A%han- 
istan, and is menlioued by laeutenant Wood 
in his travels as common in Knnduz, but It \t 
not found in Gaihmeie or in tbe Fanjaub. 
Besides these British birds, the chimney swallow 
makes its appearsnoeinOctober snd leaves sgsin, 
in spring, for the straw built sheds of Oashmereb 
where it breeds and spends^the summer months^ 


Digitized by 



TW wbite rvuped muiio Mfl aand martin are 
both likewiu nugratorj, and repair to Cfish- 
mm and Ladakk in lunuDMr- Tbe black, and 
•Ipins iwifU remain longcrf and nuj be aeen 
aneanng lUraut during tbe sutnmer eveningB, 
eqweiaUj after a shower of rain. The rioc- 
dm ia a iwidjjBat oa tbe Bnt>-Ul«iaUijra. Tbe 
•ouBfm atarling ia plentiful in tbe north aa 
daewfaere in Hiadooatan. The lapwiog (Vanaf- 
ka oiatakua) amTaa in flooka in thn bcgiiming 
ofNovMaber. and departa farthn waat early in 
a^ing ; ita anminar nridaaoe baa pot been 
fimnd oat, but it moat be emnmon in certain 
parte of Fenia and Afj^iuiiatan. Tbe oom- 
mon and jack anipe, wi£ a few painted anipe, 
a^ieair in the Sawul Findee in Febraaij and 
Merely and are procured aa many aa thirty 
couple at a time. Nearly all the water fowl 
met with in the rivers and marabea of toe 
north west come from the Tartarian ^- lakea, 
where they mi|y be foaod breading. After 
a anltry d^ it is uanat to |ee ue wire- 
iHled aw^ow akimming over the plaina, and 

the aide of poola and _ atreama a aoUtary 
pacB aaadpiper (Totanus oohn^us) ia not 
lare. IChe brown backed heron (Ardeola 
kae^ieia) also ocoora ia auch aitoaUooa. The 
blade ibia (G. papiltoaua,) with ita red crown, 
ia aeen during the cold months ; fiyiog, along 
with the rooka and Europeao jackdaws, and 
beaidea, oo the marahea about, the great and 
little bUterns. with the apotted nil. are not 
-UBcomiooD. Of tbe other European birds 
any be ooticed the abort-cared o^l, moor 
^wuard. Um pale bariier, Circua awaiiiaonii. 
the cormorant ru£l^ and amew, all coming and 
departing with tbe winter montfaa — Jdam$^ 

JACK. FBtllT TfiEE. Exa. Artocarpua 
inlflfrrifolia.— Zifut. 


i>hinHa ....... 

J^"** *- • V, » 

Phauaw...... Hihi). 

^aiuwT... .4.... — M 

Nangfca ......... IUl&t. 

Uiam FUa......]lALBaL. 

rilla muam Tax. 

Tbe Artocai^a int^rifolia, growa in culti- 
vated grounds, and ia cf value for ita fruit, 
and ita timber. In many plaoea it is found 
two iEeet and a half in diameter, and from 
thirty to ibirty-^ve fcet high. It baa an excel- 
lent timber and in Canara. it *aa preferred by 
Tippu sultan for the 6rab vesaela buUt at 
the naval -depdt. Honere. In Ceylon, at Point 
de Qidle, it ia uacd Iqr tbe furniture makers for 
dttira, eouchea, &c. for which purpose it an- 
awera well; and, polished with cMe, ita 
brilliant colour ia auperior to that of mahogany. 
Wbea eat down, it is yellow, but ioroa dark 
and improvea by age. In England it is used 
aa arell aa aatiu wood for making backa of 
hair bmahea, kc.—Edye, ForuU Maitfbar 
oMd Ctmam. See Artocarpua inte^ifolia. 

JACOB, gT«gtda«i of Abnham, a pAtriarA 
of the laraelitea : Jacob was father of twdre 
iooa who founded the twelve tribea of tbe He- 
brews he went to Egypt B.C. 2747-6 — Smtem, 
JACOB, Itajor Qeneral John. Wrote a 
pamphlet, on irrcgulaTcavBlry Bombay. 1846, 
and al»o on aeveral subjects connceted with 
tbe o^nisation of armiea. Born Utfa Januuy 
XS12, he fell a viotim to fever in 1860| in 
Sind. Though he never, directed r!^[alarope- 
ratioDs.on an extensive aeale, he bad taken 
notable part in wentfal oampaigM, and had 
fought in great battlea with •pMnonbla valour. 
He wu endowed in-aa nnccwunoa degree with 
those personal gifts whiph enable one man to 
exercise an asoepdaocy over Uionaands. and 
whidi, in all aituatiopaapd all ages of tbe world, 
have constituted the material of h^Poea. With the 
sinRle exception of Sir J amee Outram, b« repra- 
aented, perhapa more vividly than any aoldivr 
of hia time, that natunl and inhnent auperi- 

ority of power, which when expreaaed in the 
race inatead of the individual, givei the Bri- 
tish naiiou the donuoioo over India. He en- 
tered tbe Bombay AltiUe^^ in 1808, nd he 
participated, aa an artiUciy offleer. in the 
Afghan eampaigna, but be £a not aooompauy 
tbe expedition all the way to.CabdI. In the 
year 1841, 500 cayiliera wera enrolled aa the 
Siiid Horse and Col- Outram aetected Jacob 
for tbe chief oommaHd. At ilie eampaigna and 
eonqueat of Siad which ensued, on ihe field of 
Meeaoi, Jacob's Uorae«nd Jacob himaelf «ata- 
blished a name wbioh waa never afterwaida 
sullied or obscured. After Siitd bad been an- 
nexed to the British territories fnm a few- 
troops tbe force was gradoatly expanded till 
it iiMluded two atrooK regimenta. and maatrnd 
1,600 of the beat horaemen in India. To 
theae acddiera waa intrurted^ the patrol of the 
frontier, and. though they wen ^vidail into 
inooaaideiaUe detadunenta. aosMfOimea of lesa 
than 50 men each, their -v^liifto«s fidelity, and 
iotelligenee wera auch aa to cnsfire tbe perfect 
proteotion of the province. Jacob was aliU the 
sole bead of tbia formadable body, asoommaod- 
nit of both regimenta together, aaaiatcd 
simply by two lieuteaanta in each. Five Eu- 
ropeans (hua . controlled nearly S.OOO of tbe 
fiercest awwdamen of the East, aod with such 
absolute effect, that it waa eaid not a trooper 
Id the corps knew «n^ will but that of bia 
colonel. Their diacipline was perfection itaelf ; 
their devotion unqueatioDed ; their loyalty 
never impeacbed. Jacob by his precepts no 
less than his exemple laboured to enforce the 
theory that Eoropoana were naturally su- 
perior to Asiatiea, and that the latter ao far 
from resenting auch aaoendancy, dcaired nothing 
better than to profit by it. All they wanted 
waa to obey, provided oo^y ihfX their obedience 

119 Digitized by CiOOgle 

ir» elnUeaged by om titnriy com]9ot«iA to 
' dfiuiand- it^ Place w man taid Ht, in eodiAiahd 
nnless hd is qaalified tti io>pM«»imd gOTeni hy 
proofs of fwrsoiHil eic^etw*, end, when you 
have got such i man, leave tboM wbom he is 
to govera vitb no idea of any kntkorlty but 
hi». iBBtaad of teadiiaK vativea to look up to 
wAe oentral and remote Jaiudiotion, glvt thtio 
tfa^r plaia and vi»ibl« tord in their eommmd- 
onesTt and in him only. Inatead of dilut- 
ing tlM magfeal'inflnefiee'frf noe by moUiply- 
iag Sonipeaa •tteeH, tuA thos exl^iiqg 
ioforior apeoiaeba of the doffliMtt etesa, 
oonoentnrte pMrwr add ^4tA\sf mttking these 
rulera rare and abtoltttei FMilitate their voric 
' by givlai; th«m every species of peraonai autho- 
rity VAdtk ^Mnite iHsthMtions ; teach the 
naiive soldier to took up to A man, ever preeMt 
with hitDf in whom be reeognizea a natifral et- 
presBioa of that government vhicli otherwite 
be can only diml; aaderetand, And then you 
nay save nine*teDth8 of your officers and rely 
in^Kcatly npon-the devotion of your ttoepa. 
Perbnpa it ia tone thalt BO Jacoba* with SOO 
aubaUema, ooirid have dgaoSsed and «entr<dled 
in admifiMe fashion « naiive ininy of 100,900 
•iiiai»lmt 50 Jacoba are net id#aya to %e 
fonnd. Hia redoubtable aoldjers, were not 
raised on the frontier from Pathane or Bdoo- 
chees, but were pare Hinduatanees, witii a few 
iGcruita of similar character from the Deccan. 
Jacob's raw material was exactly that of the 
Bengal and Bombay armies, and approximated, 
indeed, more nearly to the former model than 
the laUcr. When we reflect that from this 
nateriat'-'siiice thought so essentially wortb- 
■leie- Oetenel Jacob did actually construct and 
Maintrin a body of tile finest, and, as far as 
#eoutell,thettiwl fakhfal horsemen in the 
■worid^ we ab^ obtnn some idsff of ^ extra- 
OKlMry powMB, of one of the best represen- 
•^tdtiWs of Ei»gland*B aeeenddiiey lb the East.— 
am* Kmo$, Jany. 10, 1B&9. 

JAOOB, Msjor LbGHAKD, (mi) Besi- 
dent at Bhooj. Anthor of an Account of 
Gumli or Bhnmli : fte^ort on the iron in 
Kattywar ; its comparstive value with Brilish 
metal ; mines, and mitana of smelting ore, 
Lond. As. Trans, vols. v. 78 ;vm. 98.— Brief 
iHStorioal, geological, and statistical, memoir 
on Okhamandal in Bom. Geo. IVans. vol. v. 
167. — Beport on the district of Babriowsr, 
Ibid, vol. vii. 700:— 'Inaeriptions 'from Pali- 
tiaAa> in Bom. As. Tnns, vol. i. 56.— On the 
Asoka inecriptiaiM. Gimar, Ibid, 257.— iXr. 

JACOB'S WELL, in the valley of Nablons, 
a few mUes aonth of Bhechem. It is 75 ftei 

1801, died at Bombay 7lh Deeember 1832. 

WaU a tMvelliag uMntsHstto the Eayil llnseam 
of N^intal History at Pmis, Airi^ the yean 
l«2a'9, ld34).l and Sft He tiwvisUed ia ibe 
Himabyaa^ Ladak, Iwlia, Tibet, Panjabf and 
Gashmere. His tra^ Were pulAlMd ui the 
-fonb of lettMs to his refadves^ 
- JAOINTH* A gem owing As dfeep omge 
eolor to the )preaenoe of ciroon* it Is tSia 
gUkoaidsh^f India. 

lADAWLLAY. TAte s #ema«'« keftd 
aanmrt Inthe Qteii -MimtiTw See 9e«elleir. 

JABE. Ase-neke^ 

The term Jade, Has^bben givciA'^ sevcrtil mi- 
fter&ls,' scrpentlMe, nephrite arid 'saaSaotite, 
whiA resemble each other btrt Itttfc, except in 
coftotir. The OUnese estimate IbCir celdirated 
Jitde stone very highly, and there iBte tiumeroos 
shcps, tioth for -cutting it and etposiog it for 
B^e, cMrved into all those curious and fantastic 
forms, for eieentifrg wbi^ Mis peo|de are So 
well kbown. Its valdetA the eyes x>f the Chinese 
depends -diicfly tipon its sonorousness and oolor. 
The most vfthied speehnens ne brought from 
Tunnnn and Khoten ; a greenish white oohmr 
ia the -nost highly priECd, but a plain- color of 
any Aade is not much esteemed. A etfgo of tkia 
mineral wss iihported into (hntM from New 
Holland not long Sfro, but the Ghtoese woidd 
not porchase it, owing to a'fancy taken again&t 
its origin and color. The patteot toil of the 
workers in thia bard and lastreless mineral ia 
only equalled by the prodigtOQs admiration it 
is held in and both fairly e^lbit the singulai 
taste and skill of the Ohiaese. Its colour ia 
usually a greenish white, passing into a greyish- 
green and dark grass-grten ; internally it ia 
scarcely glimmering. Its fracture is splintery, 
Bpliuteis white, mass SjBmi^ttaflsparent and 
cloudy i it eenitdiea glass strtmgyr-tmt rook- 
orystal does not setat^ tt. Jade is found in 
CUas, Bnrmah, Yminun, Khoten and Sgypt 
and it used as dagger handlfes, eupsiTSses. The 
pale greenish varieties are the best : bangles 
made of jade come from Mogoung, in the 
north of Barmah. the bright green tint seen in 
these specimens is the cbBncteristic pecnliaiity 
of the BurhaeBC jade. The Chinese have a per- 
fect mania for jade, using it for Maudanna' 
buttons, pipemouth pieces, «nd various articlea 
of personal omaittent and luxury. They esti- 
mate it Bccordiogto thfc pnrity of the' white 
aod.bHghtness of the graen tints. Jade batiglea 
of Bdrttab of second quality cost 135 Rupeba 
orI2£10*. A. Ohlpamui who sold apair showed 
sneehnena which he said wonld fetch in China 
sixty times itswcaght in silver, and be said 
that the really first-rate jade is sold ftar aa 
much as forty times its weight in gold • tfaia 
appears incredible, but all enquiry tends to 
show that the Chinese wilLgive almost anything 


Digitized by VjOOglC 


for tf|e finest jniU- Jade atood high ia the es- 
iimaiioa of tlie Mougofs, ifid figures largely io 
kbrir l^nds and tbeir poetry. It ia related that 
«h«n Cheiighiz was proclaimed Kbagan oo the 
grassjr, .teead^wa of tha river KeriUan, a certaiu 
stone a|roniaheuua]y dew asunder, and disolM- 
td a great seal of graven jnile* which wis Kept 
as a palladium by his deacead&als, and was 
atmost the only thing saved bv the last em- 
^Tok of his bouse when flying from the 
Chiiteae insdtiperits. The Mdugol word for jnde 
it khaa. The uouiitaiii near Khotan, which 
BQpplies some of ttie bfst jadei is called, ho- 
cordiiig to TimkoMki, Mirjai, or iUsh-tash 
('Turk. Jade-rock*'). The Tartar name may 
have some conoectiou with the Persian word 
kbas, royal, noble. Cmwfurd technically 
styles ihe Burmese jade " noble serpentine/' 
and ill the narrative of Goes the jade of Ifar- 
kand ta spoken of as ** niarmoris itlius apud 
Sioas nobilissimi." — Schmidt, pp. 71, lit!}. 
tvUCaOiay, t. />.130. Gai. Exhibition IB62. 
PortMtic'* H^andarUgSfpi 88. 'Wiitliams* Midi 
king. fOQB 243. 

JA.DGUAL OK LUMBI,a'nnefii Insr-' 
Meu&H. Sitrrative^f. 51 ^ 
JADl-OHBTTU. Tel. Seoecwpu aninr- 

JADlKAf. Tax. Hyristiea xbosohsta. 

^ADtPtTKl. Tah. Mace. Jadlpulri Taihm. 
taH. !Nutmeg butter; Nutmeg oil> 

JaDO, one of the low castes in a village, — 
the same as Eumeeo. In some places, Uie 
term is eduivalent to aoodnu— iSlw^. 

JADON, tadu. or Yaduva, a tribe of Exj. 
pools of the Ghhnderbuosa division, who 
j^oless to liaoe tbeir origin in a direct 
Ebb from Krishna., fadu is the patronyinie 
of all the downdibit!i pi Buddba > the an- 
totor of the LiiDar race, of wbioh tha most 
coaspievous are now the Bhuttse and the 
JoTtja \ but the title of iadon is ifow exclu* 
sively applied to the tribe which appears sever 
to have 8tr«;6d far from tha liioita of the 
anaent Surasenl, and we consequently find 
them BliM in considerslile uumbcrs in Ihxt 
Dcighbourhood. They are considend spirited 
fanners. All ihase have adopted the practice 
of second marriages, and are now considered 
of an inferiur rank to their brethren in Kerow- 

JADOO-fAtUNO. BbnO. Salicornia 

JADBOOXt a n« from a rtild district near 

JAUU. Hind. Euobaatment j hence Jadu- 
gar, a sorcerer. 

JADtlieUrrA, a river of Sylhet. 

JaDUN ur tiii(lun> a race on the right 
bsnk of the Indus jvhere that river isiues from 
tlu Himalaya near Torbela. Xhay have been 

supposed to be Bajputs, but they are Pathans 
who speitt F'ushfoo. — Oamphetl, p. 87. 
JAUWAR. Hind. Cuiowma sedoaria. 
JAD. TA DV, a branch of'the Abir. 
JAEDAD. Fe&s< Signifies a place : em-> 
ptoymeut ; also, in accounts, assets, funds, re* 

JAE-l!rAHAZ. pBks. A plaee prayer • 
vutxo Janeemi^i,' or ]if oosalld. 
JA£PHAL. HlHD. Hyristiea motchata. 
JAG^, a tribe of Soorujbunsee Hsjpoots' 
reaideiit in the peiguBuabs of KolgWl and 
Mast in Hultra in whick they were formerly 
more nunJenus ikaa they are at pftieut. — 
Elliot, . . ■ 

JAII!!!, gladiators in the south of India 
Jetti, Colonel 'tod nwntlons that one of tbt) 
courts in Kutch funds were set apart for Jaeti, 
at otiB time to hfiy thouanod rupees per annum* 
In tiie akhara (arena) priee-fightfita Asraai^ 
ilikhlana, is their phrase ioi victtrryj when 
the vanquished is thrown upoh lils back aud 
kt'pt in that attitude. — Tod'a Majatthan, Vol. 
II. p. 589. See Jetti* 

JA^, a very large' predatory tribe nsidiiig 
near Kanakii on the Oialla, dependaDt 'ou Tur- 
key, and numberii)^ about S5,000 fana^es. 
They inhabik in wuater the plaiiiia of Sulim»> 
oiah and Zohnb. and inannfuer migrate to the 
moiintuii) of Atdultiti. They arc the most 
warlike aiicl unruly ofall tb^ ICurdish tribes. 
The Jaf tnUe iubabit the highest moun- 
taiuB on the frouliev . of tlie territory of the 
Villi of Sinna. I'Uey arc a dne-looking, brave, 
people, but esteemed eiceedintciy uncivilized 
and barbarous . even by the Kurds. Their 
dialect of Kurdish differs considerably from 
that of the liebbeh Kurd ; and theur appear- 
ance is B't Biuguiar that tbf^ are easily neog- 
iiiiied. They form a body of yeomanry ca- 
vnlry In number about 8,O0U* which folbwa the 
Bey when he is summoned to attend his feudal 
lord, ihe pnsha of Sulimauia in the field— 
Peirier Garuvan J'oitriiejftt p. 68.— iZtc/t's 
BettdeHW in ^wrdistaMy Vol, I. p, IH. 
9ee Koordislan. 

JAFf^A, the ancient Joppa, the nearest sea- 
port to Jerusalem, is about 3U miles south oi 
Ciesarea. ti is the sea port of Jerusalem and 
is built on a hill jutting into the sea. It bus 
seen St, Paul, Pompey, Salah-ud'din, and Nh- 
pofeou. At one hour's jouruey from Jaffa isYabne, 
the ancient Jabneu or Jimnia, still a consider- 
able village. At four -hqurs' jeumey> w about 
twelve milea, is Bdaoud, the mcieiit Aso^aa 
and the Ashdod of Scriptsre 8, Ckren. xxvh 
^.—lioUH4um'$ TraweUf PaloiUne atuL Syria, 
ful. i. p.p. 111,21. 

JAyPEKABAD, on the Guzerat coast, in 
lat. 20?- has the best river on the coast. 
The chief of Jafferabad,wl)o resides in Gujarat; 
the sidi of Janjira,^i;h0 .Ee^dfiSi.^^eJCoukaa> 

121 p ' 

end the nawab of Sacheen are all of Afrieiui 




DtK* Oomphrena 

This oath 1b contldered 
by mabomedans to be more solemti than that 
used io BritiBh Indian Oourtv. . Its words, 
Aksliicto B'tna hit Jabbar, Si Kahar, 11 Uii- 
takabbir, il Hnntakim, mean, 1 swear in the 
name of the Omnipotent, Indignant, Itigh and 
Avenging God. 

JAFFNA. A tllstrict and town in Ce3rlon.lo 
the undy parts of JaSna a hollow palmyra is 
inserted to form a Well. 
JAFBA. Tbl., Bixa orellana) Arnolto. 
JAG. Amongst the Mahrattaa, if a sudra die 
Buddenl;, his family hold a riotous vigil on the 
10th night after the demise, it is called /o^or. 
and the object is to compel the spirit of the 
decttsed to enter the body of the sou or of 
some other person to rereal any secret matter 
desired to be known. The word is from Jagna to 
w*k9.—fFUt> Glou. 

JAOA or Jaga-bbal, a division of the 
Bhat tHbe.— m%. 
JAOADDHARA. Bee Kala t Priyanath. 
JAGAKBANSI> a brahman tribe of samin- 
darsinthe Fattehpnr silla— J^t7«, 

JAGANNATH, Jagannatha, vernacularly 
Juggemath.rrom Tt^nnt'hR, Lard of the worlct, 
is a name now especially applied to YtsbDn in 
the form in whieh ne is worshipped at the temple 
of Jaganath at Puri in Orissa. All the land 
within 30 miles round thn pagoda Is consider- 
ed holy, but the most sacred spot is an area of 
about lix hundred and fifty feet square, which 
contains fifty temples. The most conspicuous 
of theae xi a lofty tower atent one bundled and 
dgbty-four feet in height and abont twenty* 
eight feet aqeara inside, called the Bur Dewali, 
in wUeh the idol* and Ids brother and sister 
Bubhadra, are lodged- Adjoining are two 
pyramidical buildings. In one, about forty feet 
square, the Idol is worshipped, and in the other 
the food prepared for the pilgrims is distribut- 
ed. These buildings were erected in A. D. 
1193. The walls are covered with statues, 
many of which are in highly indecent postures. 
The grand entrance is oo the eastern side, and 
dose to the outer wall stands an elegant stone 
column, thirty-five feet in height, the shaft of 
which is formed of a liogle block of basalt, 
preaentiBg aixteen aidea. The pedestal is 
richly omnnented. The eolnmn is aummnded 
by a finely seiriptared statue of Hanuman, the 
monkey chief of the Bamayana. The establish- 
ment of priests and others belongingto the tem- 
ple has been stated to consist of three-thousand 
nine-hundred families, for whom the daily 
provision is enormoua. The boly food is pre- 
sented to the idol three times a day. His meni 

^ndilg girls, the Deva-^asi, belonging to (bit 
temple, exhibit their professional skul in ui 
adjomiog building. Twelve fesUvals tfe eeb^ 
brated during the year, the principle ot 
n^ieh U tbe fiat^b Jattra. The tetnpl^ 
pf Jaganatba are said to be numerous, lA 
Bengal, of a pyramidical form. During 'tliA 
futerVeiB of worship they are shut up. The 
i^age of this god at JajQternath In OrissNi Is i 
rude bloc^of woodt andhaa a frightfUl viaagtf . 
with a distended month. Hia ulna '»bi(A as 
he was formed without anyi haVe been nven to 
him by the priests, are of gold. He » gor« 
geously dressed, as are also the other two idols 
which accompany him. In a compartment in 
the temple of Boma, he is represented in bom- 
pany With Bala Bama and Subbadm without 
arms or legs. The temple is built on a low 
sandy plain about 1} mile from the 'shore* 
The car is painted with obscene flgiirea. 
In the festivals at this hlndu temple tbe 
images lirouglit forward are those of 
Krishna bis brother Bahirama and sister 8ab« 
ahdra, and the populace reproach Krishna and 
his tia'ter far having Indulged in ■ MAinal 
intimacy. In the Maliabharata, Subahdra lb 
stated to have been married to Arjnna i Bal'ijina 
and SubaHra are also accused."— (Tofe. Uffth, 
Bind. p. d2. 

JAGAN NARATANA. See Inscriptions. 

J AG ATI DA&Altl. Kelig^ous mendicanUia 
MvsorCiWho beat agong Wdeu begging — 

'JAGAT POlITTf a pnyectingJand in OuW 

JAGA tJ>n)ir ? An article of Jewellery. 
JAGDALAK, the Afghane Were defeated at 
this phice on (be 9th Seplemlwr 184S. 

of Ottiaotia oleifera. — D. C, 

, Syn of Wedelia oalendulaoea. —Le»i. 

JAGGKRT. Eko. Unclarified palm sugar 
or treacle. Cocoanut palm. Borassus ^abelli- 
formis, Caryota urens. See Goor. 
JAGGON. Malay. Xea mays. ludian Com. 
JAGGKL A palm, named in Sumatra 
anau, and by the eastern Malay, gomuto, is the 
Borassus gomutus of Loureiro, the'Saguerua 
pinnatufl of the Batavian Transactions the 
Cteophora of Qmrtner and the Arenga sacchari- 
fera of modern botanists. Its leaves are long 
and nanoW) and Uiough naturally tending 
to a point, are scaroely ever found p^ect, 
but always jagged at the end. The fruit 
grows in bunches of thirty or forty together, 
on strings three or font feet long, several ot 
them bang from one shoot. In order to pro- 
cure the nira or toddy (held in higher esti- 
mation than that from the cocoanut-tree), one 
of these shoots for fructification is cut off a 
few inches from the stem, the remaining part 

lasts abont an hourj during which time the I are tied up and bea(av aodvWUii^Mi is then 



Mde, from whidi tbe liquor disUli into a vet- 
ad or bunfaoo oIom^ mtei ed beneath. This 
is raptaead every twenty-four hours. Ttie 
aMa palm produces also sago and the 
leoiarkable snostanae reaembltng coarse black 
borae bair, called iju and gomuto, and 
used for making cordage of m very uoellent 
kmd, M well at for nlany other purposes, being 
fiaarly ineormpUblr, It encompasses the atem 
of Ihe tree, and it seemingly bound to It by 
tkidEer fibres or twigt, oX which the natirea 
nake pens for writing. Toddy is likewise 
proeond from the lontar or Bortasus flabcUi- 
Ibrmia and Jaggri is now made from the juice 
of tlmoet an Uw palmt the tale of the hindua. 
The wor^ jsgRBri it enidently the thakaf of the 
t^Tsians, tM l>tin aaocharam, and rogar. 
— J(far<dlm'« Bist. of^umair^ p, 88. 

JAGGURI. Gau. a^R. i4n(NMe.T- 

^MQ^SSil'see lUlft* 

JAOUIB. The state r»T«ftues of 4. ferae^ of 
M •uigDed, with or iritlum^ oondifiqu^ to n 
servant ^ the ttat^ with the power to coUeci 
and ap(«q)riqjle M» revenw "Ud e4i;ry ou 

g«Mia]l admin iatratioq, T14» tev^^ 
most common under the mahommedan govern^ 
pent. The jaghir gi«en to thve KngUsV Si.Mt 
Io4ie Company by thauabAbs of the CaiaaMp 
exti^ed from Mad^s to the PuUcat take* 
M^lbward ; to Alamprav^ aouthwafrdt : and 
westward, beyond Goiyeyeram » that ia^ about 
108 British milea aloag 8horc,and .47 inland; 
in tbe widest part Tbia j^t4' i>ow, known 
at the Chio^put ooU^oOmte.— £UH Hm- 
ifemotr, p, 264, 

JAGHUU)AB. HiVD. Past, Holder of a 

JAOLAIN. A Jat elaui propfieton of a few 
aMbgM in Paaaepal BaHnf.— J?Mfo Svpf. 

iAGNAS. Bee loaoriptioM, p. 380. 
JAGML HivD. A iembeaw. 
JAQO. Bea Keeeh. 

JAGOKO-KADOK. Malat. Xanle of a 
Testable in use at Kadok. 

%wmd Aa. I tiud«. Otu» — •» SiHS- 

Coompta angu Bombfty. I Kira Vellam. Tah. 

4i^,Chir..Gvs. Hnn>- iNallaBaUum. Tat. 

The jagree of India, is unrefined sugar pro- 
dneed by eya^ratiog ihe juices of palma, Uu 
eoQoauut. the date, the ('Utyota ureiis, Mie be'; 
palmyra, the gomuli the value* of Jhe qilantitiea 
lijiporied from India were in 18&T-8 i34,01i4; 
in ma-BO jm.953-8^9 £10^S53 180D-.61 
and to 1861-2 £3»150 ninety per cent, of 
Vhirh was from Madras. See ^ugar. 

JAGUNQ. Ualay. jAV.Maise. Zea mejz. 

7AGUItUM0. Suta. Jvm jtgree^ to be 
avake. See Jiag. 


JAH. Faae. The second title amongst 
mahomedant in India, as Atof Jab, Azim<Jah. 

JAHAN. HlNQ. Fifta. the worU). Hence, 
Jahan-gir world conqueror. Jahanpanah world-, 
proteotor, meaning *' your majesty.** 

MHANG{R, a title of Fir Mahomeil grand 
son of Timur. He entered India In A. D. 1398. 
by way of Gha^ni, and tpok Multao.and then 
re-joined the main army under Titnur. tlmor 
gare^hiin the government of all bis Indian 
oonquests and named him hit universal beir, 
but six mootbs after the death of Timur, in 
1404, he was asaasainated. 

MHANGIR, an emperor of Indie, in 1 61 1, 
who granted to the EngUah a eite for a factory 
at Bnrat. His tomb is in 8hahd^^ on the right 
hank of the Bavi, eleven miles distant from 
Lahore. It is oonstruoied entirely of marble, of 
fine workmanship, beneath which reata tbo 
body of the monarch. The tomb of hia wife, 
Nur-mahal, pruTioosly the wife of Sher Afgao,^ 
hvi been mined ; precious stones were daily 
carried away by the restless Bikbs. His drink- 
ing cup was formed oat of a large ruby. A 
few years ago, it had been placed Cor tale 
ia one of the £ngliah jewellery shops at Calcutta 
1^ the ex^king «f Luekaow. Ttie cup had been 
aeooped hollow out of an uncommonly largo 
sited ruby more than three iacihea long, by iM 
many broad, in the fashion of a goblet, with the 
name of JtehangiK inscribed upon it in golden 
charaotert. Side by tide wai plaeed also a 
similar but sraKlter cup, with a 1^ to stand on 
whw:h had belonged to the great limur. 
The eup having passed Into private property, 
its whereaboula oinnot be uiy more traoetU 
Moiw ^oTa IVaeelf, p. It. ZV*. Ifud, V.p^ 

JAHA^^if AU. An. B|i(p. P«as. hell, the 

Gehegna ofScripture^ 

JAHBTUB. Bali. GiDger. 

JAHK%. Aka9. or Mayndhee. HlHD. A 
mahomedan bride'a bridal paiapheniaUa, which 
it carried ia jirooession to the brid^room*a 
hottw, coDustiug of dothea, garhmdt, dressing . 
cases, trinketsand a number of articles of furni- 
ture. This is the dowry and is the lady'a 
property, descends (o ber otaildrenj and id 
case of her dying without issue belongs to faec 
nearest of kin.. The settlement mad* by the 
bridegroom is called the mahr. The nahr is a 
nligious obligation, without which no marriage 
ia Lawful: as, however, the bride is allowed 
to remit au indefinite portion ' of it, it is mora 
generally owed thau paid.— JSEur^onV Semde^ 
Vbf. r.j>. 28». 

^IIu HiKO. A take, a morass. 

JAHKAWI. Theaacred thcwd of the hin- 
dus which th&brahmln,a, in IheiK secret cero^ 
monies call Yadnupsvita. also, Zandiam; second 
birth or twice-bom are terms frequently mei 
with iu work9 on th^ , lU^^K/ 


inilicnte tliat the person ^ lyhovi H is npiilieil 
lins r'-cfiveil tl)e ^niitt^ar of MRnl>ci)«} c^rd. 
The nrtizan class' of endras in Sou^iieni India, 
eii|;aged in Jive avocations, viz. :— 
GoldnahUs, Komikb 

.-Carpenters, WodU. 
BltickDiniUu, KoqoaliL 

' and 


nil wear it. Ihfy are suilras, ai)[l are divisioni 
uf the same rac^ for they, intermarry. It in 
also worn by braltmaut chettics. See 
Birth ; Dwait* : Jandiufrti Foita, ZandiAm, 

JAHN-NUGGEK. is ^Iwut four miles west 
of Kuitden, and t}elovf which the Ganges for- 
merly held it4 eqifrsa. UrahmadHala. in Jahn- 
nug^nr, ia a appt where hifpian siipr^ces 
were fofmedy offered to an iniiiKe qf 
3)aorga and inhere s great nela is noir 
aanyally held in July. Que of the amuse- 
nenta in tliii roela, is the Jhapan or ttie eifhi* 
bition qf the skill of anake-ealcbcrs and snal^ 
r)iarmcrs, and purchase of (heir phaTiaacop<)aia 
of antidotes.— rr. IJUd. Vol. I. p. il. 

JAHOO. Beno. Tamarfx gallica. 

JAllltEJA, n r»>jput olan who occupy parts 
of Kutch and Kaitywar the dHTmnt tribes of 
then who inhabit UaUaur aaod Muc4ioo Kaun- 

of the Jan< 


















ftn<l other 

The Jabreja hisTp been iiotorious for killing 
their infant dAQghtert., Tliey obtain in mar- 
ripjce the daifghters of any of the i|uuieR)na 
races of Bi^puts and even find their facilities 
snch as, to allow of their bning nic^ In aelec- 
^hi^ 'j^ji^ ^he most reipect^hle fami(ies. 
^ $111 r^rnished iirith wires by the Jlialla, 
mSii Ood, Ohura, Sunima, Purntar, Surne^, 
Eit^P'aili.v.v Wala, and \Vadal tribes • but 
tiitire'^ n^'f ius to be a genir^il pr-fercnce in 
favour of Uic Jhalla. Froip the Jaitiva the 
Jahrejj^ cannot have obtsined any wires for a 
)oT|g timej as itis more tban a oentnry ainoe 
imy grown-up daughters have been seen among 
Ihem. Thh tstct is to be acoounted for only by 
ndntitliDj; that femile infanticide was prevalent 
nnlottS tlidm. Of this, indeed, there seems no 
reason to doubt ; for, althotigh they allov^ that 
tlie practice if sioful.and do not openly avow it 
ihey, AS well as the Jahreja amni^g them, sigqed 
the iiistrumeDt of aboUtioOt ; liowever, this 
outrage on human nature is of oo^ptratively 
recsnt origin, and may without mucb hesita- 
tion, he ascribed to the exam^ile of the Jah- 
reja, in concurrence with base (ipd mer- 
cenary m^tivL's, the influjm: of fx^imple 
a|id commuuicatiou, si^s Coloael Walker. 

aqil the remark is of a cheering, as it«U as 
saddeniii^f iiat'jn% '* is capable of procur 
concerts to the most criminal and flatitk 
courses.** — Oorrespotidence relatloe to JIh 
Infanticide, p. ZS.^ Report, par. IBI-U 
CormackU female t»fiuUiei4tt p\ 108. 

JAI, Hind. Victory. 

JAI. Hind. Oats. 

JAI' Hind. Jasmjnum ofiieinale. . 

JAIANll. BfiliOf Sesbtnia gpgypEiaty'/ 

JAID.VD. Pars. Assets. See Jaedad.J 
JAILS. The native governments of tnct^ 
bad no Jails. Their punishments were ji 
iqediate and consisted of Rne, branding;, roii 
lat)QQ or death. In the reign of Ranjtt Sji 
there were not at any time, 100 men in 
Knement in the Panjab, and the first sanctio 
nicnl for. when it fell to British rate w«'f^ 
jails to hold 10,000 prisoners. The ai 
allowed to eaeh prison in India is 049 
feet and 37 raperlletal- feel as minima^ 
1844, there were 74,OJO prisoners in BrftI 

sa^ifiije, a work atoribod to Jaimittf. 


JAIN. This aeet has bees described 
Professor Wilson, Major Moor and Mr; 
man, there are a few in Mysore, in the CaOar 
traet of the Ceded Districts, and in Guzerat sti 
there are small bodies found in various partkl 
India. In its migrations to the countries sii 
its dUpersion by the brahmsns, buddhism h| 
ammed and exhibited itself in a variety 
shapes. At the present day its doetrinrt, 
«hembed among the Jaina of Otuerat 
Rijpootana, differ widely from its myateiiai^| 
■dministafed by the I^ama of Thibet ; audi 
are equally distinct from the metaphyi 
abstractions propounded by the ro^ttiu 
Nepal, or the f^Uosophy. of the ^txrmt 
Ita observances in Japan have .ui|( 
a still mire striking aitaralion fronttl 
vicinity ta the Syotoo; lyid in China 
have been similarly modi6ed in their oont 
with the rationalism of Lio-tseu and the 
den^onology of the Qoofucians. But, in ea4 
4iid in all, the distlncljoo between the bnddhl 
sects is in degm lather, than eseei 
and the general eononrrenoe is unbrokt 
all the grand esseriUals of the ayiUo 
The Jain aeet arose in the sixtk or ser< 
osotury. were at their height in the elevent 
ai^d declined in the twelfth, and are noi 
thoi^h very numerous, much scitlered al 
the w^st of In lis aad in Marwar. The? 
leading religious tenets consist in 
denial of the divine origin and infalUb^liryjt, 
the Tedas • secstidly, in tlie reverence of ceHai* 
saints or haly mirtals who^aeqiured fiy'pradll 


self-denial aiid'^<WaHitfe]l6^^ oUtioii 

inperior to ttmt of the goiH ; and tliirdlj, 
exiiMM and even ludicrous teodernMi for 
aniiMl Kfs. The disregard of tbe Tedai And 
vcMfatioo of mdrtals are eommon to' Uie 
Jain and Buddhist, und the former* niTolves 
a oqtleet of the rites whiefa th^ pre^eribe, bnt 
BO lur as the doetrfnes which they teach ari 
ooeformabta to Jain tenets, tbe Yedas iirre 
admitted and ouoted as an authority. The 
boddhiata. although tfiey admit thst an 
eadlcM nnmbek- of earthly Buddha's, baTf 
nuted, confine their icrerenca to eintt. 
B«l the Jain seetexteiJd their number to S4df 
their paat age, 84 of their present, and 34 of 
the age to ooiue. The statues of thtae, either 
sll or in pnrt, iire eolleeted in their temples, 
sometimea of eolossal dimensions, and naually 
of black or white marble. The ol^eets held 
n lugbaat esteeni fn HiodostaB are ^arswa* 
nth ttnd Maharira the twenty-ihird and 
iven^.fonrth Jina of the present era. The 
reaerie names of a ^aina saint, erpresaes the 
ideas eutertsined <ff liJs charabter, by his vo^ 
tsries. Heia, ' ' *• 

Jvffat prabkk. Lord bf tli^' world. 

Kakina JV«Maitta/?ree from bodily or eere- 
pwnial acta. 

Barvajna^ Omniscient. 

Aikiswaraf 6ifpreipe lord. 

Jkoadi Dew, God of Gods. 

^rtka-kart or Tirthan Kara one who lias 
oTct Tirpati aiena, that is, the wld 
OMBpared t6 the oeean. 

Kewdif The poseeaaor- of spiritnal nature, 
hte from ita inveaiing adnroea of error. 

Arkai, EutiUed to tbe fanoiage of gods 
and men. ' t - 

Jbut, The vietor over all hnnan pMloos 
ml infinnities. 

Tbe l^t. of tbe Jina, waA Mahavlrx, who 
was bom of TrisaU, wife of Biddhartha, of tbe 
fiioiily of IlrabvakD and prince of PiiTans, in 
Brntakahecra, and he hiarried Tasodha daugh- 
Iccof tbe*- prina of Ssmuorin. He after- 
wan^ beea^ a D^ganfttarA Or n^ked noetie 
aad led in sileaee An 'errktio Ufe for 12 yean, 
aud during h{.s w«nAeriAga in this state he was 
repcetedly ' maltrrated. He then commenced 
to lecture at Apapspnri in Bahar., His 
Cist disciples wen brahmana of Magids 
and Indrabhuti or Golama of the brahman 
tribe of Gotamft ritbl who is not identical 
with the Qautamil of the bmhmans. Maha- 
nra died at the age of 72, S8 of which had 
been spent in religious duties. 

Aeeonfing to the J^int the vital principle is 
I leal cxist^nie aalmatiog in dhtinet portions, 
MMt boAes. hifd condemned to suffer the 
eoaaeqiieveei of Itll sctioiis by mtfrrattiin; The 
nslUy of tiempnU^ nuitrer ia also assorted, as 
«^ aa of ffodi, demons, heaven nnd hell. AH 
VJiUueo It dtylriUri into two faesda. Life 

(J)Vii) or the living and sentient principle ; and 
litertia or Ajfvs, tbe varions modifications of 
iftsnimate matter. Thouffh the forms and eou- 
ditione of these mnny ehinge, aa they ate 
cheated they are imperishabte. ' HfUh then, 
nbanna is Tirtqe, ahd AdbRrua, vice.' Tlw 
JtAn fiiHh is supposed to be amongst the most 
resent of all the religious Systems in Indis. 
Hema Ohandn; one of their ftreatest writers, 
flourished in the end of the ISth century, and 
the compiler of the Jain Pumnaa of ithe Dekhan, 
is said to hare t^tten at the end of the 9th 
centory, and another book, the Xal^a Sutra 
^flsnot composed eariier than the 12th or 
18th osntnry. The Jain reHgiori, nev^r 
e^ttended itselfinto Bengal or Hindustan, for 
iKit priiioeS df Benares professed buddhism up 
to tMe oleventh «eatury. In western Marmir 
and all the territonr sabhet tq this Ohaloky* 
prineea of Guserat, the Jain ftith became thi^t 
of the ruling dynasty^ about 1174, and Jai^ 
relies and Toltowen are still abUnrlrmt in Mar- 
irar, Guzerat and the qpper part of the Mala- 
bar Coftst. The Jain fhith was introduced on 
the Oopir;"n^t^ Coast, in the 8lb or ftth pen- 
tary, in .therein- of Amoghvenfaa, king of 
Tonda Blundalam, This, the 8th or fttli ccQ- 
tnry, seems to have been the earliest period j>f 
the existence of this rdigron, there, and it was 
no donbt but an q^h'oot pf the bttddhist fiiith. 
ne Jain are at p^eaent divided into the 
-])!cnnibai» or Slgrclad, i. 4- naked, and Sir^ 
taifiban^ i. tbe vMte robed* the former of 
which it the widest diffused, qndsetais tofaaiie 
the greatebt elaim to antiquity. Ail of the sect 
in the Dekkan amt in western Itidia appear to 
be Digambaxi Jahi, Indeed the t^ Jain 
seetns ^ new appeHatioo, fdrin t^e early philo- 
sophical writings of tfie Hiqdds, they are styled 
Digambara or NAnga, but itr ttv present day^, 
the Digamfaafa do not go naked except at 
time, bnt wtar cbloitted garmentjt. The Digam- 
bara assert that the women dp never attain 
Nimn, bnt the Stfetambara adtnit the gen^et 
sex to final annihilation. Then' are clericsl i^ 
w^aalay Jains, or Tali or Jatf and theSraraV;i; 
the former of ^hom lead a relqpous Utt and sub- 
^stoa Itie alms whhA the lattot^supply. Thh 
Tati are sometimea collected in maths, eatte^ 
by them Paaala and eren when abroad in the 
world they scknowTedge a sort of obedience to 
the head of the Pasala, of which they were onci 
members. The Tali never ofRciate as priests in 
the temples, the ceremonies being oonduoted 
by a member of the orthodox priesthood, a 
brahman duly trained for the purpose. They 
carry a brush to sWeep the grobnd before they 
tread npon it^ never eat nor drink in the dsr^, 
lest th^ should inadvettently swallow an in- 
sect, and sometimes wear-a tiihi drth orerthdr 
tnotiths IHt thmr breath shonld^demo&di:mke 
of the Btomie epheme9i?;'''l&il Mli6*'fidi»b snn^ 




beami. They wear Uwir bair cut ihort or 
plucked out fram Ibe roots. They pio^ coq- 
tiaence and porerty, and pretend to obBerre 
frequent Eaati and ezerciae profound ftbvtrM- 
tion. Sonip of tben are eoKtged U kafta and 
Oibera a^e pi^ptieton of methii and tempUii and 
derive n eomfortable s;uppart from the oiG^riftgy 
preaanted by U% aecuUr votaries o( Jina. Ibe 
Jains of tbe soutb of India* are divided into 
castes, but in neribefn Uiudustan, they are V 
one east^v^se to mix with othev hindui wd ra- 
cogniie eigbty-fouc orders amongit tbeouelTei^ 
between wbon no intennartiagies bav$ tilpen 
place 4nd many of whra^ do not ioteroivry. 
This cUssificstion is called the Gallia or 
Gott tbe family or race, which has b^n tub-* 
atituted for the Verns. the Jatt or cute, Tb« 
aeculir Jains follow the usual pro/essuns of 
hindus. The Jains ate to be fpuod in every 
province in Hiitdustan, colleoted ohie^ in 
towiit, where, as nerohsnts and bankers* they 
usually form a very opulent portion of the com- 
munity. 1'hey Are nnmerotts ui Mursh«dahadt 
.Benares and the Ooab* but they are nuut 
unmenMua in Mewax and Marwar ; niunrioiu in 
Gusent, «nd in the upper pari of the MaUbar 
Coast, and scattered throughout the PeiiiniuU. 
They form * very tame division of tbe popitU* 
tion of India, aur), from their wealth tpd in- 
^ue^ce, a most iioportaat one- 

According la ilaipx lloor, hai)e 
considered the J^ioa to b^ ^ ^visi^ 
jof tbe sect of Buddha ; biU tl/ie princi- 
pal tenet of their faith is in direct qppqaitioo 
to the belief of that «ect. The it^i^t deuy th^ 
existence of a st^me Being the former admit 
of one, but deny his power^ and interferenoe i/t 
the nguUtion of the univerM. I4ke tjh« httd< 
dbisU, they believe that there is n plursLity 
of beavens and hells ; that oiir rewards SQf 
pnoishmenta in then) depeni} opon our mevit or 
demerit : and that the future urtbs^f n^n are 
x^^ulated by their goodness in every atats of 
animal life. Iiifce the brahmaas. the Jaina 
^knowledge a supreme Being, but p»y their 
devotion to divine ofajjeots of their ovn creation, 
with this differeneci that the turafajMns leptesent 
thair deities to be aif heavenly descent, whereas, 
the Jain ol^eots of worship, like, hut at the 
lane time distinct Xronv those of the buddbists, 
Afe mortal, of alleged trausoendent virtue, rais« 
1^ to tie%titude i)j their piety, benevolsnce, 
giPqtUwss. Eqi^'y the buddhists, 
thfty deny the divine authwity of the Vedas, 
yet they admit the images of the gods uf the 
Vedantic religion uito thmr tempks, and, it is 
said, to a certain exieot worship them, but cod-> 
sider them to be inferior to tlieir own Tir'than* 
)U9t^. They, thecefon, appear to blend, in 
practice, p«tions of the two faiths, advoc^ing 
Joctrinef, scarcely less irrational than those of 
jttbeisls, ^ no teas Hild than the heteroge- 

nous polyibeisn of the brahmans. The 
derive their name from tbe word Jinu 
corner),, because a Jaina mw^ overooi 
eight great crimes, viz., eatiu^ at ni( 
eating of the fruit of trees that give milk; i 
ing an animal * tasting honey or flesh ; 
^le wealth of others, or taking by force i^ jjj 
ried wsman ; eatii^ flour, bntter, or 
aa^ wonbipping the gods of other 
though this last iiyonetton alKmglj 
fgainst wlutt hw joat before been stated* 
Jain extend the doctrine of benevol 
witrd sentient animals to a greater d^rt^i 
tjie biiddbists with whom they agree in ; 
belief of trsinsmigration, A Jain T«t 
priest tarries w^h him a bEo<»n made of i 
threads to sw^p the ground before him 
passes along, Qr a* he sits down, lest he 
tread of ^t upon and ifjifre any thing tl 
iifa A- «!^ng instai^ce of their strirt. 
heience to thia article of their religion. * 
lated in Major Seeley's work, the Wond 
EUora ** An ascetic at Benares wai^ lit 
rest of the sect, extremely apprehrnsii 
causing the death of sn animd. A Vm 
gsv^ him a mieroaoope to look at the 
drank' Ou seeing the animalcnti he 
down and broke the instrument, and toi 
would not drink water again. He 
promise, and died.'* The jaXi or yi 
usui^ly tnkfu from the Banya tribe 
ere devoteil, in early life, to the pi 
>eli|;ion. They paia their noviciate wi 
^wn or teacher, and at a proper pei 
admitted as yaf>. .Ou this occasion a 
is stripped of his appfi^li and, with 
oeremonies, iuvestea with the dress 
order. A, blanket, a plate^ 9°4^a 
his prorisions, a water-pot and his ' 
tiMcn given to hitt,. ^ i.j 

Ur« Coleman alui says that the <^iay 
been conaidered a suodivision of the or 
■ect bat they diiStcr from it, in some res^ 
muoh as they da from the Bi;aKnans ia 
Tb^ buddhists do not arimit of eaates, 
dp they believe in a 9upf:eme ^ing* 
Jain da acknowledge one, but venj] 
power over, or interference in, either the, ' 
tion of the world or anything coataiq 
it. They mijElit, therefore, like the bod.i 
as weU discard their belief altogether 
buddhist admit into ibeir lemp^^ images j 
brahminical dMiies, Wt do not in C* 
Ava. or Siaot, aoknewiedge' them as 
oi worship i the Jain both admit thei 
in a limited degree, so acknowledge '' 
Jaina images are in Kanara, called 
a corruption of Jaiaadeva ; and tho. 
OhinraypAtao, may, perhaps, be in 
correct orthography, Jainaraya^atana. 
the invasion of Mahmood of Ohnnni, 
iigioa seems tOLhaxejpseyailad^^he 


Kkandiesli, Aarangab&d, Bijapur 
lAs Koakftiis. Tbe bill of Shntrunji at 
lUi Ihn tibhelirar district at themoXith 
lOilfof CambAy is dedicated to Adinath, 
ibit of the 24 hieropbants of the 3»\af>. 
ttnplb eonlaias images fa marble of 
ot of aome othef of tie ^irthaiiknra 
Iperikapi bo fabric of human volrkmankbip 
'^' ,11 pore calculated to arouse wonder, 
lion and lasMnjc Rmembrance than 
iti anique and myaterioua pelfsetion. 
[of hamab wotkmanship ia India, 
mmdrona tliMi Palitanaa 
JuM Miertthat ^ma, H ahavtrai WM 
preeeplor of Qotama, pladng bifn a 
iB&teHor to GofHmaj in the year 569 fi. 
$13 before Vi1cTamadit;a> Aucording 
Racfaanau certaiu Join tribes ^ssert that 
cane from Ambia and It is remarkable 
ikinagesof the Jaina have are woolly 
Some of Ihett idols cotoseal to a ilej^ree 
nncquallcd. others nre very diminutive^ 
i greit hulk of ibis sect are undoiibted' 
[Aryan orijpii. At present in Iiidfa, thf! 
I ticea hold to the three great religions, 
Btahmlniam) and Zoroastrlaniam, 
: fdhnren of th^ain belief an all of this 
■ay of whom however^ In Cashmere, Af- 
land KajpntanabNTe become mafaome- 
An eminent Jsin pHest gave as a reason 
: tanovation of enslirining and wrtrshlp- 
iffte forms of the t«ren(v>-four pontilTs. 
Fihe Worship of Kanlya before and after 
[Jlyotlirosis, became qniet a tn^B amotigst 
who crowded his shrines, drawing; 
. tVem afl the youth of the Juina tatui 
tja eonsequenee, ihey mude a statue of 
rio eoantEract a fervour that threatened 
of their lect. It is scMom we 
aished with flitch rational reasons for 
Ganges. Tlie designation Vrdya 
Heft as a term of nproaob to tlie 
Buddhi«ts. The ani^ent Persian 
liippers, like the present Jnin^ pUced 

over the mouth while worsliippingi 
Bifrl in his " Historical Kesearch- 
Ibe Origin and rriociples of the Bud- 
Pand iainti religions, fumiBhes several 
«f insL-nptions from the caves of Ka- 
AjunU, Ellora, Naslk, &c. The 
af Udyaiciri and of tbe Khandagiri 
20 miles from CUTTACK and five 
Eawara an next in antiquity to 
Bebar. They are built on the hills 
li and Kbandaairi, the former are bud- 
die oilier, the latter probably JaiiiS' 
tha Snaeriptions an tn the Xtath cha-. 
tUi ^Tca tb^ age aa anterior to 
era. The frieze sculpture in 
eompba is superior to any in India 
>le8 that of the Banchi tope at 
la it than: are no gods, no figures of 

differ&nt sizes, nor any ellravagance. In tli0 
bnddhiat caves here, there are no Ugurea of 
Buddha, or any images. In a Jaina cave 
On Kliandflgirij the S4Thirtankara with femala 
ener^es are sculptured. 

True Jaina caVes occur at Khandajriri in 
(^iittnck 'and in the Boulhem parts of India* 
Bat are felr and insignificant. Ttiere are cut 
in the rock of GwHlior Fort, a bumber oif 
colb'satkl flgures, some thirty to forty feet high, 
of bnt Aif tbe Thirtanlcarai spmeaitting^ some 
Atattdln^. Their dates Hre about the tenth or 
tvtelftli fientury before Gbristt 

<9f tike Btihar cavra In tbe neighbourhood 
of ttf^ahfEfihai the Milk maid's cave, atid 
Brnhniiin girls' cave^ have inseriptiuns in (he 
liith cbaracler. They are of about 300 B. C, 
and are tbe most dnrient caves of India. The 
Nagarjttm cave and Haft Khaneh or Satghur 
yroap are situated in the southern arm of the 
hill at some Utile distance from the Braliman 
girl and Milkmaid 'a cave> Another group la 
nie'neighbouring Karaa chapdfa and lAmaa 
Uikhi cave* 

Vive Jain images, in marble have been dug 
njp at Ajmtr with a Prhkrii Inscription derived 
fh)(nihe'l'ed,"Bnd the date, A. D. ITBifs' 
on one Image. The character used in the In* 
acripfldn is Diva IJagari. The sect mentioned 
is Jain, of the Uigamberi class. Tlie name of 
one of the images, Prajoauatb. thai five 
imnges of haVi^d Jain saints were dug up at 
Ajmir, in a niahomedan burial ground ; and 
the inbcriptions on them are Curious for show- 
ing the Prakrit (not FaliJ of the twepth cen- 
tury. — Bm. Ae Soe. 3<mr. Vol, Vll. pa^c 53. 

The princijwl Jain seats at present, are at 
Aboo and Gimar. Girnar is an eminent Jaia 
locality, but M6unt Aboo, in Jain eatimntion, 
is the holiest spOt on earth. I)Uwam,Becording 
to iraditioii has been famous ftom a remote nn- 
liquity. Hindoo temples are said to hava 
^xi8ted which to which, since A. D. 1034, pil- 
grims have resorted; bnt all traces of them have 
disHppenred ; on their traditional site, how- 
ever, at Dilwarra, Bimul Sah, a rich jain mer- 
chant and others, erected the celebcrated jain 
temples which are now there. The Jain priesta 
of Aboo are cliosen from amongst the youth 
of the Ossi tribe or Oswal of the Marwari 
people. They never marry but live a aadhu or 
pure ascftic life and are scrupulously careful to 
avoid destruction of hnimal life. They move 
about with a cloth over their mouths to pRvent 
insects entering ; Ibey uae incesuntly a small 
brush or broom to awt-ep aside all living crea- 
tures, they eat seldom generally once daily 
and they never partiike of stale food lest in 
the interval aince its cooking animalcule may 
have formed in it. M»ny ol the people usually 
called Marwari are ulmp^l jajl ^Q^ijL, f^in 
relijsion. The conduct aMoit exdhsively the 




entire banking business of ltidia. CoIodcI Tod 
ttilts us thai thevare ofBBjpoot origin^ and one 
df theiil, the Usiral is the richest and most 
nuttierous oT the eightj^-four toefcantild tribes 
of India, and is said to amount to one huadred 
thoasaud faouliet. They are called '^Oswal" 
from their tirat settlemeDt, thu town of Ossi. 
Tfaey arb all ot pure ngpoot lurth of no ainsU 
t;ibe, but chiefly Ptan.8olanki and fihatti- All 
pl^ress (he Jvin teneta, and the pouUds of tblt 
faith mdst be seldiited from the youth of Osat. 
These f^teat bankers and meirchahts are acattere^ 
throughout India, but are all kuQurn onder one 
denomioation, Harirari which is eitooeonaly 
aiipposed to appljr to the Jodpoor tenitory^ 
Wtiereas, in ffict, it means beloojfinK tp Manxif 
the desert, tt is singular htf adds (BaJastAait it, 
234) that Che «eaUh of India ahould centre in 
this re^n of eomparative steplity. The Ifar- 
i^ari 18 essentially following simiiat merfiantile 
pursuits to the taisya komati of the Fenuiksiila 
of tndia, ris, that of banker and aenhailt. to 
Krtiieh, however, tho Komati add that of retail 
ahopk^ping. If 8 Harwari engaged in bnamOsa 
in the Peninsula, be asked as to his caatoi he 
leplies that lie is a Mahajan, a Baoia, a BiaiSf 
ot Vafs, hieanii^; thai faia profession is of that 
Mcfion of the people^ But on furttier queatu>n 
he explaitis tlut originally Uie ^atwari #afl ^ 
mjpoot ; that there are twelve great tribeii of 
wliom are the Oswal, Messar, i^afwaltf, Sara' 
ogit Maddat-war, Farwar; Bijabarfip, and fiVe 
fitheft. These all subdivide into mnumehible 
** kap" Or clana ; in the Meatfar tribe alone, 
are 72 ; amontcat whom are the Bathi atfd 
Dhag*. All the M^ari adbam to the gotra^' 
O'exogataiid principle, takii^tbeirdeseentfiDm 
a founder, and in their natria^ oeftmoniaa 
they abstain fhm.fhe blood relalionabip, neveit 
warryinic in their own gotra. "thefr widows 
never re-marfy. 

Between Chtm and the brafamiBicnl hindu,- 
there has been, in Guzerat, a spirit of emufa- 
tioti frdrn the most ancient t»nKS, The Jain d > 
not revere ' akya Muni, but restrict their reve^ 
rence to 24 Budd'ha, etyled teerthankara who 
have attained anniliiUtion^ The last teerChan- 
knr was Maba-Vira, who died B. C. 600. 
They have maintained their ground in Guzerat 
and in parte of Mysore and followers of their 
creed hold in their hands a Uvffi part of the 
wealth and trade of India. Their temples are 
magnificent, the most a ndcni of them are at 
Girnar, (be most exquiaite on Mount Aboo 
the most extensive and still flourishing at 
Shutroonjye near Falit'hana- The last men- 
tioned were beautified and restored by SiladiiyH 
and it is the most ancieut and most sacred of 
the JTain shrines of Guzerat. Almost every 
Indiau city has contributed to its ailo rnment. 
The numbers and power of these sectanans aie 
little known to Kuropeausi but in 1820, the 


pontiff of the Khartra-gateha, one of l)ie mai# 
branches ofihis laith, had 11^000 deticiu 
(liaciples scattered over India j a smgle comniir 
iiity, the Ossi or Oawal, then numbei^ 
100,000 faiuiliea; and more than half ti 
the mercantile wealth of India pAwea through 
the hands of the Jain laity, llijast'han and 
Saur^tra are the . beadles , of the JtSA 
Mih, »nd three ottt of their five saoiad 
mounts, namely, Abu« PalU*hana,* and Giraar 
are id these countries. The officers of the 
state and revenue ifrere chiefly of the Jain laityi 
Ss are the majority of (he bankers, from Lahore 
to the ocean in Colonel Tod's time. The chief 
magistrate and assessors of justice, in Oodipoot 
and most of the towns of Bajsst'ban, were of 
this sect 'j and as their duties were confined to 
civil cast^a, they are as eompetcnt in theft as 
they are the reverse in erimioal cases, from thcic 
tenets foibidding the sboddiug of blood. Td 
this leading feature In their i^won they owe 
their jwlitieal debasetoent :' for Komarpat the 
Ia»t king of Anhulwara of the iaia faith, would 
not mai^h his aAniea in the niins, fifom the 
unavoidable sitorifioe of animal life that most 
bsve ensued. The strict Jaiu does hot even 
itiaintain a lamp durfug that seison, lest it 
ahould attract moths to theJr destructioa.- 
Among the mercbimts of the Jain tribe, 
women are not, iu general, educated ; buE 
when they are left wldoits at tin early age they 
are in the habit of devpting themseUiea tO 
Jati or priests with i^boia tbe^ abide, and 
from whom they ktcta hoi onfy the rites, but 
also to read the sacred books of (heif reRgion : 
they buMime, iu faot^ mendioant pfieatesaes, 
•nd etereise eonflSdenible inflnenee Over HiA 
females of tbeir tribe from the m<At temote 
period, Mewar has, atforde^ .a refuge to the 
followers of the Jain faith, Whieh was the rBli-< 
gron of Balablii, the first Capital of the Bcna*a 
anoeatore^ and many monuni6tit» aiiesi the 
support tilts family has granted to its pre 
feasors in nfi the vicissitt^ea of their forttfiies. 
One of the best preserved n^ontfmental remains 
in In^ ia a column in Cbeetor^ Uo*t 
elaborately sculptured, full seventy feet in 
heightj dedicated to Parswa-ua'th, the noblest 
renaius of sacred architecture, not in Mewar 
only but throughout Weatera Xndia» are 
Sudd'faist or Jain : and the many ancient 
ciiies where .tWa reKgiou w:as fortoed, havs 
inscriptutns which eTimn tbeu prosperity in 
these counties, with whose history their own 
is interwoven and to their having occupied 
a diitiuguiahed place in Bajpoot society ; 
tfae librariea of Jessulmer in the desert, of 
Anhulwarra, the craiile of their faith, of 
Cambay, and other places of minor importance 
consist of thousanda of volumes. These are 
; under the ooutral, not^ the priests abue. but 
of communities 90^et1»V|B6)P{j^fchhy and rea- 



paetable anwngsL Uie laity, and an presaved 
u Um ci7pts <k tbeir temples, whioh picoiatioii 
ensured ibeir preservation, as wetl as that of 
the sUtnes of their deified teaebert, when the 
temples themselves were destroyed by the 
naliomniedaa invaders, who paid more defer- 
ence to the images of Badd'ba than to those of 
8iv« or Ti^niu The presarration of the 
fomwr mty beowinf to me natoxal formation 
of their statoea ; for while msnj of Adiaath, 
of Nemi, and of Parawa han eacaped the 
hammer, there is searoely an ApoUo or a Yenoa 
of any antiquity, entire, from Lahore to Ha- 
meswara. The two arms of these theisia snffioed 
for their proteotion, while tite statues of 
the polytheisU Itave met with no mereijr. 
Palit'hana, or the abode of the Pali, is 
the name of the town at ihe foot of the sacred 
mount Satruniya (HgnifyiDg riotorioua over the 
foe) the Jain temples on wbioh are sacred to 
Budfaisvara, or the Lord of the Buddhist 
Pialit'hana seema doived from the pastoral 
(pali) Scythio isTadera bringing in their train 
ibe bttddhiat faiUi whiob appean iodigeoous 
to India, Palestine, «hi(di witP tha whole 
of Syria and Egypt, was ruled by tiie Tksoa 
or Shepherd-— kitigs, who for a aeason 
expelled the old Coptic race, may have bad a 
similar import to -the Pali-t'hana founded by 
the lodo-Seythic PalL The earliest olqects 
of adoration in Bajputanah were the san 
and moon, whose names designate the two 
firand races, Surya, and Chandra, or Indn. 
Bud'faa, son of ludu, miirried Ells, a grand- 
child of Surya, from which nnion aprimg 
Ibe Indn raoe. They deified tbeir ancestor 
Bnd'ha, who eoatinued to be the chief object 
of adatatiw until Kn^na: hmee the wor- 
thip of Bai>nath awl Budha weie ooeral. That 
tlw nomade tribes of Aralnif aa veil ss Uiom 
of l^urtaiy and India, adored the same objeota, 
we leara from the earliest writers; and Job, the 
probable contemporary of Uasti, the founder 
of the first capital of the Yadu on i he Ganges, 
boasts in the midst of his grierB that he had 
always remained uncormpted by the Ssbeiim 
which surroonded him. " If 1 beheld tlie sun 
when it sbioed, or the moon waUiiig io bright- 
nesa, and my mouth has kissed niy hand, this 
also where an iniquity to be punished by the 
judge, for I ^should have denied tiie God that 
ia above.** That ^ra were many hindiia who, 
profeanng a pun nonotheiam lilce Job,, ueva 
kiMed thfl hand either to Burya or Ida herald 
Biid'ha, wtt may easily aradit from tboauUimity 
(cd tba Botioiis of the 'One Qod,' expressed 
both by the ancients and moderns, by poets 
and by piinees, of both races but more eape- 
ciaUy by the sons of Budag, who for ages 
bowed not before gnven images, and deemed 
it impioaa to niae a temple to 

The Bfixit In whose honour shrines are weak." 

Henoa the Jain, the chief sect of the 
bndhiats, so called from adoring the spirit 
(Jin), were untinctured with idohitry until the 
apotheosis of Krishna, whtne mysteries su> 
perseded the simptei worship of Bad'ha. 
Nemnath (^Aa tkiM Nemi) was the pontiff of 
Budha^ and not only the eotemporary of Kiriabnay 
tlut a Yadu, and his near nution ; and both 
bad epitheta denoting tiirit complexion ; for 
Aruhta, the surname of Nemi, has the eamo 
import as Slnm or Kjishna, 'the black,* though 
the latter is of a less Ethiopio hue than Nemi. 
It waa anterior to tfai'a schism amongst the sons 
of Budha that the creative power was degraded 
under sensual forms, when the pillar roee to 
Bal or Surya iA 8yria,and on the Ganges : and 
the serpent, "subilest beast of all the field," 
worshipped as the emblem of wisdom (Bud'ha.) 
was oonjwned with ihe symbol of the creative 
power, as at the shriue of Eklinga, when the 
brazen aerpent is wreathed round the lingam. 
Bud'ha'a deaoendanla, the Indn race, preserved 
Uie ophite sign of their lineage when Krishna'a 
followen adopted the eagle as his symbol. 
These, with the adoren of Suryn, form the 
three idolalrout classea of India, not confined 
to its modern restricted definition, but that of 
antiquity, when Industhan or Indu-Scythia, 
extended from the Ganges to the Caspian. In 
support of the poaition that the t-xistinp poly- 
theism was unknown on the rise of Yishnuiun, 
it may be slated, that in none of the ^noient 
genealogies do the namea of aueh deitiea appnt 
as proper names in sociely, a praoUce now 
oommon ; and it is even recorded that the rites 
of magie, the wonhip of the hort of heaven^ and 
ci idola, wen intiodueed from Kashmir, be- 
tween the poioda of Kridma and Yioama. Tba 
powen of natun wen peraonified, and each 
quality, mental and physical, had ila emblem, 
whioh the brahmina taught the ignorant to 
adopt as realities, till the pantheon became so 
crowded that life would be too short to acquire 
even the nomenclature of their " Ifairty-Uiree 
millions of gods." No oliiect was two high or 
too base from the glorious orb to the rampi, 
w paring knife of the shoemaker. Krishna is 
wwahipped under the seven forma in tha 
various capitals of Rajast'han, and these are 
occasionally brought together at the festival 
<>f Anaeuta at Nat'hdwara. — Tod't Bajasihtm^ 
TmnetU't Chrittianity in Ceylon, -p. 206,207. 
aof«. Mgtk. Hint/, p. 200, Afoor, p, 86S. 
Hindu InfanUdde, p. 176. Cat. Bee. 1866, 
Tod^sRajaatkan^yol. hp. fit 8. Malcolm' a 
Central India^ Vol. II. p. 193. Tod's Rajat- 
Utan, Vol, I. p. 619-20. Vol I. p. Jrom B3-t 
io 63. See Hindoo ; Ioscriptk»ns ; Karli ; Khaa> 
dagiri ; Eriahnat I^t. ^ . 

J29 Digitized by»»iOOglC 



3AINT, alflo Jaiatnr, afso Jait, UiHU. 
Besl^Qia ^gyptiaca. 

JA.INTXA bills, east of the Kasia range, 
iritbin the Britiah dominuHia, the bribes in 
which have latterl:^ became of the sain bin- 
dn sect. See Kuki. 

JAINTBI QHAUT. See Kohistan* 

JAIPALA, in A. D. 977, a hinda gowrnor 
of Lahore. He was defeated by Sabaktagia 
at Lnghman and was granted peaoe on terms 
which he broke, and was a second time defeated 
though aided by the kings of Delhi, Ajmkr 
Colinjar and Khdouj, with 100,000 hwrsea 
and countless iofontry. 

JAfCHAL. DDK. Qvz. HiKD. Nutaaeg. 
Vyristiea offidualisi Jaiphal-ka-tel, Nut- 
meg OH' 

JAIPUR. The capital of the Rajpnt State of 
aamo name, u the moat beautifid of the towns of 
India. T. Men Singh ita rajah, Akbar was 

indebted for some of his most brilliant triumphs. 

JAIPUTRI TAILAM. Tah. Mace oil. 

JAIRTUAN. See India. 

JAIS, also Jayet. Fa. Jet. 

JAISHTHA. Sans, The second month of 
the hindu solar year, when the sun is in the 
sign Trtshft 8, answering to the Tamil month 

J~AI-SIi<HA. SeeSanraahtra. 

JAIWANTBI. also Jaiputri. Quz. Hind. 
Uace. Jniwantri or Jaipntri-ka-tel. Mace oil. 

JAJATE, also Jajepur. See Orisaa. 

JAJL The Afghans on the Punjab frontier, 
are those in the Daman or skirt of the Sulimani 
range, the shiah Tori, the Jaji, the Esa KLhel. 
The Jaji dwell in houses with a teh-khana or 
excavaUoa in the earth. The Eaa Khel occupy 
the banks and iriets of the Indna engaged in 
the cultivation of wheat, but are also robbers. 

JAJI. Til. Jasmioum grand iflorum.— 

JAJI-KATA. Tkl. Nutmeg : J).jt-ksys 
chettu. Myristiea moscbata, or Nutmeg 
tree. Jflji-karra. Wood of myristiea m'oschata. 
Jaji-karra Nuna. Nutmeg butter. See oil. 

JAJNAGR or Ytynagr. See IndU. 

JAJU near the ford of the river Dun- 
gunga, ia generally called Sarai ;uear 
it the battle waa fought between Bahadur altah, 
son and sneceasor of Aurangzeb, and hia 
brother piince MahcHuad A'ssm — CkU. Reo. 
Jm. 1871. 

JAKA. Malay. Fruit of Artocarpus 
integrifoUa. The jack fruit. 

JAKA MAUA. C\N. Artocarpus iateg- 
rifolia.— Zin». 

JAKONARKK., in L nf>2A' N. and L. 
76°53, G. in the Nil>;iris, K. of Ootakamuod 
is 5,000 feet above the sea. 

JAKA TIGE. Tel. Species of Marsdenia. 


JAKATRA. This anoient town is ths 
modern Batavia, is also the name of the river 
on whiefa the town is builti 

JAKAWANSA. Snraa. AnisooMlea obo- 

JA'K'HAN. Hind. The wooden fonniiw. 
tion of Uie btick work of a welL It it gene- 
r^ly made of. the green wood of the iSoofnr 
tree (Ficus giomerataX whieh ia lesa UaUe to 
rot than any other kind. — £lliot Bupp. Qtots. 

JAKUUB, also Shiagh, also Poouiab, are 
dtinominatioas of the Jit raoe in the Rajputa- 
□ali desert, a few of whom pre8erve,under these 
ancient sab-divisbns, their old customs and re- 
ligion ; but the greater part are among the 
eonverts to inabonedanism, and retain As 
generic name, prononnqed Zj'faut. Those enis- 
mersted are bamUeaa and indusUious, and ars 
found botii in the desert and valley. Then 
are, beudcs, theae. a fiew soattend fiuniliea of 
ancient tribea, aa the Sooltan and Khoomam, 
of whose bistoiy we are ignorant, Joh\a, 
Siudiland othesa.— 2W« Jnnaia. 
JAKIL.^ Ualbal. Ficus venoea. — AH, 
JAKA. 'rne highest mountain near Simla. 
JAKBANL A Bnlucb tribe. S<>e Kelat. 
JAKUN. The vild tribes inhabiting ths 
Malayan Peninsula, Sumalra and a few of tin 
neighbouring IsUuda are divided into three 
principal dasacs, which are subdivided into 
many others. The iirst of these divisions in- 
cludes the Batta, who inhabit the iuterior of 
Saraatra and a few neighbouring islands. The 
second is that of the Semang, who an found 
in the forasla of Ked^, Tringana, Perak and 
Salangor. Under Uie third division, the Jakun, 
are oomprised of many tribes, who inhabit the 
south part of the peninsub from aboat Sslaiigor 
on the west coast, and Kemsraan on the E.ooast, 
and extend nearly as far ss Singapore. All 
these various wild tribes are ordinarily classed 
under the itenersl and expressive appellation of 
Orang Binua meaning people of the soil. 
I'be Ualsys ia the thirteenth century, bad 
but a short time iohsbited the Feuinsula, 
since we are informed by the Sqara Ma- 
layan, that Singapore is celebrated in Ma- 
layan history, as jiaving been the first place of 
settlenoat of the early Malay cmi^nta fran 
Sumatai. The Orang Binaa are not mahome- 
dans ; it is stated by the Binua, and admitted 
by the Malays, that before the Malay FeninauU 
had the name of Malacca, it was inhabited by 
the Orang Binua. In course of tine, the 
early Arab trading vessels brought over priests 
from Arabia, who made a number of eonverta 
to mahomedanisra, and those oftheOrangBinua 
that declined to allure the customs of their fore- 
fathers, iu coo&equenoe of the persecutions to 
which th^ wwe expottd, fled to the faatnesaoa 

of the interior when Utm^Yesiu4e,coaliuued 

Digitized by VjOO* 


IB ■ unga atate. Their general phyaieal ap- 
fmnaeot thmr lineaneita, Ibeir noiBMio bab^ 
■nd a few aimilariliea in eoatoms, point to a 
l^ftar aztraetion. The prinmpal habitalioiis of 
tbeJakan are tamd at the upper extremity oiiht 
imra of Job ore, Banot, Batu Pafart and M oar. 
Tbcfo 1^ kowcfer, e nnarkable diflfarenee in ^ 
pbnnflal appearance eft be terenl elasaeaofJakon. 
Thoae of Malacca are geaerally at tall aa the 
common ran of Boropeaiis ; they are more dark 
thao anj other of the wfld tribea ; and in which 
respret there ia not moeh differeoee between 
than and the mon dark of the Indo-Portngneae 
of Malacoa. The Jakun of Jobore are a fine 
raee of aMo : many of them are taller than those 
of Maheea ; the faoe also is expressiTe and well 
eharao t er u ed) arid the expression of the eyea in 
wuuf of them is a little sensae. -Their noee 
does not recede at the upper part, neither is it 
BO flat or so broad at its base as tbia organ 
is in tbe Cbfaiei^ Goehin-Ohineae and pun 
Malays Ssfoal of Iheat hare aquitiBB noaca. 
Soma dHU«a and young men an beaitiM. 
The woaaea aii» plamp but not OTerstont. The 
Jaksn of Uonangkabaa States, are very short, 
their physiognomy ia tow, »d 'seems to an- 
Bonneegreat simplicity ; many of them are ugly 
»d baldly made. The Jakun are generally 
strong* and mnseular. The hair blaek, 
wdiBarily -frizzled, bat very different from 
the eriap batr of the Negro. Some of them 
lesTe tiM whaia to grow on the head, as 
the Cochin-GUoese ; othm* aa many of 
those of Malaeca, cot theirs entirely - others 
chieBy of the Ueaangkabau States and of 
Jafaoitt, abare the head, leavi^ it only above 
thtee iiicbea ia diaoata at the erovB where 
they never eat it, Uie same aa the Chiaasei and 
to prevent this bead of hair from bdng booked 
by the brandies of tree in their sylvan babita- 
tions, they tie it up in the form of a top knot. 
They have searoely any beard, and many of 
thoa have none at all< The women leave their 
hair to grow, and then tie it up in the same 
wsy as the M«lay women ; but they are not 
vory particolar in this reapect.. It baa been 
stated Uwt in the foreats of Pabsng an numer- 
oaa tiibca ct the Jakun, who are as while as 
San^ann : that tbqr an email, bat very good 
isokfeff; and the Malays form a party and 
best the fb»st in-order to eateh tkeae poor 
CKBtimB. Tbi^ take their oaptives to Puang 
ar to Sian, wboe on aeoonnt of Ueir whiteness 
and eom^neai^ tbey wA\ at a high price. 
They do not worship the sun nor the 
■eoB nor any idol. The Jakun of Ifolaoea, 
cannot be mora than three hundred, about 
oae-haK of' whom an aeen near Brim and 
Ayer Panas, at Ayer Baru, Gaasim, Kommend- 
cr, Bokft Siaghi ; in Urn rim oi Huar near 
ftakalang Kota, ai Poghalay, Sagil, Segamon, ther } it eonsiita 


Lemon, Jawee ; in the small river of Pago, and 
in that of Ring. The nmainder are to be 
found, at Bukit More,. A;er Trose, Bukit 
Gtodong, Tanka, and it ia reported thnre arc a 
good number at Segamet. The J akun of Johore 
inhabit that part of the peuiaaula which ia 
under the away of the aultau of Johore, and 
cannot amount to more than one-thonsaad, 
scattered over that large extent of ooontiy. 
Tliere are Binua on the Simrong and other 
brandm of the Indian which are in Johor^ 
The southern part of Pahaog is inhabited by 
the same ti ibe of Binua who an found in Jobore, 
some of whom have habitations which can 
scarcely be called bonaes. The Jakun of Johon 
build comfortable bouses in the Malay way, 
divided into several rooms, for the ' private 
accommodation of the family ; with pots, 
phttes, and mats aa furniture, a frying pan of 
iron to eook riee, a eoeoanut shell to ke^ 
w^t and baricets to bring food. The bousea 
an raised about six feet from the ground, and 
an entend by a Udder Uke the Malay houaea. 
Thtt best houses of the Meoangkabau Jakun an 
about the same as tha more simfde and com- 
mon hoaies of the Jakun of Jobore ; others are 
rude edifices on the top of foar high wooden 
poles ; thns elevsted from fear of tij^ers, and 
entered by means of a loitK ladder. The loofg 
are often thatohed wilh Chucho leaves. There 
is but one room ia which the whole family is 
huddled toitether with dogs and the bodiea of 
the animals they catch. The huts an so made 
as to be moveable at a mwnent'avramiog; tbey 
an ordinarily situated on the steep side of 
some forest cUd hill, or in aome seqaesterad 
dflte, remote from any freqnented road or foot 
path, and with litlle pfamiatioDs of yams, plan- 
tains, md maiae ; some have also patches of 
rioe about themv The bones and hair of the 
animals whose flesh the inmates of these scat- 
tered dwellings feed upon, strew the ground 
near them, whtte numberaof dogs generally of 
a light brown colour give timely notice of the 
approach of strang^s. The Jakun of Malacca 
an the most ignorant, the poorest and most 
miserable, their best hoases are about the same 
as the worst of those of the Menaogkaban 
Jaknn, and aeveral femiliea live without even 
having any house at all. These gather them- 
selves together to the nambn ^ five or six 
families, they ehooae a pUoe in the thickest of 
the forest, where they clear and hedge a cirde 
of about thirty feet in diameter ; and so make 
a sort of bulwark against the numerous tigers, 
bears and panthera* they establish their dwell- 
ing in this endosun, each family works to 
ooostruct what will serve-for a bed during the 
night, a seat in the day time, a table for the 
Kpast, and a dwelling or shelter in bad wea- 

o( about fifteen oi 

-Digitized by VjOO* 



sliokB of aix feet long, laid one beiide the other, 
supported at the two extremities by two other 
trenaverse sticks which are set upon four 
woiider) posts; the wliole being abont two feet 
in height, four feet broad and us feet long. 
One dozen Ghucho leaves gathered by their 
enda, cover the bed, and the beds are placed 
around ^e eodosure, in such a way that nhen 
all the persons ua sleeinng every one has his 
fsflt towards the centre of the habitation which 
is left vacant, to be used as a oook room, or 
for any other pnrpose. The clothes of the 
Jakun (when ta^ wear any) are ordinarily 
the same as those need by Ualaya, but 
poor, miserable, and above all very unclean ; 
many of them use clothes without washing, 
from the day they receive or buy them, nntil 
they become rotten by use and dirt, and they 
are obliged to throw them away. If vermin 
are found, they are eaten with delight aa in 
Cochin Ofaina. Many of them are badly dressed, 
and some nearly naked from want, for all 
desire to be clothed, and the most agreeable 
pieseata which caa be offered to them are some 
' trowHTBy sarong, bajo, or some bandkerohieb 
to put round their head, in the Malay 
fiuhion. Those of them who go, habitnsUy, 
nearly naked, do not appear so facfora strangers, 
excepting they have no clothes. The Jakun 
of Jahore and Menangkaban are superior to 
the others, are the best dressed, have a great 
number of crystal, oopper, tin ; and silver 
rings on their tlngers, and idao silver braeelets. 
The Meniiigkabau women ere not so well 
clothed, many of them go nearly naked, at 
least near their faonses and those who use 
clothes, show often an embarrassment which 
proves that they are not accustomed to their 
use. The Jakun o£ Ualaeei are badly 
dressed, many of the women have oely 
a Sarong, and if th^ an married, a ring, the 
necessary present of the hnaband before 
marriagCt The greater part of the men 
■ have nothing but a strip of the fibrous bark of 
the lerap tree, beaten into a sort of cloth of a 
reddish brown colour, called a Sabaring, round 
their I6ins ; part of this comes down in front, 
ia drawn between the l^s and fastened behind. 
The Jakun are idle but their pfindpal occupa- 
tUax is the chase. When there is no 
more food at home the husband beats 
the forest, and sometime* returns with 
large pieces pf venison, but sometimea with 
nothmg, and on sncli days they go to sleep 
without nipper. Tliis ia the ordinary evening 
work, whoi the sun ia snr aettia^. In the 
day time th^ remain at hmne where they 
prepare arrows aad the weapons, the sub- 
stance ffith which they poison their arrows, and, 
they cook and eat Ibe animala caught the 
dtjr before. They trarerse the jangle dariag 

the day seeking after rattan, damman gara- 
wood, and aevnal ether artidee of oomaaere^ 
they sometimea cook ilie flesh belbre they mk 
it, but at other times they aat it rkw, sone 
merely pnt the animal upon the fire till the 
hairs are ainged, when they cnaider it a* 
cooked- A traveller aaw some large mon- 
keys which after having been thna cooked, were 
diahed up upon a kind of mat ae ameal to 
some seven or eight peraons, who apeedily 
de von red the whote. Some Jaknn refuse to eat 
the flrah irfelephanta nnder the prstezt that it 
would oeeasion dekneaa. A Jakun haa alwava 
his spear, which is both a stick to widk 
with and an offensive or defensive weapon. 
The parang, an iron blade of abont one foot 
long, and two or three inches broad, with a 
haft like that of a lai^ knife, they use to 
cut trees. Their marriagea are ordinarily 
celebrated about the month of July 
and Angust when fruifa are plentirid. The 
bridegroom frequenta for some time the houae 
of his intended, and when he baa obtained her 
oonaent, he makes a formal demand to the 
Utktr, A day ia then appointed ; and an en- 
tertainment ia prepared, mora or lass aolemn, 
according to the maaua of the two owtoaetuig 
parties, and their rank in the tribe. When 
the day of the mHrrixge is arrived, the bride 
groom repairs to the house of the bride's father, 
where the whole tribe ia assembled. The dow- 
ry given by theman to his intended is deli- 
vered, and rouat consist at least of a silver or 
oopper ring a few cubits of doth perhapa or 
a pair of bracelets, other omamenta, and 
furniture are added. Sometimea the woman 
presents also some gifts to her intended and 
then the laride is delivered by her father to the 
bridegroom. Amongst some tribes there is 
danofc, in the midst of whiob the bride cleet 
darta off into the finrest fallowed by the 
bridegroom. A diase enmies during whidi 
ahoald the youth fall down. Or retam aa- 
sueoesaful, he is met with the jeers and nw 
riments of the whole party, and the match is 
declared off. A European who i^abited 
Pahang many years, said that during the 
banquet a large fire is kindled, all the ooDgre- 
gatiou standing as witnesses : the bride runs 
round the fire till oan^t up by the groom. 
Adultery ia punishable by death. U ia not 
allowed to keep more thaa one wife. Only 
one was seen who had two, and he was eenwred 
and despised by the whole tribe *. a man can 
divoree his wife and take another. If the 
divom is proposed by the hnriMmdj he loses 

the dowry ha has giren to the woman $ if 
the wmnan ask the divorce^ she most return 
the dowry she reeeirad. The ehildrea follow 
the father or the mother acondiiig to tUair 
wishes ; if yonng th^ fdlpw the mother* No 

132 Digitized by CjOOglC 



aniitaMe » ordiunly f iven to lyiiig<in 
vomea ; tbnr pfajmeians or Pvinwg, are not 
pamitted to appear ia sueh dreuttiUneeB, and 
mktviTes are not biom amoagit them. It 
is reported that in aeireral tribea, children, ao 
toon u bwD, an anried to the nearaat rinilet, 
where tlwj are vaahodt then brought baok to 
the hovat; vbeitt a fin ia kindled^ inoense of 
kamuiaB wood thmrn upon it, and the ohild 
tlien paased ow senrat tiam» The praotiee 
of paa&iog cbiMna over fim waa is all timea 
much praetieed anoag aneieul heathen nation* ; 
and it it even nov foUowed in China and other 
l^aoea. With the dead, the corpse is washed* 
wrapped in some olothand intened by rela- 
tions and neighbours, in a grave about four or 
five eobtts deep. The aumpitan, quivw of 
arrows, knife, &e., of the deceased are borie^i 
with him, along with some riee, water, and 
tiAaceo. The Jaknn eonsider white as a saored 
eoloar ; and it ia a peenliar anfafect of eom&rt, 
whan in theii last aiekneaa, ibm can procure 
!m Uumselvea iome white cloth, ia which to 
be buried. They an candid and honeatk ex- 
tremdy prond. and will not antoit for any 
kagtb of time to aervile offioes or to much 
contrd. Each tribe is under an elder, chief 
or leader termed the Batiu who directs its 
Bwvements, and settles disputes. The Jakun 
bate the Malay, aud the Malay despiae the 

The woolly haired, short, race of the south 
i>f the Malaooa prainsnU are about 7,000 or 
8,000 in number. Towards the north of the 
proTinee of Ligw, they are called Karian, Uy- 
warda Kedah, Ferah and Balengon, Ssmang, 
In Quedah, Bodoaudn ; between Saleagore and 
noaut O^ir, UMtia; thoaa froaa mount Ophir 
to the ecttst, in the provinco UeUeea, Jakun ; 
aad the Biaua dwdl in JohoM^ immediately 
bebiad Singapore. They an forest raoea, living 
on deer, bog, fish, birds, roots and fniita sucU 
as the doriao, ja^ and mango. Many of 
Uem build on trees, SO to 30 feet fr<HB 
the ground. In their marriages, the youth 
arranges with the girl's parents, but the ©ere- 
moaial remind ua of the old tale of Hippo- 
menes and AtalaMa. If tiw tribe ia on the bank 
ct a 1^ w rtream, the damsel ia given a canoe 
and a dooUe bladed paddk and allowed a 
atart of some distance^ the auitor, similarly 
a|aipped staita off in chase. If he auooeed, in 
ovntakiag her, aba beeomea bis wife, if not 
the mairinge ia bnlon off. JBnt tba chase is 
geaeraUy a abort one, fioT though the maiden'a 
anna an strong, bar heart is aofi aud bar 
nature warm and she becomes a willing cap- 
tive. If the marriage take pUoa where no 
stream is near, a rouud circle of a certain siae is 
formed. The danisd is stripped of aU but a 
vaiit bud, giren half the circle's alart in 


advance, ud if ^ succeed ui running three 
times round before the suitor come up with 
her, she is entitled to remain a virgin : if not, 
she must consent to the bonds of matrimony i 
as in the other case, but few outatrip their 

The Bodoanda ia a Jafain tribe inhabitinef 

Jiknn men an aeldom above five htt 
hiKb. Those of them who still retain their sa* 
vage habits, nse the s&mpttan, poisoned 
arrows, and spear, ^Cameron 116. J. /. jf. 
p. 272, January to Ma^ 16S8. lfeiebold'$ 
Malacea, Vol, 11* p. 210. See Kedah ; 
Quedah ; India. 

JA.L. Hind. Salvadora Indies also S. 
oleoidea. Kaurijal.S. lodica. The varioQs names 
jai. wan, vaor, or pilu, are given to the S. 
oleoides abundant south of Lahore. 8. oleoides, 
called " kauravari," ia a bad fuel, quite 
nselen for locomotives, bat can be used for 

JAIi A water ordeal, in which the accused 
is dipped under water, whilit an arrow is shot 
and a person rnus and brings it. If, on 
his return, the accused be still alive, he is 
deemed innocent. 

JALA. Hind. Hydrilla rertitnllata, also 
Potamogetou gramineus, H. verticelUta is a 
water punt used in purifying sugar. 

JALA NERGUNDL Saks. Vitex tri- 
folia. Linn. 

JALA6A. Tbl. Lceehet. 

JALALABAD. A email tovn on the bank 

oftheEIabuI river, in a rich country between 
Peshawar and Kabul. Jelslabad was long 
the residence of a chief of the Barukzyo 
family, who had a revenue of about seven lacs 
of rupees a year. The Safed Koh or Rajyal 
on its sonth, attains a height of 16,000 feet 
and about 30 miles on its north is the famous 
Nurgil i on the N. W. the lofty peaks of the 
Hindu Kuflh appear. It waa defended by ffir 
Robert Sale during the BHttah disasters in 
Kabul.— 5«r7i«' Travels, Vol. I. p. 23. 
Mohan Lot's Travels, p. 343> See JelTalabad. 

JALAL-UD-BIN, son of Mahomed the 
Kharasmian. He made an incursion into Siud in 
A. X). 1 22 1 and plundered the people. He held 
Ghazni against Cbengiz Khan, but subsequently 
fled before him and was defeated on the banks 
of the Indus which river he swam and resided 
in MulUn till 1324. He was killed, in 1231, in 

JALAL-UD-DIN. A faroons SnS darvesh. 
They havo a monastery at Bokhara, dedicat- 
ed to this famous darveah, Mulana Jalat-ud-din, 
who, centuries ago went bom Bokhara to 
looniam. ^ . 

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JAI>LtXDH\U, ia a town 43 miles from 
Sirhind, and 13 to the right of Nakooder, on 
the Lahore road. — RemneU'a Mmoir, p. lOB. 

JALA NEROUNDI ai«)> Siadnran. Sans. 
Yitex trifoUa. 

JALAP. Ekq. Fr. 

Jalapp On. | Jatopa. m. Lat. Br. 

Soumppa It. | 

Jflli^ is a Taliialile pur^^atire dmg obtained 
from a ^lant of Mexico ami South America: the 
ExagoDium j^u^a, Benth, [poacsi purgSj alao 
the Ipomoea jalapa of other authon. 

JA.LAR.— See Ghalar. 

JAL&RI CHETTU. Tel. VaHca taeeirent— 
W.^A. Shoiea leccifera.— J^eyn^. S. alura. 

JALASAYAH. Sana. Andropogon 
catus. — £eU, 

JALA. TUNGA. Tbu Cyperua 
Soth. 0. tenuifloruB R. i 100. 

JALBAQU. UiMD. of Kagban, Yiburimm 

JALD.^RU. HifiD. Armeniaca valgaris. 
tlie apricot. 

JALEBI. Hind. A iveetmeatt like vermi- 

JALE CHEITTU. Tel. A species of Acacia. 

JAL-GANIEE. Bbng. Panicum helopus. 

JALIDAR. Hind. Grewia Rothii, alsoKliam- 
nua purpureas and on the Salt range, Catoneas-- 
ter obtusa.— ^<aZi. alao, Gymuoaporia apiuose 
and Celastrua spinoaus. 

JALIICA. Sans. Fioiq jala, a net. 

JALIKAT. Tah. a sport in the Siutb of 
India : it consists in looting, eitherfrom a large 
pen or from a number of stakes to which they 
are tied, a lot of eattle with ctetha or bandker- 
ohieTes tied to their homa, money beinj; some- 
times knotted in the cloiha, — nothing is done 
to infuriate the cattle before being released ; 
when let go, the spectators shout and cheer and 
a tremendous tom>toming is set up, this so far 
excites the animals that most of them go off at 
a gallop, and such of the apeotators as wish to 
distinguish themselves in the eyes of their 
countrymen as awift runners and brave men, 
go after the cattle and strive to puH the cloths 
off the beasts* homa, the cloth and any valua- 
ble attached to it beiuj; the reward of the 
captor. Thia may be conaidered the national 
amuaementof the people of Madura. It ia prac- 
tised at Trichinopoly, Poodoocottah, ia parts 
of Tanjore, and is as much their passion, as 
horse racing is that of the people of England 
or bull baiting that of the people of Spaiu. 

The rich ryota, zemindera and head men aie 
the great promoters of this kind of sport, by 
running their own cattle, &a ; directly they 
find that its practice is attended with danger of 
being tried for an accident, it i3 probable that 
they will Toluatarily withdraw from actively 


ooQtinuing it^ when it will greatly lose its in- 
terest and excitement among the people and 
they will tbes probably voInntwUy give it up 
and take to m inveat aonw more faarailesa 

JALl HABA Can. Vadidlia bmeaiana. 
' JALKUKAE. UiXD. Tultpa stelhU. 

JAXjLAU. a masked or munaing devotee 
at the Maharwn. The Jallatt mummers who 
adopt fancy dreaaes in the Maharura, sing M«r- 
aiah, satires and songa. The great bldk of then 
are low caste hindoos and pariahs. 

JALLUKRl. Hind. Centranthus raber. 

JaL-MOOTBE. Bbnq. Cyperas pygmaeus. 

JALMOR, frcmi BaUi, a dark, hard, ssrpen- 
tine-like stone, lakes a fine polish. It is used 
like sahr mohra for cutting into cups, Ste.; the 
value of a cup i% from CU. S to 4. 

JALIN? Can. Shorea kcdfera, J7wK. 

JALNA (Javlnah) in L; 1»" &/n. and 
L. 79" &4, E. in the Dekhau a military station, 
3SBilea£.of Aurangabad, 1663 feet above 
the sea. 

JALNIM. Hind. Ltppia nodiitora, also, 
Lycopus EuropmuB. 

JALNIM. Hind. Herpestes monniera. 

JALUKA; Sans. Leeches. 

JALUS. Abab. laterally accession, the term 
applit^d to the ascent of a throne. In the South- 
ern Konkan the Jalus San or dan-i-Jalus, baa 
formed an era commencing with the year of 
Salivahana 1578, (A. D. 1666) and running 
on heneeforward in the ordinary solar manner. 
It correaponds exactly with the acoeasiou 
saltan AU All Shah H to the throne of fii^ 
pdre — Thonuu* Primaey. 

JALSOO. Sea Knnawer. 

JAM. DVK. Mdium pyrifwum, alao, P. 
pomifenim. — Lmn, The guava. 

Jam. a hindoo title supposed by Colonel 
Tod to be a eormption of Bambo a titular 
appellation from the Sambu of Alexandria- 
It ia, however, a hiadu title borne hy the Jam 
of Bela, the Jam of Nowanuggur in Snrashtr*, 
the Jam of Kej, also the Jam of the no- 
made Hahomedan Jokya, a 8amma tribe, west 
of Tatta and baa no connexion with Jamahid 
tior has it a Persian origin — BUiol, Santt^ 
Kabul. See India ; Kattywar t Kelat ; Khyber. 

JAM Any vessel for drinking out. 

JAM. MALVAt. Eugenia jamboe.— Zunr. 

JAM. A river running near Seonee and near 
Lodifchera in Nagpoor. 

JaHA. An article of maltomedan dress. 

JAMA. Am. A place whue mahot»ed»n 
people assemble to pray, a house of public 

JAMA-BANDI. Hind. Revenue Settlement 
on a village- 
JAMA CHBTTV. Tkl. Fsidium pyriferttm^ 

Digitized by GoOg Ic 




JAMADAGNI. A famou* rbhi. tbe father 
of PaiM Bama, at whose oommaDd the Utter 
evt off the head of his nother Feattlca. See 
Bnhniadiea ; Bama ; Fane Bama. 

JAMADAU. The chief or leader of any 
lumber of persons, also a natire oommbsioDed 
officer ia the natire armies of India. 

JAMAICA GINGER, unooated Hihbar 
or Benfial icioger. 


Bioae inexicana. 

JAMAI-P00LI-3HIM. Bme. DoUchos 

JAJtCAL. AftAB. GanMl. 

JAHALGOTA. Hind. BaUosp^um Indi- 
enm, also Croton tigliutn. 

JAU&LI. A Bflluch tribe, who inhabit the 
eMiDtry, from (he Gaj towards Sehwso ; and a 
KtUe lower down, on the stream.— Jlfa«en'< 
Joaruept, Vol. II. p. 187. 

JAM-AUUOOD. Hind. Gnavatree. 

JAMA MU3JID is the prineipal mosque 
ia Indian towns in whieh mahomediBS meet for 
pnjer 9ad religious senrices. The JamaUu^id 
id Ddfai cost ten lakhs of rupees and iook 
six years in its eonsiruetion. U was b^ua and 
completed in the reign of Shah Jehan. 
Three of the bitfbeal, (he broadest and finest 
fiiftbts of atepB in Delhi, made of stone, lead 
to the front and aide enUitnoe, w hence the spec* 
tator cornea to a square platform, la the 
eentre of this is a large cistern which is inlend- 
sd for the per^formance of the " wasu" or ablu- 
tions before prayer. While the three sides optm 
inwardly with a oorridor and cloisters, the 
west of the sqasre platform is the eslhedral 
itself, rising in three large domes and two of 
the moat itatdy minarets within the town U 
Delhi* Ita space admits of a vast congregation 
and on the anniversary of a sunt of any cele- 
brity or on any other particular oocasion, it 
ts crowded with mshomedans. — Tour in India 
by Frenehy p. 10. 

JAMAK. Hind. Sizygium jambolanum; also, 
Pranua padns, P. cerasus, also the sloe like fruit 
of Siaygium jambolannm, also a aweetneat, 
made to resemiile the fruit. 

JAMAN KUMB, of Kangra, is the fine 
white fibre of a cUmbinfc plaut,but it has frequent 
knots and joints which make the fibre short.*-- 
FoudTt EoMdOook, Vol. Up. &U. 

JAMABA. HiMO. Viburnum foteos, 
N^r jamiaOf is Picas retioolata. 

JAHASP. One of the Sasaauian kings. 
JAMAUKA. HiMD. Cucnrbita eUmUus.— 

JAMAWEH. Pbbs. Bedding. 
JAUB. Hind. Mal. BaKenia jamboa. 
JAMBA Mab. Inga xylocarpa. 
JAMBAX. A tree in Canara which grows 
boa two to four feet in diameter and from 

twenty-fiTe to forty feet in height. Its wood is 
very searce, very much resembles nuhc^puiy 
and is generaUy used for house farnitttre..— 
Sd^e AT. and G. 

JAMBAO. Malay. A general term 
applied to species of £ugenia, Myrtus, Ana- 
cardium and Psidinm. 

JAMBEE. A cane with stiff stems and 
large knou, impiKted from China ; a spedes 
<tf Calamus. 

JAMBL Jat. Betel-nut, Areca-nut. Pe- 
nang-nut from the Areca catechu pnlm. 

JAMBIRA. Sans, also, Nimbooka, Hi- 
boo. Limbo. Bcxo. Hind. Citrus limonum. 

JAMBIRA, also Nimma Chettu. Til. 
Citrus beigamia. — ^uo and PoU, JRoisb. 

JAMBIYAH. Ab.Hihd. A crooked dagger. 
JA^HO. Sing. Eugenia jambos — L. 
The bark is used as a mordant for blue and 
black dyes, also, Bsng., Jambosa aquea. Z>. 

JAJCBO-IRING. Sdhatra. Anacaidium 
occidentale. — Zwtis. 
JAMBOOLA. SiMoa. CUrua deonmaia.— - 

UiM. W A. RoaA. 
JAMB0N3. Fb. Hams. 
JAMBOSA AQUEA.— i?. a IF.atidJ.^ 
Prod. I. 333, Boxb ; Wight, Iconet. 

Eugenia aquea, W. lU. j Eugmia sylTestris. 

I JTooa'a Oak 

Jamho M «... Baaa I Wal-jamboo-gtn Singh, 

Abundant in the Central province of Cevlon 
up to an elevation of 5,000 feet. — Thio. 
PI. Zeyl.p. 115. —See Kngenia aquea. 

malaocenais, D. 0., Jamboaa purpuraems, J}. 
C, are syns of Eugenia malaccensia — Umm. 

JAMBOSA VULGARIS, J). Q., ayn. of 
Eucenia jambos. — Linn. 

By^CJ-) eyUndrioa, j Bng«ua (J.) paooiilora, 

A moderate sieed tree of the Ambagamowa 
district, in Ceyton, up to an elevation of S 000 
feet.— 7%w. En. PL Zegl. ii. ». il5 ' 

of Eugenia malacoensia. Linn. ' 
"Buk JaubooL ..Mahk. 
A orooked tne growing mnch on the rivers 
of the Bombay Decean country. The stem is 
generally useless for house purposes, on 
account of its crookedness, but the straight 
shoots are eagerly sought after as rafters — 
Dr. Qibton. 

JAMBOSA VULGAHIS, DeCandolle, syn. 
of Eugenia jsmbos. ' 
JAMBU. Hind. >g« fyloMTM-i „ 

jgg Di^fzed by VjOUglL 



JAMBU tUo Pcdda Neredu. Tel. Sof^ 
nia jambolana. — Lam* or 8;Eigium jimbo- 
laaum, of W, and A. n tbe roee apple and 
is ao denominated from ita odour. From tke 
Jamba a rtrj fine plaro-ooloured dye^ ia ex- 
tiaeted : both tbe Jambu and the Teemreo bear a 
pleasant snb-acid fruit.— Poxtoa** Wettem 
India, m. II. p. 48. 

JAMBU DWIPA. Saks. Id the Hindu 
Cosmos, one of tbe seven grand divisions of 
the earth, inoludinK Asia, and bo named from 
the tree called Jambu abounding iuit> Uodem 
eommentatoiH, however, allege that it refers 
only to certain parts of the interior of Asia, 
the Eden of the hindus. In thu aense Jam- 
budwips, ia the central diriaion at the world. 
India is so called in the Foranes. 

Jamba Halacoa Fallam. Tah* Tbe tree and 
fruit of Eugenia Maloecenaia. 

JAUBUL. Mabb. Sagenia jsmbolana 

JAMBU-MONAT. Malay. Anacardium 
oceidentiile. — Lmn. Cashew-nut tree. 

nia jambes.— JUnM. 

JAMBU-NEBEDU, also Fedda Neredu. 
TsL. Eugenia Jambolana, Lam — (large var.) 
■R. ti, 484 Sjiigium Jam. — W. and A. 
10\5 —Rhiede, v. 23. 

JAMBAVATI. Sans. From Jambavaa, 
the nam* of a oertaia bear. 

JAMCANA. Tel. Golton Carpets. 

JAMDANEE, Hind. A floveied Dacca 
wove muslin. 

JAMDaNEE.— ? A sort of leathern port- 

JAMED-ALU. Kakk. In Coorg, a predial 

JAMEL. Arab. Cametus dromedarins.— 
JWnn. The Camel properly Jiimal. 

JAMES, Commodore, commanded the E I. 
Company's Marine Force iu India. In 1755, 
in alliance with tbe Mahrattas, he sailed from 
Bombay, to attack the atrongfaolds of Angria, 
and on the Snd April, unaided by the Mab- 
nttaa he took Seremdroog and Goa, Banooot 
sorrendered on the 8tli April and in Febmaxy 
17611 he attacked Oheria. 

JAMES. Colonel. Henry. R. E., Author 
of Gleneraldesoiptira of tbe Country of Abyssi- 
nia and of the different Boutes leadiitg into it. 

JAMES and MARY. A dangerous shoal 
in tbe Hoogly, it is an English corruption of 
the Hindastaui words Jabaz marra. a ship 

JAMHUT. SeeKelat 

JAMI. A celebrated Fenian poet. See 
Ahmedi Jami. 

JAMI. See KazzUbash. 

JAMUR. SiND. Ficut carica, also F* 


JAMI-UT.TUABIKU. Fast ullah Badiid, 
otherwise Uasbid-ad^in, son of Imad-nd-dau- 
lab, Abu'l Khair. waa bora at Haoiadaa 
about A. D, 1S47. Uia enemies, in tbe 
latter part of his life, called him a Jaw 
both bj Urth and religioo. The latter part 
of the assertion is' disproved, both as to 
himself sad his immediate piedeoessnr, bnt 
Qustremere is inclined to think that he was 
possibly of Jewish descent, as he shows an 
acquaintance with Jewish rites and cnstoma 
singular for a mahomedan statesman. Ibn 
Batuta (ii, lie), who saw Bashid's son 
attending as wazir on Abu Said Khan at 
Baghdad, says that the father, Khwqa Ba- 
ahid, had been an em^paat Jew. 

Said-ad*daulah, the chief minister and 
fsToarite of Argun the fsther of Oljaitu, 
waa a Jev. He hod studied agriealtnre. 
architecinre and metaphysics. Ue waa 
an adept ia mahomedan theology and 
eontroveny and waa acquainted with 
Hebrew, Arabic. Mongol. Turk and Persian. 
His greatest work was called by tbe author 
the Jami-ut-Tawarikh, *' Collection of His- 
tories" or Historical Cyclopiedia, which in fact 
it is. It contained histories of the Tartar and 
Turkish tribes, of Chingia and his race, and of 
tbe 1>er8iMi khans in particular, ineladiog his 
master Oljaitu ; of various dynasties of Wes- 
tern Asia, of Mahomed and hia oompanions^ 
of tlie prophets of Israel, the Cmsars and aeTeraX 
Christian princes ; of China and ttf India. It 
conduded, or was intended to oonelvde, with a 
universal geography, bnt it ia doubtful if this 
was ever written; though the existing porUons 
of the work contain many geographical uotiosa. 
— r»feCottay, J7. p. 255. 

JAMKALUM, or Jamcana, TxL. Cotton 

JAMMI CHETTU. Tel. Prosopis apioi- 
gera.— Xiaa W. and A, also. Adenanthen 

aculeata. — Roxb, 

JAMMU. Hind. Prunus padua. 

JAMMU OAUDL ,Til. Trplw elephaii. 
tina.— /io«&. 

JAMKA. A liter of Hindustan, whidi rises 
in long. 78« 24' £. lat. 30* 36' N. in the 
immediate neiKhbeurhood of the hot springs 
of Jamuotri. Captain Johnson, on the 13th 
Hay 1B28, fbund theriver issuing from a snow 
bed st an elevation of 10,840 feet above the sea. 
Tbe Jumna is also called tbe Kal Yanmna, 
or black Tamuna, and Kalinde or the " black 
pool" fromKaniya having destroyed the hydia 
Kaliya which infested it. The poet Jydiva 
styled the Yamnnathe blue daughter of the sun. 
The Jumna is a feeder of the Ganges, 
wbieh H joins at Allahabad. I he principal 
feedei of the JiimM u ^(^t^j^f^f ^^''^ 


its rifle OD tlie Tindhya mouDUins. See 
; Gunges ; KrUhu ; tiuaivatt. 
JAMNOTKI. A mouuUia in ttie Hima- 
io U>»$. 31° 0' N. ; lat. 78*' 29' Jfi. in 
mU on the left bank of tbe Jumaa, about 
|.«[3eiN. or Kiiareali. Tbe hot ipring " Basau 
and the level of the Jamna there, is 
M leet above tbe eea. Jiob. S<A.'L 
PJAHO Uua. Biigeaia janbolana. — Lam. 

tfUaiO.K. Hjkd. Sohleicbera trguga, also 

'i^lUOXEd. Sr. Kama. 
[;3'^^100S, Hmo. Euiieiiia Jambolana. ayn. 
ijptrauthea euyttphyliifoUa WtUd, Swartz 
CalvprnnUiBS jambolauA or S>«yium 

<~JA.MPA..V. HiKD. A litUr for the faiUa. 
IJkUe £SA.N¥A. See Siva. 
JaUBOOL. Bbng. Kugenia alba. 
^(AUaUH. Ak. a ceremonial at tbe Kabi, 
iJfarT. io which pilgrims throw stonesi as 
the devil : it oxigiaated from Abraham 
; atoaea at the ram leufc to take the 
[ of hU eon* See Kaba. 
[SAN. HiHD. A kind of earth con- 
aa alkali, useful in alum manufaotoie. 
It of Bombay, of a princely geueroua 
1, waa knighted by the queen of Eng- 
loathe 3rd March 1642, was subsequently 

a baronet— obit, Utb April 1859. 
rAUSHID. Tbe fifth king of tbe Feshda- 
idynaat^ tii Peraia, who, according to Bailey, 
3,109 yean before tbe Christian era. 
\tktk Kamah detcribea him as the Ural to 
mankind, and the Persian writers coo- 
the bas rdiefs at the ruins of Perse- 
k~-«ttU viaU^e in all their priatine beauty 
' a l^ae of.five titouMnd yean,— ta be ro- 
of iba oourt of januhid,. mora 
on the feitivtd of tha Noaros. Tbe 
Feruia poet Farduii, wrote the 
iBiik in A. D. 1000, conuining three 
Januhid, Faridun and Garsliasp, as 
ihtce earli>-st xeprescutatives of the gene- 
of mankind. A little way from the 
of tbe eattaiice of Too«, there stHuda a 
ocnameatcd with lacquered Ulea M> sraal^ 
ly to form a part of some private 
thia dome oovers tha duat of this 
ited pool who after the unworthy 
he Tcceired from ah^ Mahoiood, 
ntirad Uuia to die. — Ftaaer't 
' iaio KAaroMm, p. 6 10. See Farduii.— 
lU. A town and district in the weatero 
sya, ki long. ZZ"* 44' N., lat. 75^ 
E. The town of Jamo, in the valley 
iChenab is 1,500 feet above tbe sea, and 
< U the Ohenab ia a little above ],000 
Ike beundiuy moiinlainii of Jamu rise 

11,000 to 14,000 feet. Jamu^ is the capital of- 
a prinopality of which tbe rulers are Dogra 
fi<^puts. The tuwu eontuiita 7.000 or. 8,000 
people. It is built on the summit of tbe lirsc 
wooded sloping ridge that riaea from tlie plaius 
of the Funjab and on the rit;ht bank, at theplace 
where it is divided by a narrow ravine which 
allows an exit to the river Bari P in its way 
to its junction with the Ghenab. — Viane. Sckl. 

JAMUKAEAM. Tam. Carpets. 

JAMUN. Hind. Calyptranthes caryopbyU 
lifolia ? : also Syaygium jambolanum ; also^ 
Prunua padua, 

JAMUKA. HiNS. Ceruua cornnta, also 
PruDus padus or bird cherry. 

JAN. In India the Jan, the Gin of tb» 
Arabian nigh(8, is only known amongst tha 
maboroedana. In Sind, the Jan resembles the 
Pwccoa or Puck of Britain. The Jan of the 
Baluch bills is wayward and often morose, but 
not oeceasariJy mulignant. He is described as 
dwarfish with large eyes, and covered with 
long hairs, and often changes to the form of a 
oamel, goat or other auimal. Oti meeting a 
Jaa, it i» essential uoi to be alsimed, to-use 
civil language. The Jan oao beoome tlie Mt-' 
vaot of oua and work hard. — Bnmn. 

JAN. Hi»D. Urtioa heterophylla. 

JAN. Hl»D. Pj*B8. Life soul spirit, hence, 
Jandv brave, apirited. Janwar, animal, an ex- 
pression of alfection. 

JAN. See Semang. 

JAN-I-ADAM. Hind. Ajuga dccumbena. 
JANACilETlir. TfiL. Orewia rotundi- 
folia. — Just. fy. oJid A. Thia name ia applied 
to several ap. of Grewia. 
JANAKA. See Kibetriya. Malial. Coatus speeiosas, 
JANAM A:>liTAMI, the nativity of Krisboa 
held as a festival on the 8th day of the month 
Bhadra. It ia alio called Gokal-Ashtami 
and is a biudoo festival io commemoration 
of the birth of Krishna, an event which 
is said ta have taken place at Matfaura, 
at midnight,, about the 23ad August, on tlie 
8ihaf Stravan. One vaishnava sect keeps 
the holiday Janam on the 8tb and another oh 
the 9tb of Shravan. Krishna ia staled to have 
been born of Devaki, niece of Kans, king of 
Mathura. Kaiis having had it predicted that 
one of hia race would destroy him, he en- 
deavoured to oompaas tbe death of Devaki'a 
offspring in which he failed, and ou the B(h 
Kriabud was removed to the faouaa of a oow- 
herd named Nanda. Tha vorshippars abstain 
during the day from oertaiu articles of diet, at 
u^bt they bathe and ornament the image and 
offer the tulei, or Ocimiua sanctum. On tbe 
following day, a brahman serves as pnjarr, and 
afterwards ho himself is wmrshipped. The 8th 
day ii held by the Oaoli or CQWknd rajee as a 






gf«at jubilee day, from the lurcumstance of 
Kriahna having been rtand by one of their 
people, thv^ join baada and dance^ and shout 
Oflvindfl, Govinda. The shrinea of Kanoba 
are much viaited at night, the Bhagat of the 
shrine liy aeli-Afl^ellatioo, becomes hystericHl, 
which is deemed by the people to be a posses- 
sion by the deity, on which they prostrate 
themseWes, burn inoense aud present aiek peo- 
ple to the Bhagnt. On the foUowiug day, the 
Bhagat's disciples work themselves iuto fayste- . 
BOS. — Bombay Qazttieer. 

JANAMEJAYA. See Inscriptions 
JANaM-PATRI and Tripno. The former 
is' indispensable to every biiidoo child, being 
at once his horoboope and the guide throughout 
life.— A*ieAaPcf Burton** Sinde, p. 390. See 

'J ANAPA, also, SHANAPA. Tah. Onfalaria 
juncea. Sun hemp. 

JANA PALASERU. Tbl. Antidesma pu- 
besoens, — Roxh. 

JANAPHAL. Situated near a spur of the 
AdjuDta hilla, and the head-quarters of the 
Mekhur district. The maximum heat in the 
hottest weather is 98^, about the same as at 
ChindwarraorBaiteol in the Central Provinces. 
Janaphul is thirty-six miles from Akolah. 

JANAPtJU. Tah. Thin rope made of the 
Jibreof Crotalaria juncea. 

JANA SPECIOSA. Ghbl. ayn. of Costus 

JANQAM. Saksc. The priest of the iii>Ml 
or Uugayet seet, called also iio|{awiuil, 
the south of India, Vira saira, a hinda w 
worshippers of 8ivB^ under the asual form el 

lin^am which is worn, of small size, matl6- 
copper or silver in a little caskft auspcaA 
round the neck, tied in the turbiin, orfastewl 
on the arm In common with the saivn sect gca 
rnlly, the Jangama smesr their foreheads wi 
vibiiuti or ashes, and wear necklaces, n 
c-arry rosnries mnde of tl>e rudraksha set 
They are few ia Upper India, but in the aoai 
they are numerous and the Aradhya and Vk 
daram, the officiating priests of the Sail 
shrines, are coitmionly of this sect. The « 
is atated to have origin^ed with BaaH 
The seotarian Jangamn relitcion is one * 
the most bi^otted and exclusive in i 
India : and, greatly disliking bralimin9,thesei|| 
excluded from their villages aliutting out fffd 
themselves at the same time the only, 
rrcently, learned people of Indie. The pea) 
of a village near Kiilladghi. purposely abstaw 
from di<!i{ing wells, and in the dry weather k 
to go about three milM to the Guiparbafa rH 
for water, acting thua, aa they said, to prevv 
brahmins settling amongst them. 

The three words, Om I " Guru, Linga, Ji 
gam" comprise the creed of the aeet, 
evidently were intended to disavow every 
of the braminieal priestly tyranny, 
mystic phrase is thus expounded. Tbe 


JANA3THANA. This place is the modem j (lingam) iathe deky : the jaugam is the 
Nasick, situated on the tiodav«ri, not far from ' or fellow worshippers : and he who brei 
the western Ohnts, and a place of pilgrimage, i the sacred spell in the ear is the Guru. 
—IIi>td. Th. Fol. i.p. 304. 

JaND. Himd. of Mnrree Hills, Indigofera 

•■ JAND. Hind. Zizyphus nummularia, also 
Acacia leucophloea, and Prosopis apicigera- 

JANDAR. Hind. Aristida depressa. 

JANDI. Hind. A'-trafEslus multiceps, also 
Prosopis apicigera,.Bnd Ballota limbata. 
. JANDIAM. Tbl, The sacred chord of the 

- hindua. Sea Foitu ; Zonar ; Zandlam. 

JANB or PABBASA. Tbi.. Tricbaurus 
eriooides. W. and A. H3, le. 23. 

- JaNEMAJAYA. The sa(»-ilice of snakes. 
JANEO. Hind. 

Janwez .MaHr. | Tnjnii P»viti, Sakso. 

This cord or string fnlls over the left 
■shoulder to the rif(ht hip. It is worn by 
the brahman, kshatrya and vaiaya castes, by 
the Ved or Bed of Beneal, and in the Dekhan 
by the five artificer castes.— >Ki/*. <?^om. See 
j'andiam ; Zonar. 

JANGAL. Hind. Hough tracts of wood and 
grass ; ■ forest or jungle. 

JANOAL BBIiL Hind. Salix »p. 

JANGAL PARUNGl. Hind. Quercns 

The Aradhya sect are brahraana, who the 
jaoi:»ms, retain their caste. 

The Banijaga are followers of the janjH| 
customs, and seem to be of the Vaisya rai 

The Lingaet, Lingadari, or Vira 
sect, Lingnwant, Lingadliara, and Lin| 
W(-rsl)ip Siva, in the form of a lingam. 
sect WHS founded in the 1 2th century, 
Basava, a brahmen residing at Kalliani 
the centre of the peninsula. In oommon 
tiie Jangama they are " vira saiva hmdiis, wk 
sole ohjcet of worship is the lingam, a dm 
or which they carry ou their arms, or sutfil 
,in caskets »f silver or gold around their nod 
They are sectarian saivav), for they do ■ 
in their creed recognize castes noi acknowW 
brahrnans. The customs Hiid belief of this Hi 
wttre fully described by Mr- C. P. Brown-^ 
the Madras Literary Jiturnal. They are v4l 
numerous amongst tite Canareae speakU 
people from Salem through Mysore norihwJKj 
to Paoderpoor on ihe Kistoah, and further : 
and east toarards Kalliaai bat, where the 
was originated in tbe thiiteentii oentitry 
brahman named Basava. But further 
even in the OomraOti district of BMt 


Digitized by 



there win*, in 1S69, 7,A70 of this aeei. Their 
avoestiom are Rtmoat aoleljr those of civil life, 
u UKrieallmrists and iliop-kfepflrt. They are 
ri(ri(t ia extenial ceremonial, but they have 
loose ifleM in morals, probably re^ultinK fnim 
wbRt WilaoD itatea aa their belief in the inferi- 
ority of women and from their licentious habita 
they are often befora the eriminat courta. The 
fnaH bulk of them ara aneh iri|[id Tegetarians, 
thcj will not even bring «nr hving creature to 
a fleah eater. Ybeir dia^ke to bnhmina ia audi 
thai tbey uae every mcana to firevent their 
settlement in their vtllagea ; bui, tbouf^h by 
their religion they abonld abataiii from osste 
itistinctiona they are the moat exelnsive of sll 
the religionist in India, the followers of every 
different trade or avncntion refuse to eat toge- 
ther or intermarry, the Jnngsro atone adhering 
to their law. Tbey have made the differences in 
their avocations equivalent to the caste or race 
diflttnetione of other bindoo people. The 
Jangama, the priesta of the Lingaet aect, are 
often natfried, ao often, indeed, that they are 
daaaed Virnkta Jangam and Grihaaht Jatigamj 
or aaeetio and doaneatie Janganu. 

AH these anti-brahminieal wvrafaippers of 
Biva. who an calle4 Jangam, Vint saiva or Linga- 
dhari, are easily recognised by their wearing a 
small idol, either hung on the breast or bound 
en the arm. These are the disciples of Basava 
whom they regard as a form of the god Siva. 
They are widely spread throughout the south of 
tndin, among the Canarese, the Teliigit and 
the Tamil Nationa. — Brwm's Ettay of tke 
Creed, Chutowu, and Literalare of the Jw^ 
9mm», p. 7. 

J.\NGAR. See Boat. 

JANOATA. TbIi. TheSatana wanloo, Jherra 
wanloOh and Dhaani wanloo ara threa mendi- 
nnt aeetiona of religious devotees of the hin- 
dooa. Hw Satann keep a god '* Perraaloo," the 
image of an incarnntion of Vishnu in their 
bouM* nnd worship it daily. They perambulate 
the streets morning and evening and accept 
alma from all but the lowest castps. They 
often demand alms threatening otherwise to 
bam tbemaekes with a lump or torch. The 
Ohaam play on ttie " Jangnt»," **Tartee" 
and 8incoo and hold an iron worshipping 
bnp in their hands. They walk before the 
eaipae when it b carried to the funeral pile. 

^■Mhaogiilaria.— WeUl, 

JAN060L0. Bee Kris. 

J.\NGK.ANO. 8ee Kyaa. 

JANGKAR. Malay. Anchor. 

JANGLBBG. See Kunawar. 

JAUGLI. Hind. A term applied to wild 
plants, fjcrains, ke.j as opposed to ouitiTated. 
JMgK bad«o, U(ND. Sterculia fostida. 

JangU ffioda. HiRD. Ufiiiscaa tp. 


Jangli frast. Hind, Populus alba> 
Jangli Kits, Hikd. Kdwardsia mollis.' 
Jangli Mehndi, Hind. Amroanniaanriculata. 
Jangli Uurgh, Hind. Gallus sonneimlii 
Temm. Q. femigineaa Qmel. 
Jangli Palak, Hind. Rumex acutus. 
Jangli-powar, Hind. Cassia obtusifolia. 
Jangli Samak, Hind. Fanieum oolonuui. 
Jangli aankokra. Hind. Hibiaeoa 
Jangli aaraon, Himd. SiaymbrittOt iris. 
Jangli bulgar Hikd, Boletua igniarius, 
Jangli-sur. Hind. Hog. 
Jangli tamaku. Hind. Sonehus orixensis. 
JANGLOT, a wood of Java considered by 
the natives as the toughest wood produced in 
the island, and Iselways employed for bows 
when procurabie ; the tree is of a moderate 
sice. * 
JANGUSH. HtND, Aram earvatum. 
JAKHaVI. 8an9. From Janhoo, a sage. 
JAN-l-ADAM. HiHD. Ajnga braeteata ; 
Ajaga reptaiis, also Salvia lanata. 

JANIPHA. A genua of plant* belonging 
to ths natural order Kuphorbiaceie. It has 
monoecious flowers ; calyx campanulate, 5- 
parted, petsls wanting; stamens 10 in the mala 
flowers, filaments unequal, distinct, arrang- 
ed round a disc. In the female flowers the 
style is one ; stigmas S, consolidated into a 
rugose mass : capsule 3-coecous. 

Jatropha manihot, Xtiut, | ICanihot utillisaimus 

Pa lau-pe-nang ICyonk 


M^nValli kelangu.TAic,' 
A ft! vnlU keUnzn 
Mamch=ni,OAK. Walcai.. \ Mann valH gtMm...TsL.' 
TApiooa, MaadiocOaaiiava Manu peDdalam; 
Bitter Gaanva ... ,Emo. [ Karra pendalam „ 

Tapioca is the farisa mannfhetuTed from the 
expressed juice of the tubers of the Janiphn 
manihot. Great oare is reqnisite in its pre- 
paration a^ the roots contain a poisonous prin- 
ciple which is only got rid of by the application 
of strong heat. The poorer classes of British 
India use the taptoen flour, but none is ex- 
ported. The plant thrivrs in any soil, although 
a sandyioam is the best. It requires no culti- 
vation whatever, and is occasionally met with 
.in Araean, growing wild in the jnngte. At 
the Madras Exhibition of 1S53, exeelleot 
tapiooa was exhibited by Mr. Baadall, of 
Kwsole, near Ksjahranndrr. Various other 
samples of " Hill Taniooa" were also exhibit- 
ed— obtained from the roots of different species 
of Anim, Diosrorea, or tfrfestrial orchids ; 
but none of them appeared important. THpioca 
ia prepared in S. America from two species of 
Janipha, or the bitter and sweet cassava or 
manioc roots. Vrom tha facility with which 
the bitter cassava can be rasped into flour, it 
is cultivated almost to the exclusion i of the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


sweet variety, whicK coDtaios in its centre a ' 
toQgfa, fibroQs, ligneous, cord. The bitter, 
Tanety kowever, oontaiat a highly acrid 
aad poisonoiu juioe, which is got rid of by 
heat or by fermcDtatioa, so that cassara 
bread is quite free from it. When the juice 
has been carefully expressed, the fecula or 
flour is trashed aad dried in the air without I 
heat, and forfiu the BrBEilian arrowroot of 
commerce ; but when dried on hot plates it 
becomes granular and forms ttipioca. An arti- 
ficial tapioca ii made with gam and potato 
starch. The granules of this are lei^r, whiter, 
and more brittle and more soluble in coM water 
than genuine tapioea. 

Caaara or Bitter Caaaava, are the West 
Indian names both of the Janipbamanihot, and 
of the Caasava or manioc starch prepared from 
that plant, from which alao are prepared caaaaTa 
meal or flour, or Brazilian arrowroot, also cassava 
eakes or bread. The cassava is called in Bra* 
zil Mandisca. The Janipha manibot plant grows 
about 6 or 8 feet high, with a tuberous root 
weighing up to lbs. 30. The acrid milky juice 
when fresh is poisonous, but the roots are 
washed* soraped, ground or grated into a pulp, 
and the juiee pressed out and preserved. The 
pulp or meal that remains is called Couaque 
and 13 made into Cassava cakes or Cassava 
bread. The expressed juice by standing, de- 
posits a white powder, which when washed 
and dried forms what the British call Ta- 
pioca meal or Brazilian arrow root, by the 
l^rench " Moussache" nnd in Guiaina, Cypipa, 
and -when this is dried on hot plates, the 
grains of fecula burst and adhere together and 
form tapioca. The expressed juioe is some- 
times fermented with treacle into an intoxi- 
cating fluid. Pearl Tapioea is not from this 
plant but from potato starch. Sweet cassava 
is prepared from the Hanihot aipi which is 
similar to J. Manihot, but has no deleterious 

Tapioca is prepared from the starch of the 
bitter cassava but by washing and granulat- 
ing on hot plates, by which the concretions 
are formed, as seen in commerce. 

Cassava flour, or meal, from which ras* 
sava bread is made, is obtained from the Ja- 
nipha manihot, by grating the root, express- 
ing the juice by pressure and then drying the 
resitiual cake and pounding. It is called 
Uousaacbe by the French. 

Cassada root is a namo of the root of the 
Janipha mafiihot. 

Cassareep, the coooentrated Juice of the 
bitter cassava, forms the basis of the West 
India disb pepper pot. One of the remarkable 
properties of cassareep, ia that meat placed in 
it is preserved longer than by any other pro- 
cess of cooking, — Tomlmm* On tHo Qui- 

lure oHd Mcwtfaoture'of Tapioea JaUropkA 
Manihotj J, P. Lw^Iow. Jtmm, Jgri' Mori, 
aocy. Vol, XII, p. 17S. Bofff. Birdmi. 
See Juiipba manihot- Food ; Janipha; Cassava; 

JANJERA. SeeSidi. India. 
JANJI. 9ee HydrocharidaooB. 
JANKEIS. ae« Knnawer. 
JANKUJI, Bee Mahratta GoveramenU. 
JANU. SaHS. Birih. Janma Patri, is the 
paper on which the horosoope is prepared ai a 
child's birth. See Janam-Patri. 
JANSAM. Chid. Ginseng. 
JANTIANA. Ab. Oentiana lutea, Umh. 
JAE^NUBEE. See Kunawer. 
JANOLAH. Hind. Gum Arabie. 
JANTONG. Malay. Plantain leaf. 
JANCMU. Te).. Crotalaria junoea, Ziiw. 
C. tenuifolia, R. iii. t6S. 

JANUPA-NAR. Tah. fibre of Gntalaria 
joncea.— £jfw. 

JANUS. See Saraswati. 

J AN W A, the zone, cord or thread worn 
by several classes ox eastes of hindoos. 
The brahminical cord consists of six or mere 
thresds of cotton, called the poiia or jawwa, 
with which every lad ia invested at ihe aice 
of deven or twelve years, and constitutes the 
sacred distinctive badge of that class. On the 
solemn oooasion of thur investiture, the youths 
are first taught the mysterious words enUtled 
the Gayatri, Let us meditate on the adorabla 
light of ihe sun, the divine ruler, may it guide 
our intellects." — Ed, Baron SugeT* Travels 
in Kashmir^ p. 38. 

JANWAB. a Hajpnt tribe ia Bandeloand. 

JaPA'Hiss. a repetition of the name of 
Kama, a relii^ous rite of the Badu Fanthi 
Vaislinava. See Dndu Panthi ; Japa>Mala. 

JAPAG. Thibetan. Chinese brick tea 
imported over the Chinese frontier. 

JAPA^MALA. Hind. This rosaiy oonsisU 
of twenty-seven beads, which arc told over 
four times, the number of one hundred and 
eight being the most pn»»er for the repeti- 
tion of such forms as '* Bam, Bam, Bam !'* 
Wah, Guru ji ki Fatah!" " Shri Ganesaya 
Namahn," ! kc—Riehard F. Burion'9 Sudh, 
p. 419. See Japsi 

JAPAK. This island empire forms a very 
extensive chain stretching from the south 
point of Korea. It is situated between the 
26di and fiSud degrees of north latitnde and 
the 128th and 161st of east longitude^ and 
CTibrsces a popubtion of nearly 40 ot 50 
millions of souls. It is composed of four or 
five large, and, including all its dependeodea 
of the LeW'Kew group^and the .Kurile anhi 


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pclago, it ia still, of as miny aa S,8fi0 flTDiiU» 
er islanda vaA iileti, ttretohinfif along tha 
•out o( Asia, in a N- £. and E. N. E. diree- 
tMD, tbcir sbwea beioK waahad bj the sea 
ef Japan and ihe north Paoifie ocean, and 
aeparated froa the Curea gu)f»h by Manebooria- 
Marco Polo was the first £aropeau traveller 
to Botice it. It ia bounded on the north by the 
Sea of Okotsk, and the independent portion 
»f tib« Uand peninsula of Aagahen ; to the 
eaat by ibe North Paoiflo Ooean ; to the south 
by the Eavtern Sea of China ; and to the West 
by the Sea of Japan. Until the year 1870, this. 
«mpire posseaae*! two aovereigna, the spiritual 
omot the Mikado or bead of the retigioti of ihe 
eonntty, and the Tycun, Zeognn, or Oobo, the 
chief of the atate, who held his court at 
Jeddo. Abont B. C. 600, Japan was mled 
by Zia-ma-tin-wii, or tb« divine conqueror, 
who was a Clitneae warrior and cooqueror 
mmd the founder of the Uikado dynasty, which, 
about the isth century, became set aside from 
teanporal alhira. With amall localitiea ex- 
cepted, the whole range of thft, empire is 
■nhjieet to vident Toleanie action, and in 1 70$, 
Tedo was nearly destroyed by an earthquake. 
Tndu Tama, near Tedo, ia a hii(h volcanic 
monntain, at present inactive, bat tradition 
reports it to hare risen in one night, and 
■s it roee, there occurred a depression in the 
varth near Miako, which now forms the lake 
of Hit-su-no-nmi. In A. D. 864, it burst 
•annder from its baae apwardi, and at its 
laat OTiption in 1707, it covend Tedo, with 
aahea. It is crested with snow, and presents 
the appeatance of a truncated eone, and the 
ftathCTing of a white eload around its summit, 
is a sign of bad weather. It is 18,460 feet 
bigb, standing comparatively alone out of the 
plain, for the other hills near are as nothing, 
and appear more like part of the slope leading 
to it than a separate range. There is almost 
always a little snow on the summit, and when 
seen on a dear morning or evening, cut sharp 
and distinct against the sky, it is a magnificent 
object, and well worthy of the veneration be 
alowed upon it. But the greatest volcano is 
Wan-aen-ta-kt, or the mountain of hnt springs, 
on a promontory of Kiu-atn on which rests 
perpetual snow. It is feared and worshipped by 
tbe Japanese. In A. D. 1793. an eruption 
op cu r rc d whieh deatroyed Sima-bara with 
aesriy iO.OoO people, and so altered the ooast 
Kne Uiat mariners failed to recognise the once 
familiar scenes of their voyages. In the island 
of Kio-siu, there were in the middle of the 
nineteenth century, five volcanos in a 
atate of activity. The numerous islets also 
are all of volcanic origin, and some were then 
ia a state of activity- The four larger islands 
se NipoD, Kia-ttu, Jeaso, and Sikoff, whieh 

lof!;etWrform a group not dissimilar in geo- 
graptiicnl configuration to Great Britain and 
Irelan<). In the first island are situated Tedo 
and Miako, the two eapitah, tbe Tyooon, the 
temporal sovereitcn, residing in Tedo and tbe 
Uikadoor spiritual aovereign dweltt^n Miako. 
The island of Nipon popnlarty called Japan, and 
knowii to the Cbineae aa Yang-hoo, or Jih-pna- 
kwo, ia the largest, and its name signifies land 
of the rising sun.— Kiu-siu or Ximo, tbe most 
southern of this group, in lat. 33^ 44' K. 
and long. ISB"* 68" V E. has the haibonr of 
Nangasaki on its wettem side, is a hundred 
and fifty mtlea north to south by two hundrad 
and aeventy east to west. — Sikofi' is about a 
hundred miles in length by sixty in breadth. 
The gross area of the rmpire is eatimaled 
at 265,600 square ntilfs. Sagaleen idand 
ia a litile smaller in extent then Nipon, 
and was formerly divided between the Chinese 
and Japanese, the former holding tbe northern 
and the latter the southern half. Its native 
populstion are the KurUe. a very hairy, wild 
and untntored race. The chief town in the 
Island of Jesso, ia Hatsmai: the second is 
Hakodadi. Hatsmai is an imperial city, built 
upon nndnhiting gronnd, and the hilta near an 
covered with oaks, firs, cedars, poplars, the 
yew, the ash, cypress, birch, aspen and maple. 
Within aight of Hskodadi, and at the distance 
of about twenty-five miles, fs an active volca- 
no, but no smoke can be &een from HakodadL 
The crater forms neariy a rarcle, from l,fiOOto 
8,000 yards round. Tbe ground is in some 
places so hot that the hand could not ton^ it. 
This volcano at about twenty miles distant 
and five from Hakodadi, throws up a hot sul- 
phur spring, tbe heat of its water being 109^ in 
the warmest part. The natives nse it as a 
batb ; and ngard it as almost a certain cure in 
cases of skin disease. Men, women, and chil- 
dren all go in together, perfectly naked. Ha- 
da,ia a port in Nipon, about 40 miles from 
Simoda, and is built on a plain, eighty milea 
from the metropoli!', it contains about 8,000 
people. 1 he town is divided into wards sepa- 
rated by wooden gates. It contains nine bud- 
dhist and one siotn temple. Since the treaty 
of Kanagawa, by which the port was opened to 
the Americans, Simoda has been raised to the 
dignity of an imperial city. A hot spring 
flows from a roek at Simoda, stated to be sul- 
phnrovs. In Jeiso, the coasts are more peopled 
than in the interior, the more fertile lands be- 
ing the nearest the ocean. The reverse of this 
occurs in Nipon, where the aea skirla are cha- 
racterised by rugged cliffs, with bsrrcQ rocky 
hills adjoining, the interior slone being peopled^ 
The religious and supreme emperor who lived 
at Hiako, had twelve wives and twenty-five 
other consorts. Neither Aheji|irj)f„his head, 


Digitized by 


Im htnA or fais naUs wore ever cat. All bis 
Tienuds wen prepared in new TeaeelSf which are 
broken after using Uem. and his Karments re- 
newed daily wm aleo daily destroyed, to pre- 
vent any others usiof; tfaem. When he vent 
abroad) he was carried in a palanqnin, from 
wbeirae he could see without being 8een> This 
•aopreme emperor alone lired in polygaoiy, atl 
the people having but one wife. The Lew-Kew 
D;roup or kingdom, consists of thiTty>six islands 
lying between those of Kiu-siu and Formosa. 
The island of Lew-Kew is the largest of the 
group, which is tribatary to the empire of Ja- 
pan, through the prince of Sattunia. Lew-Kew 
island is about 60 miles in length from north 
to south with n varying breadth of from five to 
ten miles, and its scenery, esipecially at its nor- 
thern and enstem side, is wild and mountnin- 
OQs. fn Lew-Kew, the salutation consists in 
«lfisping the hands together, and in that posi- 
tion elevating the knuckles to the forehend, and 
bowing sufficiently low for ihK hands bo placed 
to touch the ground. Tne Lew-Kew people 
wear a oloak, whicU is gathered in nt the waist 
with a girdle of brooaded silk or velvet ; in 
this is stnrk an embroidered pouch, containing 
a small pipe and some powdered tobacco. In 
Iicw-Kew, the hair is shaven off the forehead 
for about three inches in front, and carried 
from the back and sidts Into a tuft on the top 
of the bead where it is held by one or more 
.pins, sold being in most esteem with the men 
and polished tort<M>e shell among the women. 
The artistic and maimrnctnring skill of the 
Japanese is very grent, their famous products 
being swords, strini; and wind musical' instru- 
ments of elaborate workmanship, theodolites, 
aneroids, Smj. The books abound in illustra- 
tions. Like that of the Semitic racrs, their writ- 
ing is from right to lefl. The letters or syllabic 
eharncters of the Japanese are forty-ei|iht in 
number. Paper is made from the leaves of the 
bamboo, which is is strong and lasting as the 
best calieo, and when well oiled, beoomes perfect- 
ly waterproof, Hooded dfuiks and umbrellas, 
made of this materid^ last for years. The Japan- 
ese likewise make handkerchiefs of paper, and 
so cheap th<it they are burned when soiled. 
The Japanese as n people are individually and 
.collectively virtuous, They are partial to bath- 
ing, either in the vapour, or warm bath or in 
the surf, and both sexes brtthn toeether in the 
publio bath rooms, unattirecl, in which they see 
no indelicacy. The womt^n possess an unniffied 
temper and aminhiliiy, and are faithful and 
virtuous. The universal rign of rank in Japan 
is two swords the blades of which are highly bur- 
nished. In no country more than Japan, are the 
peo[^ more sensitive to disgraeo or dishononr, 
and a man of rank will destroy himself 
by using his sword to disembowel himself 

rather than survive disgreee. This suiddifr 
ommOny is called the Harikari and the iad- 
sions are made so as to reaemble nn X. Aft 
military men, and all the servants of the Zie- 
goon and persons holding civil offices unriev 
ihe gorernmeat are bound, when they have 
oommitted any crime, to rip themselves up, 
but not till they have reoeived an order 
to that effect from the court at Jedrto : for 
if they were to auticnpato the order, thehr 
heirs might be deprived of their properly. 
For this eventuality aU the ofBeen 
of government are provided in addi* 
tion to their usual dress, with « snn 
oessaiy to be worn at the time of such death, 
which raiment consists of hempen eloth and 
witbont armorial bearings. 80 soon as thn 
order of the court hns been eommutiicated 
the culprit, he invites his intimate friends for 
the appointed day and regales them with siiki. 
After they have drank together for some time 
he takes leave of them and the orders of the 
Court are then read to him by an officer ap> 
pointed that purpose. He then returns 
and generally delivers a farewell address to 
those assembled, after which he inclines his 
head towards the floor, draws his larger swofd 
and inflicts the fatal cross. One of his con- 
fidential servants stationed behind him, and 
whom he haa depnted for the task, then raw 
a sword through his master's neck. When a 
man is conscious of having committed a crime 
and apprehends disgrace, he puts an enti to 
his own life in the same manner. The sons 
of the nobles and gentry nre said to exereise 
themselves with the sword in their youth for 
five or six years, with a view to acquire a 
grace and dexterity in the performance of the 
fatal deed. The Japanese burn the bodies (rf 
their nobles, and incase their ashes, but Om 
humbler of the community are interred. Th« 
dead, towards whom great reverence ia paid^ 
are seated in a box in n sitting poaliire ; and 
are followed to the first place of interment, vii. 
well bnilt stone vsolts oonstmoted in the 
sides <^ hills, hy a procession of women fn 
long white veils. After the body has been 
interred seven years, and has become a skele- 
ton, the bones are removei) and deposited in 
stone vases, which are placed on shelves 
within the vaults or deposited in the crevicea 
of rock. White is the garb, not of featirity, 
but of mourning : and a bride, when leaving 
their fisther'a house, is arrayed in this coin', 
emblematical of being tfaenoe forward dead to 
her parents. She is carried to her groom m a 
norimon or palanquto. Kitn is a form <riF 
salutation in Japan, where the inferior, laying 
the palma of hia handa on the floor, faenda 
his body so that the forehead nearly touchea 
the ground, and he remaina in this pomtion far 


Digitized by 




iene seomdt. The superior reapondk by 
nTB% Ue palou of bU baocls apon bU knea, 
wd Mttb oc bows iDort) or less low acoording 
io the rank of the other parly. Ii is custom- 
jj for the wives of men of rank to wear 
I small Jaeger in their girdles. Young 
■{NBCO, alooe, bare white teeth ; on marriage 
keae m dyed black, and education is be- 
llowed OB all. Id tbe State, Hnt Torika are 
Accra of noble blood, eommaDding troope, 
ibivr the orders of the governors whom 
bey aaaiat with their advice and carry cot 
heir ordm. Tbe Doosbi are aaaiitBQts to the 
Tonka, serve as guanli, do duty on board* 
' hip and jo guard boats. Each of the Dooaia 
• required to maintaiu a servant. The Karoo 
ire stewwrtla. The Bugio are civil officers, 
it rank of two swords, who eureite a con- 
nffioK power over ooUectora, interpreters, 
iQ<i other inferior officers- Amongst tbe 
lapiaeee, tbe taoners live apart from the 
)ther ioliabitaDts in a villnge by themselves, 
-tbe place of execution, situaiod at tbe 
ratem extremity of the city. They are 
fAhe executioners and are hekl in 
ml diaeateem. Wrestling is a favourite 
it for the rich, who keep largely over- 
ly for tbe purpose of being pitted against 
otbtr. These are so full of flesb, that 
distmctiva forms are aliDoat hi tdeo, 
4>ugb this is more owing to the development 
r BiBsde than to deposit of fat. The Japanese 
uot large consumers of aitimal food. Their 
Nises are of smaller siie than those of Brilaiu 
are very scantily furnished with furutture 
their floors are covered with a fine soft 
liag. The shoes or sandals are not worn 
adoors. but are left outside in a square earthen 
iTity or veraodah near the door. Itzabu is a 
silver coin, worth in Japan sixteen 
licd cash. An Amnican dollar has a 
ittle more nlvar in it than three iisabo, and 
CUbm is worth from 1,400 to 1,600 oaah. 
ty the Aiocriean treaty, the silver dollar is 
at oae itubu- A prominent feature in 
span is tbe luutliplicity of religious sects, but 
here is at present no religious persecution, and 
lembevs of the same family are often of dilfer- 
Bt persuasions. The spiritual emperor was the 
•gb-prieu of the ancient Japanese religion . 
'fa* Sin-ttt is an ancient religion in Japan, and 
1 prevalent. It consists of an apotheosis of 
I great faeroea or saista, like tbe old pagan 
iligiOHs of Europe, amongst whom the Japan- 
inehide Buddha, whidk n^aina the gnat 
' <«ration shown by the varioua aeeta tlure. 
great object of interest, in uture and in 
rdigioa of the people io Japan, is its as- 
Boontain, Fudsi Yams, It is cre^d 
■ith wow, preaenta the appearance of a trun- 
«0M, lha gathenng of a while cloud 

aronnd its summit, warns of a hunicane. Fudsi 
Yama is stilt occasioually ascended by pilgrims 
for the woral'.ip of the god of the winds. It is 
from thcRbua vernica that tlie Japanese prep&re 
their lacquer which is so fine as to resist the 
action of hot water. The Japaueae languttge ia 
agglutinate, and tbe alphabet phonetic, in these 
respects reaembling the Korcm, and differing 
from the Cliinese which is moiiosyllabio and 
rliematographic. The Japanese language ia 
much mixed with Chinese. It is not mono- 
syllabic but agglutinate, auppl.iing subfixea to 
modify the idea. The prieata of the buddfaiat 
religion employ the Chinese, but their poetry 
is in the pure Japanese. It would appear, ou 
the whole, from the contradictory accounts by 
ethnologists, as to. the physical formation of 
this people, that there exists among them both 
the Mougolinu and Malayan types, and it is not 
improbable tliat a wave of the Mongol baa pass- 
ed over the primitive Malayau race of tbe coun- 
try and left the two races now inhabiting it. 
The Japanese at present, therefore, seem to bo 
of two or three races. Tbe learned men in the 
United States Expedition, from analogies in the 
language, formed an opiaton that they are of 
the Tartar bmily. Mr. 0. V. Faba regards the 
people of Lu-diu as idaatioal with the Japan- 
ese, and aasttta that they have many chuao- 
teiisties which distinguish them alike from the 
Malay and Chinese — snch as the absence of the 
long angular form of the internal canthus 
and the presence of a thick black beard. Dr. 
Prichard considers the Japanese to belong 
to the same type as the Chinese, but Dr. 
Pickering maintains that tbey are Malaya — 
while Dr. Latham (otiowa Siebold in regard- 
ing them as of two distinct types ift physieal 
formation. According to other anthorititt, 
there are even three typeaof people in Japan, via. 
the field labonrers who have broad faoea, browu 
hair, with an ooBaaioaal tinge of red ; flat noaea, 
lai^e moatha and a cumparatirely light com- 
plexion. The fiahera of tlte sea coast have pro- 
minent features,, with their noses inclining to 
tbe aquitline : hair black and crisp, wavy witli 
a tendency to curl. 'The nobles are majestic 
in department and more resemble Europeans. 
One of the races is described as having an 
oval head and oval face, rounded frontal 
bones and a high forehead, with a mild and 
amiable expression of countenance. The oow* 
plexion is light olive with eyes slightly 
oblique, large and animated, long eyelashes, 
and cluatenng eyebrows, ha.wy and ardiedt 
the cheek bnies are moderately proniUwot, 
cheat broad and la^ly developed. In fiiam 
oae of these raoes of the Japanese an the 
most esteemed for their courage, and tbe 
kings of Stam have always employed them as 
their principal fnroe ia pnfera^ to theMalayi. 


Digitized by VjOOglC 



It would leem tliat ibe Japanese, of all cUnes, 
look upon their wina aa upon a faithful BarraDi 
a Japanew ia iioTttr known to beat hii wife. It 
is 'a custom amongst soma Japanese to take a 
woman a few weeks on trial before deciding up- 
ou wbeiber to marry her or not. The Japanese 
marriage ceremony is very simple. The bride 
and bridegroom drink wiiis with each other 
three times, exchanging oups with each other 
every time, in the presence of a few select 
friends ; after which the young laily gets her 
teeth bUckened, and she ia married for better 
and for worse. In the Japaoeae racing matches 
any one who likes can run his horse, and the 
course ia the msin load. The distance is about a 
quarter of a mile, the hwsesrunthe diatance, 
turna iuip round in the road, and off back again, 
and keep on ao until tired out. Among exist- 
ing religions, the Sin-tn (Sin the gods and Tu 
fukh) and the Buddhist, are the most extend- 
ed. The Sin Tu embraces a cosmogony, hero 
worship* the Ten-sio-dai-siu the Sin goddess, 
beinic the prindpal ubjeci of worslup. The 
religion has a trace of buddhism. Neither 
milk, butter nor cheese are uud as food by 
the Japanese. Horses in the iaUmda are in 
general small, but those of the caralry are said 
to be of a fine breed, hardy, of good bottom, and 
brisk in action. The Japanese plane the dead 
in a tub. with paper flowers all round, oarry it 
into the temple end have prayers ehanted over 
it, after which they carry the body on to the 
mountain and burn it, the priest chsnting all 
the time. When it has all burnt away, they 
pick up the ashes end oarry them to the grave 
yard behind the tRmpla and bury them with all 
dna solemnity. Tbsy erect monuments, and 
have gravestones with nsme and age of the 
deceased written on ; aud there are certain days 
in each year for the relatives going to prsy 
over the gravea and atrewing the ground with 
flowers. The prindpal eiporia and produce 
of Hnkodadi are iron, lead, copper, silver, 
gold, rice, wheat, potatoes, buckwheat, barlqri 
peaa, beana, sulphur, saltpetre, aalmon ? sal- 
mon trout ? oodfish, abarks, herring, beolie de 
mer, enttlvftsh, mussels, clams, seaweed, fcc., 
wax, tea, silk, and oilseed, end iish. There is 
a very extensive lead mine about fifteen mites 
from Hakodadi, on the side of a mountain, 
and it is worked somewhat in the same manner 
as such mines are worked in Wales. The ore 
gives about 60 or 60 per cent of lead, but very 
little silver. Guld, silver, copper, coal, iron, 
anlphnr and tin are found in Japan. In the 
north Niphon areseversl gold mioes, but 
this metal is als9 found in the sandy beds of 
rivers. The silver mines most abound in the 
province of Kallami. But the most abundant 
of the metals ia copper which Is wa\d in i^len- 
Agn to tiwlen. The Japau springs, lakes 


and rivera att numerons. The country is of 
modenite fertility, but well wooded, with the 
bamboo, osk, firs, cypress* The ruiiy months 
Sat snki, sm June and July, and the froat at 
Nagasaki lasts only a few dajs. The Khus 
vernix, is the celebrated tree called by the Ja- 
panese f/mn, from which the Japan varnish is 
obtained by incisions iu the bark. There is 
an inferior and little valued kind called Fasrsi, 
probably that of K. vernix adulterated wilh the 
varnishes of India and Siam. 

Ooid is found in many parts of the 
Japanese empire, sometimes it . is obtain- 
ed from its own ore, sometimes from the 
washings of the earth or aand, and sometimes 
it is mixed with copper. The qusnUty in the 
country ia uudoubtedly great. An old Span- 
ish writer of the seventeenth century telu ua 
that in his .day the palace of the emperor at 
Yedo, as well as many houses of the nobility 
were literally covered with plates of gold. Ia 
the beginning of the Dutch trade the snnnnl 
export WHS £610 000 'sictlin^ and in the 
oourse of sixty years the aniount sent out of 
the kingdom through the Dutch alone waa 
from twenty-five to fifty millions sterling., 
^ver mines are quite as numerous as those of 
gold. In one year the Portuguese,, while they 
had the trade, exported in silver iK687.60O 
sterling ; eopper, lead, ^uidcsilver, tin and iroB 
also oecur in Japan. Thunbei|; .tails us Ual 
the rlohest gold ore and nhmh yidds th« 
finest gold, is dug up in Sado, one of tho 
northern provinces in the great island of 
Nipon. Some of the veins there were formerly 
so rich, that one cstti of the ore yielded one, 
and sometimes two taels of gold. But of lata 
" he says'* he was informed the vmns there, 
and most other mines, not only run scarcer, 
but yield not near the quantity of gold they 
did formerly. There ia also, he relates^ 
a very rich gold sand iu the same province, 
which the prinoe causes to be waihed for his 
own benefit, without so much as giving notice 
of it, much less part of the profit, to the court 
of Jedo. After the gold nunea of Sado, tho>e 
of Surunga were always esteemed the riehest, 
for besides tfast these province yielded at all 
times a great quantity of gold-ore, there ia 
some gold contained even in the copper dug 
up there. Among the gold mines of the pro- 
vince Satsnma, there was one so rich, that « 
catti of the ore was found upon trisl to 
yield from fonr to six taels of gold for which 
reason the- emperor had given strict ordm 
not to work it, for fear so ^reat a treasnn 
should be ezhauated too soon. There was ano- 
ther gdd-mine in the province Tsikuugo, 
not t . from a villsge called Toasino, ikere 
are no silver^mines, in all Asia but only iii 
Japan* The Japan strea^ ihe Kuro Siuo, 

Digitized by GoOg Ic 

•weqM slotiff the oater «r nitern ihores of the 
Japanese isUndt, and oarriea with it Uio gxtlt 
weed or Sargoua with naaj animal fottat, 
mnek u Ca?olina, Fteropoda, SpiriaUi, 

Atlanta and the pelagriu skeleton abrimps 
ftlin and Eriehtfaye ; also the euapacea of the 
•ailor ciaba. The woiaea w«ar nlfc gone. 
Cenolriat have a chevful even gay aspect. 
MaUfials for dyeing are taken from ft 
speoM of Betalfl, from Ike Qardeoia florida. 
PdygoBMB CUMue, batrbatum ind aTfcolarft 
«U jwmIiibb a baaotiful bhw eoleor, much like 
ibat firom indigo. The leafea an fint dried, 
tben poonded, and made uto snuU cakes 
vfaicb an sold in the shops. 

Tha Jipaoeae lanjiuage ia much nixed with 
CUncaa.. It is not mono^llabic but a^- 
|[latiDate, anpplying snbixes to Modify the 
idea* The priestaof the bnddbist religion em- 
ploy the Chincoe* but their poetry is in the 
pure Jipaaeae. There exists among them both 
the HongolisBuid Malayan typea, and it is not 
improbaUa that a wave of the Mongol has pass- 
ed over lihe prinitin BSateyan raoo 
tij mad lefi another of the raoea now inhabiting 
it. The Japanese at present therefore seem to 
bo of two or three races. The United States 
Expedition, from snalogieB in the language, 
formed an opinion that they ire of the Tartar 
family. Mr. C. F. ifahs regards the people of 
Lo-cfau as identioal with the Japanese, and as- 
aetta that they have many oharaoteristios which 
distinguish them alike from the Malay and 
GUnese— such as the absenee of Uie long aogn- 
Inr form of the intcarnal caiithns and the pre- 
■OMe of a thick blaek beard. Br. Priehard 
couidera th« Japanese to belong to the aam« 
as tha Obioeae, but Dr. Kekering main- 
taiaa tluit tb^ areMabya — while Dr. Latham 
lidlovs Sicbeid ia regarding Uiem as of two 
dirtinet ty pes of physieal formation . The pre- 
Taleut belief is that there are tbrte types of 
peopifl, in Japao,-'-Hh« field labourers biTB 
broad faces, brown hair, with an oceasionsl 
tings of red ; flat noses, larfie mouths and a 
compai»ti¥ely jight complexion- The fishers of 
the aea coast hare prombeat features, with their 
■oaea inclining to the aqualine ; hair black and 
criap, wary wiUi a tendeney to curt. The 
Bidiiea are a^jestio ia depurtment and more 
mamUe £utopaana< One of the racea Is dee- ' 
ciibedaa hanng an oval hewi and onl face, 
mudad frealal booea and a high forehead, with 
a mild mad amiaUe expressiui ol ecmntenance. 
llM.ooas|ilaxi«i is light olire with eyas aligktly 
obltqne, large and animated, long eyelashes, 
and dnaterbig eyebrows, heavy and arched, the 
dmek boaca are n^eratily promioeat, chest 
hiaad and iargcly developed. lu 8iam one 
of these Japanese races are . the most cs* 
teaaMd their ctfmrage, and the kings of 
haxQ always employed Uem aa (heir 

principal force in preference to the Malays, I 
woQid seem that the Japanese of si) classes 
look upQn iheir Wives as upon a faithful ser- 
Tant ; a Jspanese is never known to beat his 
wife. It is a custom amongst some Japanese 
to take a woman a few weeks on trial before 
deciding upon whether to marry her or not. 
The Japanese marriage ceremony is very sim- 
ple. The bride and bridegroom drink wine 
with each mtket three limes, exchanging oops 
with eaeh other every time, in the prsaenoe of 
a few select friends ; aftu which the young 
lady gets her teeth blaekened, and she is mar- 
ried Tor better and for worse. 

The illustrated Japanese books are very 
good, and show much artistic talent. A 
groop of trees, a branch of Japan bamboo, 
a bunch of leaves, a oottsge and turn in a road, 
and such simple subjects form eaeh of them 
a perfect stndy in itself, though appearing to 
have been drawn wilh one stroke of tho pen> 
The lattf r is, in factt a brash but ia made quila 
hard wiih gum or glue except at the extremity. 

The Japanese earthen-waro is beautiful, 
though not equal to the ^Chinese ; except the 
egg shell china ware which surpasses for trans- 
porency any seen in that country. There ara 
other kinds of china rarely seeniii England, anil 
which nre, though perhaps leas cunous, quito 
as beautiful as the egg shell. Among Iheni 
the rarest, and most difficult to procure ia 
lacqtieied chiua. 

Of all the works of art in which the Japan- 
ese excel the Chinese the lacquer is the most 
striking. Some of that uow made is very fioe, 
but not to be compared with the real old lac- 
quer, which is very rare, and is hardly ever 
brought into the market, except when some old 
family is in such distress for want of money 
then they bring pieces of antique lacquer (which 
ia as highly esteemed by them aa family platu 
with us) to be sold at Yedoor Yokohama. Then 
are on some, of the itoblamea'a eatatea menu- 
factoriea of koquer, some are celebrated for 
the ezoeUence from whiiA their -owneraderivs 
great wealth. Artiolea made there are alwaya 
marked with (ho crest or crests .of the owner 
of the estate, so that Ih^t whbh is much 
sought after, such as Fripoe ^Usuoia's lacquer, 
may at once be teeogufzed by jieeiag his crest 
iipou eaqh piece. - ■ . 

Copper aboitioda Ihrooghoiit the whole Japan- 
ese group and some of II b shid to be not 
sutpaued by any in thh We^Id. The oatives 
refine it and oast it into cyUndtira about a foot 
loag and an loch thick. The coarser klndi 
thtty oast into round lumps or takes. Quicks 
silver is said to be abuaidutt, but this, so far 
as is known ha* never been an article of export. 
Lead tUo is found to- be ftleuttruli but like 
quicksilver it has not JwaLsentwiVo^lie kin^ 





dun. Tin hit alto been diyoovered io smiill 
qoftBtities, and of a quality ao fiaa aod wbite 
that it alnoat eqoala ailrer, but of the. eitttat of 
thia atneral. little waa known, utlia Jf^paneae 
did nptatfcaeh muoU value to it,. and therafon 
have not aongbt /or it. > jronia fo«ad in tbne 
.«f tlie proviwM. m4 proWbly wiato ia otken- 
Tbe jApaime k«ow horn to reduce one, and 
the metal they obtain u of aupepor fuvlity, of 
which they ma^ fl«MU«nt atMl* 

Amongst the Aioo «f /apan, if « twin birU 
«ceur, they always dwtroy one of the iufuita. 
This idea preRBila amongst the Kbassyaa^ 
tbe BkH race. 

The temple of the Japanese ii only a snail 
-square room, hung round with pictures priooi- 
polly of foxes, wbieh are Uougbtt most 
probably to be votive offerings, made by peo- 
ple who had lost theic frieMh* The fox is 
looked upon as a great and powerful demon, 
te be held in much Tsneiation. He is supposed 
. -often to take tbe form o{ .a beautiful woman, io 
. which shape it appears to mea,.«nd lufes then 
on, and on, and on tillihey are lost in the foreak 
and on discovering it hang tbemsdrM. ThMe- 
fore, when any one is lost offerings are imme- 
diately made at the nearest fox temple, wheu if 
the devil be propitiated thereby, the search for 
(he lost one is successful. 

Coal, says Keoipfer, is in great quantities in 
the province of Sikusen and in most of the 
northern provinces- Dr. >Siebold also speaks 
of coal as being in common use throughout 
the country, and on visHing one of the mines 
he ssw enomgh to eoovinee him that it was 
tflkilfully wnted. For domestic pnrpoaes they, 
convert tbe eoal into «oke. 

NaUne Sulphur ia an abundant mineral. 
In some plaou it lies in broad deep beds, and 
nay be dog. up and removed with as mueh 
case as sand. A ooDuderabte revenue is deriv- 
<ed by the government from sulphur, many 
of the timber trees of Japan were noticed by 
Thnaberg during his reaideaoe there, in the 
«ighteenth oeotunr. The most recent notice 
-of the plant of that island is in Hodg- 
Bon's Kagasski, pp. S4S— 4S. 

Bmus ia a corruption of the Japanese word 
SiM» a piotts man, and the term bonze was given 
hj the rovtagveae to the priests of Japan, and 
has siaee .been apolied to the priests of ChiUa, 
Coohin*China, and the n^hbooiing oonnbte. 
Jn Ohina, the bonce are t^ priesta.of Fuh| or 
•eet of Fuh, th^ ^e jdititi|iguiah«d (nm tbe 
laity by >heir dffM* 2a: J«faa (hey an giNitia- 
inen of familiea. 

The Ji^aqeae have a gftti mpeet for the 
dead. They place the femiioa inside a kiad 
■of square tube, aad in « aiuiag postoze. To 
obtain this poaitjif^n, tbcy MO aatd to u»e tbe 
Dosio powder vl^, pluoed vithin the 
Bovth « tbe os«fH,M nidlo bave Uw effeet 

of relaxiog all the nutaeles. The hallow aqaare 
is carried in a cbair or norimon by four men 
into the yard of the Tori, oaoortod by a few 
women dreseed np in.bri^t ooloon, wearing a 
veil of white enpe on tbe bead. Thc^ am 
here met by the Ochan and a quantity of nsinor 
.eanoDS who ehannt to the sounds of tbe tom- 
.tomi the whx^ compaai awhile moviog wHh 
the body, aionnd the icaapla iito iririA tiMf 
length nufa with a gseat noiae. PnjWM am 
then lead over the body, and ft is >mamyad to 
be bnraed. If the doMaaed -bave bean a per- 
aon of rank, the aahes are depoaltad in an m 
and buried wiUia the aaoed pieeinela of the 
Tera. In the prooesaion then is very little 
affaetatiou of sorrow } thejr senn to ngard it 
as s joyful ooeasion, and the whole enda witb a 
feast at tin house td the deceased. 

A proauneot flsature amongst the Japaaeae 
is the variety of religions bdiefi. One of 
which is that of Buddha, bnt the 8in-kn 
prevaUe to aa great an eatent, the prieata 
of the bttddhiat nligioa nae the Obiaeee la»> 
guage in their vorahip aiae^ in Umv 
try mhu^ lain tbo Japanese tongna. Then ia n 
p«fer ia Sfottt aad Q/iurm m (Mm «ad Jm^ 
pmt ia which an Andeavour is made to identi* 
fy tboiottrioos symbol so oiten fouad oa Bud- 
.dhiat iaaagea, wbn^ buddhists Uwmsolvea ra- 
gwd as the emblem of the seal of Buddha's Lcart 
--the "Svastika" of Sanscrit soholsKt-^wilh the 
"Hammer of Thor" ol Bouidinavian mythology. 
It ia ooqjeobured that this symbol mast ban 
been brought to Cbina, Japan, and HongoUa 
by bttddhiat priests, aod ita origin ia thantfan 
to be looked for in India. It B^ieara them'oa 
tbe moat andant bnddUat eqins, and baa beea 
notMcd 00 iht widla of all ihn rock-out teoqilea 
of Western India. Bventbe Ramayana neia- 
tions domeslie uteoaila u marked wi^ tba saej 
aame figure. Ite Svaatika appeen in amdeot 
Teutonic and Seaadinavian mythology, nader 
the name of Tbor'a hHaswr, aa the aceptm of 
Tbor, tbe god of thunder. It has also been 
disoovued on many ancient coina of Indo«€l<r- 
manio aataoits. From all this it is oonduded 
that the Svastdca was the ooiunon aymbol and 
dhief magio charm the Ar^an raoea beCom 
they separated. To . tbe preaent day thia "ham^ 
mer of Thor" is used among the Oennan fmm 
aantiy and in Irdandae aaugicd «gn to dia* 
pel tinnder. Uoxeom, aa-in tba middle ages 
.Mis used ta be luag to diivn- awny tbnnder, 
the Bvaataka of tba Saat need to be engmved 
0B ohureb-belU, aad to the pseeaat daff amf 
bella in Englaad bear tbe symbd. 

The Japanese ace aomewhai fjavobwe 
aad plaauue loving, bat they am handy and an- 
duriag, they are pfaysiorily robust bat ■ thdr 
minds -are of a diUetaoie ocder. 

The Japanese wxtte like tlie Chiotse in e»- 
huus bam. ibnlop to Iba-boH^aftha paper^ 




b^fliiiig tk iba right hud ud«» hmi tire cha- 
ncer ia lets fulaatie anl far more raimiog 
than tha GUneaB. 

A* a goMfd mle, t]» dm^ten em of 
Oehigh MbUitr hn«M fortaMa or dowry 
OB i—niagBi Ob tha oootnrv, if they ai* 
cowidcred Tory basdMniie, amiulB ia tanpu 
and very aceomfdMicd, tW paralita expaet the 
brid^room to pay down to then « lurndBOaae 
auB of moaey or to aaaka om to them aome 
otlm vahnUe ptopevty* 

The Aim m tke ^oiigioel raeea of Tceo, 
whoae aarere tieaiiiMiit fay the Jafniieae, hae led 
tfacM to other eou^iea and tii^abo oooopy 
tko Soathem part of the h\ini of Seghalm, 
wbieb ia in pomaesioa of the Japnieae. Their 
Buhor doeo not exceed ftO^OOO ; thay aie 
atiwiy and, MBaeelar, bat thtf ate eadeapiied 
by the JapHme sa Jem hn fagr the Aiwba* 
The mm m ne handaeme, hare s piohMaaa 
of Uaik flnring hair, bat their appeuMeo 
ia Mt deealy, thtir Hp* «re tattooed beaatiMly 
hfaw. They do not apeak Japemee ; end 
aamBta froai Hakodate oauot eoaveiae with 

The Jepaaeee hare nnaenHie feitivala ead 
hotidaya, hdd in ooameaoratioB of anocsion. 
deitiBo, warriors and aages, or fren aome tin- 
tnead aneiBBt enttev. That at the winter 
Miiiliiiiit Ihn fthi line liVn. nr frnit holiday, laatB 
14 daya. It ia a period of great rqoian|r, all 
■■ii—liln aoeouBta are if pusible settled and 
■oeh ffioBdly intereonno takes pface. The 
Gokate 8dni Ibatifal, at the anmmer eolatioe, 
■boBi tbe middle of Jaoe^ ii im ooaMM«oi»> 
tioB of Ckmgu Sams, a peat geaeiai to whom 
tka piLinf dynasty owes its wiffis, and tlie 
Jbpuaee data tiuir births- fiom it. Bamien 
wilbthelMtor ovpaie hoisted aloDg wit^ 
iiinihit Btisamers. The Japanese trsditkaa 
ttaeo-lbeir ongin to e body «F poor fiahennan, 
aadtiwbiMaof tfaeoray fish ate nied to incito 
bnaiitf and lampefanoe and indieato their 
oeaoB mi a.sfiee of fiA is aeot witb' eeeh 
laMar, fothea«Be oligeet; ODhe Ookato Behn 
Mdvith muekoenmony andcB- 
Aboit tka- middle efJttly». 

Mival the Omabwri is held. It u% 

ptOGastosn of trades eadu iWbHtoa ef their 
^amongst wbieb the wax werioiia m 

lam fieqosnt and a watoh and fiM-bri-i 
gide, ako*eaae andthe Yo.shonfgyiwtdKs'iia* 
benmiB readitas.' The under l&nbs .of tke 
lipHMae arealeader» the 'people are sffaotionato 
ii their deanastio rdations* ladigeat' paimte 
Mil tlHir davghtSKS ior a temof yeanaarpiRoe. 
titatea. Bot maiv gida aeelosernos u tie tto 
havMO. Ibnlagoia aelemnifwd Hi two wayi» 
the oM rel^ieu, the othar chiL XdwitioD hto 
medo gmat prognia,.bat it ia not g a u a i i l ,aa>y 
eoafiaed to the n^aiftnentf of each tiadew 

The Japan exeeaUre goTemnwnt la arried on 
by the Daimio officula. There are gOTernors 
of pKmndcs, with sopreme power. Thej are 
feudal printoe over whom one of their number 
styled Tycoon is eUef and he, assieted by the 
Gongw ot GJeat Conaeilt ineaided over the 
eflUrsitttho Mimeofihe Hikado or spiritual 
emperor, ito sepreme heed. The Mikado issued 
deoees, bestowed titlto and delegated authority 
toothers. He residec in Teddo^io theoentre of 
the city, in a palaOe with large grounds sur- 
rounded by a moat. Prieato act as spies and 
masters of evemeniea. In Japanese mytholMy 
Ten sio dn sin, the (Mtron goddess of Uo 
empire, sprang from the great Sun god. The 
high offieers often move iiieognito, NaibooBy 
for relaxation, and their wives only mom out 
in a "Iformom'* undsra giiud. Tbe Mlkedo 
haa lererat tittee Zen sL^of beaTeo, Hi- 
kado emperor; Daiil or KioTal. grand interior^ 
and hie aooestry, it is said, can be traeed na- 
itttemptedly for 700 years before the Cbristiaa 
era. He was, rarely riuUe^wu allowed 13 wirea 
of noble birth, and nnliotited coneubinea. His 
eldest daughter beoomes the chief priesteu of 
the temple of the sun st Issie, which eontsina 
tbe shrine of Ten sio dai zin. 

In Japan, punishment inftioted on soj 
member of a femily entails disgrace on 
the whole. Henoe certain noble families, 
military and ofScials of rank, hare the 
privilege of carrying out their own death pu- 
nishment. It is mIM the Bsn kirn or happy 
despatch and it is praetiwd for every crime. 
To be legal, ui order for its performanee must 
be issuea% the Tycoon, or ^ tiie suerain 
prince of the culprit. 

The Japanese some times bury the dead 
but generally bom. In the latter case the 
remaihs from tbe ftre are ooHected in a jar which 
is sealed and deposited in the cemetery or 
temple in which the remmns of his aaeeston 
have been placed. 

They have athMfe gmes, tbe athletm 
beiDg teitned amoo: Imctn^ theatre^ 

card pta^tag, draughts and efaese. The 

Snnmpal religiona of Japao are the Sintn and 
uddhist but there ore other aeett aaae of them 
phikMOpbieal. Eveey Sintn seetarira has in his 
hoaie a kami or piatam saint, snd tbe gbod go* 
to their region after death, the bad, to places 
of pnnlsbment. The epiritt of their aneestoM 
are beHevetl 16 rfttiiH CMtk-on the nitons 

All Japanese btttbe tide* daily. The poor 
resort to the' public - bath ho«s«s wWe - 
meoi wbiMli Had etiUdren biithe togetber. The 
isMiMie beJMetieal aiid'gim) to< sentimental 
refleMtMHV *f!)» Jtfpmieae Uv branches of tho 
star Mto'pliait'om Ihtf girhm er theirfHeiida 
and its eapstdes ore burnt in i 
Lieut, ffSier, SMm^^i 




And C«atomt, 1867. Birdaood. Bombay 
Produtie, Hidory of Japan. Vol. p. 107 
3 08. Titvermei't TraveU, p. 157. Adams, p, 
331. Thunbgrg't Tra9«U, Vol 111. p. 61. 
87ihbocl;p. 21. MaoFarlane, Geggrapk^aud 
llUtonj 9f Japam^ p. liO, 368. ItotonnffU 
Siam, VoL I. p.'91. iPteem- AnUp^dm, pp. 
410, 417, 418, 4i9, 804. Ammeau Sxpedi- 
iion to Japan. OUphud. Sodggtm** Nagasaki, 
p, 68. Kinnahaa'a Japan. Puhlit Papers. 

India ; Kaubo|fui; Ki-mUoo-mi-tai ; 
Korea ; Kurilian ; Looohoo ; Monu piipyrifen 
3^aper ; Tur&n ; V^Uble vax ; Anoor. 

MPAN ALLSFICfi. BdgmtfUia etiiy. 

JAPAN CANES. S« Whanghee ; Calaraas. 
JAPAN E\UTH. SeflGambier. 
JAPANESE CEMENT. 8m Uies ftlse. 

lAckered Wara. 

IJuMDSch lakwerk.. Dnr. 
JaptAiaeliie ware ,. GAt. 

Varnished articles of eveiy description. 
^MeOaUoch. IHulkner. 

JAPAN OIL. Oil of Eiysimnm perfoUatum. 

JAPAN PULSB. Eng. Ground nut. Kartb 
nut Aracliis Itypogoea. 

JAPA VUSHPAUU. Tel also Dasana 
Tel. Hibiacua roaa-ehiiiensia.— Zi/m. 

JAPANSCH LAKWE&K. Pot. Japanned 

JA'PATRI. Tel. Mace. 
JAPETH. See Adam ; lodia ; Toran. 
JAPKTIC. SeeSauskrit. 
JAPABA. Bee Teak. 

orellana, h. U. ii. fiSl. Aznotto or Koeoa. 

JATIIAli KAXEL. Uikd. Nutmeg but. 
ter* See oil. 

JAPHROTA. Hind. Jatropha curcaa; Nikki 
japhroti, ia iba Balioapernmm lodicum- 

JAP MALA, Hind. A hindu roaary adapted 
for silent aud abatracted wonhip. 

JAPON. Sp. Soap. 

JAPUTRl. TtL. Mftoe. 

JAS Kn»' iu tbe Durga piga fesUral 
ol the hindufl of Ljdia, a aicred jar ia aa 
eaaential article in tbe oelebration of tbe njra- 
teriei,aitdis marked with the oombiDed triau- 
glea, denotiag the union of ibe tWQ dcitiea, 
Siva and Durga. The Saeta aect, worahif^ien 
of tbe Saett, or feoule pribeiplet nurk the 
jar witb anoUwi triangle. Tbe Vaiihnara acot 
XQ tbeir puja. uae also a myatioal j«r, wfaioh 
is also marked. Tbese maika, Mr. Patenon 
saya ajre called Tanlra j and ere bierogly|iibio 
characters, of wbicb then ire a vaat nuaitber. 
He heiMe ingeoioasly deduces- the identity 
of tbe bindu pHji vilb soitt F'gyptitin rites of 

a cormponding nature. An ei(4anation «| 
his Tiem ia giTen is bis Essay on tbe ori|i| 
of the bindu religion, in tbe eigbtb toIui 
the Aairtic-Re«eaa«hea,p. 4(tl. In Ibat 
the katasi pigab, a kafaui or water jv is 
in a ubamber as a tjpaof Durga or 
di^itjr and ia worabipped. 
JAB. Kvs. Veidigria. 
JAR. Hind. A toot ol a planL 
JAHA6 waa tbe aan oC Aultan, tbe sou l 
Eber, and brother of Pdeg. and from him l| 
ancient Arabians derive tbeir imceBtry. Ik 
Ynbarabi, therefore, who claim tbe nearest 
proadi to tbe parent stea, trace their gencalal 
further back than the other ti^na in Ar^ 
and may, ondonbtedly, be pmnonnoed d 
oldest Xunity in the world. Saba, tbe gam 
son «f Sultan, founded Saba, and tbe 
beana ere eupi|K»ed to be idenlified with lli^ 
Uuabites, who dwelt upon tbe shone of Hj 
Penian GnU. Tbia: was the pontin m 
seeeden oeonpied at tbe perSad of tbe illipj 
for the eaUpbet, between Ali itnd Mowaiy^ 
aad it tbnwa a r^ of light upon tbci mM 
that euvelopes the history of thia remote peritfl 
when we find some dire^ evMenoe bcari^j 
a point which has heretofore been at nuUerd 
mere ooigecture. The name of Aratno, wItt 
some show of reasoo, baa also been derind fni 
the Jiirab here aUuded to.-^Weibled'g Trmm 
Vol. 1. p. 8. \ 
JARAH. Hind. A auigeim : jamha^ i 
aurfrery. Bee 8BDg-i>J«rab. 

JABAU, a wood of Weatem. Ax 
unauimasaed ia eoandeess and ili 
For ul worka of -magnitude sueh as 
gates, wharrea, &c, requidt^ strengtb-k 
wi^otit equal. It ia ap'pltoable for almeot-* 
porpoaea ; for, although iDfia<ior to Spaitidi 
hofcany in beauty of grain, it ia highly effbf 
in all oroamental work -and aoet usebil fc 
the reqqireoienta of the hou8e>oarpoatcr, 
as window frames doors, bewaa, and 
desertpdon of fwmUure. and if out si the pi 
tinae of the veu end allowed to seaaon 
bek^. used, it baa prokred alAioet indesi 
Its wonMiil qiialiUea.bav«faesttfiiH|y 
lodged' by nil die piineipal- enginMre of 
odcniial-floMnitaienta who now apeoif|r u 
tbeir oantiaela far pilea, for jeUiefl, and wban , 
—also fw beams uid flooring, that none llM 
Jarah timber must be used. It asta at defiaiiM 
white* ants on land, aad tbe Terodo navaH 
in water. This superb wood is used aj 
tbe ordinary and rhmpnt timhnr. inaiy 
flooia, window fnmes, mantel {neeest tnblij 
and dQora. are all of aoUd jarab, reaistiog iri 
sects like eo mueb^ marble, and - eapable of nl 
oeiriog the hivheet polish. The introduotioQ W 
to India of a wood oCsudiqaslityanddimbifii^ 
Its that desvibed, wiU t»e^ nnmili^ booik.^ 
Batty Examwm^^^^<^ by *^OOglC 




JAKTIKKA. TlieBiUka wafe a tribe ocenpy- 
ing the Mi'ghbouriiood of the Ipdas mur Atiak, 
at the time of Akamder and Chandragapta. 
The Bahika were one of the republican races 
kaowD as the AraAtla (Svu.) or the king? 
leas, the npuUiean defeadera o( Saaftala 
or Sakala. They ate the Adraiat^ of Arriao, 
who plaeea them on the Rstu Tlie Arashtra 
wtn known by the several names of Btthika, 
Jarlikks and Takka, from whtoh last is tbe name 
of their oM capital of Tsiila or Takks-tilaAS 
known to the Greeks. The Tukka people still 
exist in oonsiderable numbers in the Panjab Hills, 
and their alphabetical oharaeters and tbe canM 
of Takrior Takni are now used by all the bindus 
of Kashmir, snd the northern mountains fron 
Bimbt and Sshathoo to Kabul and Bamisn^ 
Sir B.SUioL See Cfaaodragupta ; Kabul. 

JABAL Udid. Bosa arialotelis, Citv. &;i|y. 

JA&AK< MaUY. Jat. Bioinus eommuHis, 
^Ima ebriati or Castor oil plant. Jarak-mioak 
Castor nl. 

JABAN is a white wood of Java takin;; 
the tool easily : the natives prefer it to all 
oCbna f6r the oonatruction of their saddles, 
which consist principally of wood. 

JABANANG. Malay. Dragon's blood. 

JAKASANDHA, a king of Megsdhs, of a 
Turaiiiao dynasty. He twice waged war agamst 
Matburs, the Behsr of the present day. Krishnn 
repulsed the first iavasiou but, after the second 
jnTaaioD, Krishna and Yadava retired to 
Dwaraka. Jarasandba, according to Bunsen, 
5SS} was the Indian king who opposed 
Seairamis on the Indus, B. C. 1280. Jars- 
BMuda snd Sahadeva, according to professor 
IVilson were eotempuraries. B. 0. 1400. J«ra- 
satidra, is supposed by Sir William Jones to 
have been a ootemporary of Krishna and 
Tudishtira. B. C. 3101. Jarasaiiilha, king of 
Kagadba is the historical personsge amoD^tst the 
Iwroie kings of tbe Muhabharata. It was bis 
wars and eonquests which oocastoned the great 
p^ukr movwmeot that took plaee inmadiately 
hefove tbe era of the five Pandava kings. Ue 
drove the I'adsva from their settlements en the 
Jumna ud tnought 86 kinga prisoners to 
kia capital. He bsU imperial away. It waa 
lie who oppoaed Bemiramla B. G. 12S0, de- 
feated and drove her bat^ to tbe Indus with im- 
inenae loss. He was son of Brihadrstha and 
grandaon of Vssn. U« was of tbe dynasty of 
the Barhadratha, wbieh Bunsen estimates B. 0. 
VM. waa followed by the following dynasty, 
Pfadotyn B. C. 6in Bimbtsara B. G. 578. lu 
tkta dvnaaty, Buddha appeared as a teacher 
B. C. 66S and died B. C. 643. Seehnaags 
B. C. 446 Naod 578. Maarva, whose iirst was 
Cbandragupta 3 IS. After Jaiaaandha's death, 
Ua kiagdom fell to piaosa, and k was followed 
% the BinvdsroiM war anongst tbe prineeaof 
the Kaunva and VnAwt.^Bvnim^ Hi, 985. 

^Thegler But, of India, Vol. I, p. 1G4. 475. 
j9«nam. V0I. JIJ. p. 547 to 691. Bee 
Barbadtatba \ Magadha ; Seniramis. 

JAH*BBRI. HiHD. Zizyphua nammnlaria. 

JABGIA. Si. Cordage. 

JARfiB alaof Jttwnr, or Juari HiKP. Ht^eu 
sorghum.** i>tsn. or Sorghnm Valgaro ; Gxaat 

JARI. HiHD. Mnh bofvii. 

JAIII-BUTI. Hind. Vegetabks. 

JABID. Piaa.? Pmbt. ? A patch of 
ground AO paoea square. 

}AE[D-BAZ£fi. Psaa. is an athletic exer- 
cise, eiUin- played by two men on horseback, 
with a spear shaft twelve or more feet Img, 
or by a sinftle korsrmao, with a stick two 
or three feet in length. In the former, the 
two opponents alternately gallop after Mch, 
other, throwing the Jarid or aprar fhaft, with 
fuU force ; tlieaim ofthe thrower is tphitandun- 
horse his opponent, while he, by hu dexterous 
agility, is not only to elude tbe blow, but to 
seiae the weapon iu the air, and attach in turn. 
The other game simply consists in putting ths 
hone to its utmost speed uid dashing one end 
of the short Btiok on the ground, so that it msj 
rebouad upwards and be agnin eaoght.— Po^ 
tw^er't Travd§. Bfiooc1U$tan omd ' SmU, 
p. 190. 

JABI BHUP. Hivd. Dolomiffia macro- 
cepliflla. Adbssritaka jari, Hind, is Adisntum ' 
caadstum. Aconitum heterophyllum^ 

JAUI KAKDIAU. . Hisn. Asparagna 

JA&IHU. Hind. Acer cultntum. 

JAKLANGBI. Hind. Lonioera quinque- 
locularis, Bunul*i-jarob, Hjnd. ia A"athwnm 
muricatum. Kali jarri. Salvia Isnata. 

JAUNKRAM. Sw. Hardware. 

JABOOI'. Beno. LageratrcBnua regiom. 

JABU. HiNS. Broom giaet ; Broom; 
properly Jhara. 
JABtIL Bxne. lagarstrcemia regime.-^ 

JABUMAMIDL Tu. BHehanaBii bti. 

folia. — Roxh, 

JABUN, the new Hormoz, by its advanta- 
geoua poaition near ^e mpuih of the Persian 
Gnlfj soon intercepted the commerce of Keish. 
One rose into wealih and importance as the 
other decUued.-^Oiise/fy's Tracd$, Vol. I.p* 

JABYA, a tribe in Nepal, south of the 
Gurung, with whom tlie^ are intermixed and 
iutermstry. They are bindu in creed and 
manners'. Tliey may pertain to tbe Ourung, 
Nagar or Newar tribes. 

JASCHMA. Bca. Jasper. 

JASIAKING. also Jait. Jar. Ginger. 

JABUINAOB^ Umdet 'fhklJ^auiBe 
tribe of pluota of S.'i^^t' V-Mt^JMni- 



nrnHt. ftno Myctinthas. The Jannimiiii is the 
priocipal genus of, and gins its rnune to, the 
Natural oRter. Ik consists of a brgo nvnber of 
.qwoca, sometinMs fragnstt, sometimea sosnt- 
less, erect or Iwising, itthabking the hot or 
tcaperato regions of Korope, AMeSr Anil and 
AjMtralia, boi soavoalf known in AmariiM* 

JASMINS. See Jasminnm. 

lisaa oanBdaa. 

JASMIKUIC. Avenna-ofpbntsbelOBffiug 
to the natnral order Jasmi&aoen. Man; of the 
jasnines are way prettjr ahruba with while and 
yeUow flewera, in noat oase soeated. Voigt 
eminierates 86 apeeies. Tb« specias ginn b; 
Dri Wight, in his Icones, aae 

affloe. oevrtaRmua. nyHifolfnin. 

MgtutiloViim. aloDptiim. •vaUAiHiun. 

arbwMOinB. ercdi&gram, pobemas. 

aiiream. flexile. reToliitam. 

anrioQhtnm. grandiflornm. rlgidam. 

Mgnoniftoeom. hirautnm. TOtetertHQuTD. 

biMteatam. latifollntn. ssBbM) 

breviloban. lanrifoliam. «iin|^ifoliiun. 

ohiynatheiaaBL maUbuicnm. tetnphif* 

TuthilutaMi^ keai, hatug goUmor an- 
fcur«.Aauv brown aa the yellow jasaiae, was 
daeBwd ■ muk oi befnty in aaoient India^aad 
ia the wbst of India anoh hair is even now 

aometimes seen, but the prejudice in faTonr of 
eboD lodes is so strong that it is coaaidered 
a morbid affection of the bair, and tbe women 
dye and conceal it. . In the Hero and Nymph 
Ocour the words, 

H«r Toioe is masio— Her long trUias wear 
Tbe jumine'B golden hue. 

The yellow Tarieties ■ of jstiliine Hboxili be 
gtovn in ' pot!^ bat being natives of the higher 
latitildes of the tropics, they often perish during 
the hot seaaonj they reqnire a loamy soil well 
manund, and perfect drainage. The whHe 
varieties grOw well in the flower borders, 
requiring to be pruned occaaDnally, to kebp 
them in proper form, this done after 
flowering.--^. UO. JBiddell. Mmd. IhttUhe, 
W./e, Voigt. 


Ityotsotha^ triBorai 

MouuRinu ttusnin, 
• Am. 

Ksnam malHka.„SAm, 

Aapbotft „ 

Cattu nulUka TaK. 

CMrimalle.... ... „ 

_ Adjtvl „ „ 

jasmine ^ws iti the 
of India. Its root 


J, viminenn, 
J. ttiSorum* fm. 
Nyotsnthcn aDgDsKblla, 

Bmi maKka BtKD. 

Malatii llalur..JlAlAT. 

Manor - 

Sata pitsjigsm 
xnalu Malul. 

The DBZIOW leaved 
foreata of tke peninsoi* 

is need medicinally. Jc. 'yh^i* 


' Nyotaotbea gnndtfors^ Lmr-- 
Bai*4EMndo Bns. |.llan«ii-ta>anriii « Bsto. 

Ofows in IB the sovth Met of Asia. 

)I- 1 Hems pus1iiAa.« S 
i PaebehsMUTi^MilU! 


T. MfeUatnnt Atv. j Hogsiiiin 

AuricuUted jasmine. Ksa t Telia adavi nalh.,. 

Jnhi HiHD. I ICalUlu....^ ^ 

Tsm AdafiflsoHa...!^ | SannaSajnln. 

Thin email sweet flowered speoes grows 
tfie Manritias, Bengal, Assam, ^meer and 
mnch cultivated— Med. Top. p. V 
Voigt. Roxh. 


J. remlnttiin, W. Te. 

Curled flowered 

low jRsmine , 

P«l» otaiBbeti.«.. HiBD. \ 

This grows in Ben^l and the oonntaiaa 
the N. B. <rf India. It is a very free flow« 
and highly ornamental.--' Ceftl. Med. Top. 



tfyaUa ........... Bvbh. I Chanibali, Jat».,fii 

Cataloniao jasmine Esq. | Chamba... .. „ 

Spanish jaemine „ | 

A native of the East ladies and much co 
rated for the flowers. This and another spt4 
yield the true essential oil of jasmine of 
shops. It ia the most exquisitely fragrant 
ciea of the genua, and is very generally 
vatcd, being much prized as a perfam^ 
large white flowers having a roost pow 
scent, and being in blossom throughout 
year, are used in garlands on all fest 
occasions. I^ biodu medioine, the flowers 
coDsideretl a bitter and cool remedy and 
employed as an application to wounds^ ol 
boils, and eruptions of the skin. They 
as an aromatic stimulant and might be 
as a snbsiitiite for tbe Sambucua, elder flo 
—Powell Hand book. Vol 1. p. S5». 
J. L. Sleaart, U. D. Dr /rvine, Geml. J 
Top. p, lli.^Riddell Gardming, 


J. Urralnm, Ldm. 
J.- jwhsseaaa, mBd. 

J. uittltiflorum, ^n</r. 
Kowid*., .M.-... Baaa. | Eatu 

Vyelantlua Uraata^t 
N. pabeewas,' AoAe. 
N. mnltiflon, Smrm. 

OrowB in most parte of Iadia> 
J.\SMINliai EUtSUTUM. IfW ^ 
of GnettMcda apacaosa.— .^inn* 

tive of tha Kham HiJb. 

Syo.« of Jasmisum hirsutum.— J^nn. 

JA8UI]»IUU NUDJFLOBUM, oonpieftfl 
praDainent. poaition, in the north of Cbin« ; 
yellow abundast bkwsoma, nay be aae^j 
OBfnqonitly peefilng out from aisongai 
snow, and wmindiBg ^he-Buw^nJ^raogy 





bMSliAd pitBTOM nd Mwilipi wUeh 
Ibov 00 ibt ilwded banki of his on land. 
iMr H taiijr M thii pretty dm^like 
l^irMpmifbUs, tbe yetlow E>Dnytbui viri(H»- 
^ Iki lUu Daphne Foftaftei ud the piiik 
•4m. beaDino eoveMd with UeiBOMt, mod 
itW BOitbm Cime «aideM extnnely 

liBXINVH ODOBliTiSSlinTU. 1*he 
rjiRnine a nitire of Madein, intiodbceit 
India, an etegaot ahinb with -smaU 
: Imtbi, flowen bearing a aweot aeent, — 

B,«... aim. 1 1. poblgwom, F«ri 

iJttoiM — mo. 
«M. Huo. 

Sling I pvrttag, mart!, 

ul Bnttaj. 
Suariof GlMital)' 
Kangei Trans Indus, Jai 
of Fanjab. 

IS^n of the aouth of Surope, used geae- 
hj Kanpeaos : for corering treU{8 work; ; 
of India grow it in buahes, and use tbe 
atnostof their festivals. It is pro , 
by layers ; the plant does not require 
putieolar care, further than watering, 
not i* said to be useful in riagwbroa. 
|>bKd oU ia prepared from this with the 
d of the moriiiga- — I>r$. RUddl and 
H JoMrtuU oj tbfi AMiatic Society /or 
^.iyska^Jutet^, p- 435. J.L.Stwart. 
I. PowU Hand Book, Vul.L p. 359. 

Byn. of hinutna*— ■£«»». 
I prsttj while flowar,.the koonda of tbe 
ii McreJ to Vishnu. It is cuHiTalad 
i lowering plant ud is very orntmeotal, 
lit is (urioos that the Aowers of Ajmeer, 
a light mU, hare no scent, while at 
hoi^bnd ia a stiff Utck soil tbe flowen 
Ike MDmnga are highly odacilsKniB.— tfiok 

lASSarUM SAUBAC. AU. Bota, W. 1. 

■Ultam. ... Wm^ I KyctanUua 

an studded all over like ihe snow-drop traa 
wiih loTtly wUta floweiB, tlu abe af sb^ 
roacc, aaiid daUgbtfiilly fragrant. Thia variaty 
ia pfobshly moare .ealtinted ttaa •any oHhv 
Sower, Miftugh the sugla ^ermrad, with- m 
twining hsMt is Mt unfiMqaantly to be teen 
The singb variety is eaUad " uotifia," but 
dutiful varietKB oalled '* Batba" with siagla 
and double flftwer«t trhi^ have tbe odour of &ia 
gaeeo tea ate also oultiirated ai Ajnii and ard 
pvobaUy the .J. eepadoM of WiUdnow. In the 
fifiUa in tint wriuity of Soo*Obow-ibo largo 
qnantitiao of J. sambae aza oultiTated. It is used 
iO'daoorateiihe hair of the Cbioese la^ea 'and 
to Cjanush ths teUea of tha wealthy. AU ChiaaBa 
gardflH, bolb ia tha north and aautfc an ■ an|p* 
plied v^ith thia fcvaurito flaiWu fms tha ^hof 
vinca of ^akein* TariMs «lher abraba aiiofa oa 
Mnrraya erotiaa, Aglais odtnata aad Chkanr 
tbas iQQonspiouou»,are garawn fbr tbefa UassoMy 
which are used for mixiag with the tea. Tha 
flowtfa af .tbs aavbae are supposed by tha 
bindus lo forn ane of tbe darts of Kama Bern 
the hiadn god of Iots^— j^WAmt's If^aaieringt^ 
page Ui.—MMon Ymgi.Bmk IT, la. Mm 
Ued, Top. . . 

JASOON. HiKO. HUuBODS Boiwainwiait,- 
JA3F£a . 

Diitepro It, 

JaaebM.H». Rva. 

■igia...B>iTo. DDK. 
1% ™ BVBM. 



Fan mnlla, Kud^a 
muH& Jetegam 
Molla „ ... ILuaUb 

Zan b*k „ Puo. 

MaTtmalUca ^Sahs. 

K<mM ItaUM pn,... Tam. 
vorptsaoai : uall^; 

SoddnHaHe... „ 
Manpiadha vaaa 

ehstta Tab. 

KaTa mfUka „ 

'V&HBaia IVD varieties of lUa faeautifiil and 
I fagnat twiaiag plant* ojle it JTasmmua 
fkuaMt tks neat dgnbla Anbios 
the lieh lobM bnaehes of vbiek 

iWOOgri, ABOLO- 
■wXqgca. — „ 

Jaspis....: BfTT. 

JaspiasM..'^ - Omt 

Jasper, a qasrlMm nineiri of a nd and 
yeUow o^ar, and onyx, eommon opal, aad 
blooi^stone, are found iu abaadaaos lo HHWy 
parte of the Dekkan and aomgst tha Cambay 
ttonea. Yellow jasper oocura on tbe Tebaa- 
serim, bot it is not of 'Common oeearreoce. A 
soft green jaapev is found in the Bortnow 
Prorinoes, sUm preoieua gvaen jasper, and 
striped ja*per.— i/(MOrt. 
J AfiB. A Kurd tribe. 
J AST OK JASD. HiKD. Pn^. Zino. 
JASUN. Dbk. UibisoBS mBa-dneiisis.— 

'JAT. Bouc. Pasiagas in th< lifo «f Qattla- 
ma, in TCrioos periods of pra-etittenee. 

JAT or Jet or Jut or Sat, prononnoed' 
thus variously m different puta of Indie, 
uaana rwD^ • trib^ « em, ft auuMr, » 

JAT, matted bairtthroughovt tbe PQitjab, 
Jut also implies a flettoe ox fall of hair, also 
goat's hail. 

JAT or Jet, or Jut. a Vp^ Bind, a Jat 
■Kauaa vearer «f«smel8 of -Uaek ealtie, -or 
askephffd-iftoppositiontoa-hii^Ddman. Ia 
tbe Funiab genenUy, Jat laaaBS a vfllaKev aad 
httsbandmaa in amraritiea to an artisan «r 
handieraftsman. The Jat latterly aeqaind great 
power. Tba Jat (Oatm ? and ¥iieehi f > ett^ 
gntadfrMBUiipcr A^ wi^m^JfpiBA 



of the Jamna. The Birk or'Virk ii one of Uia 
most dUtingaiahed of the tribest and the 
Siudhoo, Gbeeneh, VnrMtiib, Cbbut-the}), Sid- 
koo, KHrduil, Qondhal Sw., are J»t «ab-divi- 
uom io the Fofyabw Borne of the Jat are taid to 
be deaceadauta ef the KahkaToftbeealtBaafte. 

The GolBt are su^poaed byPnCiaaQr Wibos 
to be the SacB. If we eunuat tbe politioBl 
Unitt of the great Gotio nation ia tbe tiae of 
Cyrua, eix ceaturiesbefbreChrttt, vc ah&ll find 
than little circumscnbed in power on the rise 
of Tinuir, tfaou}{h twenty oeoturies had ^apied. 
At this period (A. D. 1330), under this 
prince of tbe Gelie race, Toghluo Tinoor 
Khan, the kiugdon of Chaghtai waa boonded 
en tbe west by the Dhaabt-i-Kipchak, and on 
the toath by the Jaiartes or Jihbon, on which 
river the Getio khan, 1^ Tomyria, had his 
cipitaL Kojend, Tashkand, Ootrar, Oyropolis, 
ud tbe neat aortheru 4^ Vke Alexandria cities 
were within tbe hoiuda of Gbaghtii. The 
Gete, Jut, Jit, and Taluhak noes, which oeen- 

Jy places amoagst tbe thirty-sit royal races of 
ndia, ate all from the region of Stkatai or 
Ghagbtai. Be}$ardi*g tltnr earliest miffrationa, 
the Fooraaas furnish certain points of ioforma' 
tioB and of their invasions ia more modern 
times, the histories of Mahmud of Ghizai and 
of Timur abundantly ac^ufunt us. From the 
mountains of Joud to the sboiea of Mekiao, and 
along the Gauges, the Jit b widely apnad ; 
white the Taskshtk name ia nowcoofined to in- 
acriptiona or old writioga. luqoiciea in ihair 
oritful hauntoi aid among tribw now beaciDg 
diffexeat Barnes, might doubtJeea Viog to lijcht 
their original designatioiii now beat known 
within the Iwiua ; wbik the Takshak or Takink 
may piobaUy be discovered is tbe Tajik, still 
i|i bis a^jcieDt haunts, the TranBoxiana ami 
Ohoraamla of classic authors, the Mawar-ool 
iiahr of Ihe Fersiana, thn Turan, Torkistfaui, or 
Tocbaristhan of native geo^aphy, the ^)ode of 
the Tadurt, Takshak, or Tomhka invaders of 
India, described in the Fooranas and existing 
iqaotiptions. The Gete bad long maintaiaed 
their independence when Tomyris defended 
tibeir libertjr itf[aitiat Cyius. Driven iu aueoes- 
aire wara aonia the Sntlq, they loi^s pnserved 
th^ »neiei|t habita, as dofMluvy, oavdiera, 
—under the Jit leader of Lahore, io pastoral 
communities in Bikauir, (be Indian desert and 
elsewhere, though tbey have lost aight of their 
early history. Tbe transition froib .|Matoral to 
agQouUurajl pursuits is but short, abd the dvs- 
eendaat of ibb nomadic Geto of Tcansoxiana 
ia now the. best husbaQdmao, oa tbe plains of 
Hinduathau- Dr. Jaeaieaoo proves satisfactorily 
that tbe Get«e and Tbracians wero the same 
people, and that itia very probable, if not cer- 
tain, that the Gets and Goths were, also the 
aame people. He also obsenrca that the Getm ami 
Scgrthiaiu were the aaate people. O4 thi aor- 

tbwn side of the Danube, opposite to ihe ter- 
ritory oooupied by the Scythians^ and in the 
ao){le forming a part of Thrace, thwe waa a 
aoiail nation in the time of UerodotfiBi who 
bore the name of Getse. Anoient writm dw- 
tiavuiah the Qetm from the ICasiagetn, by 
plaaiagtkeaa in ooiuirica lewite fton eacji 
other. Let pauptee qui hobiteit ee« vastea 
eoutr^ da h baute Asie, bornte au midi par 
V Inde, la Ghiue. et la Perse, a 1' orient, par 
la mer dn Japon, a P Occident par lea pleuves 
qui se juttent dans le Mer Caspienne et la Pont 
Enxin, au nord enfin pas la Mer Glaciate, sout 
connus sous te nom rulgsir et coUectif de Tar- 
tars Quoi qu' il en soit de 1* origine de 

oe nom dea Tatars, les Europ^ns, qui Tout 1^' 
gerement alt^re, e'en servent iodif^remment 
pour dea^ner une foule de nations ^ demi cin* 
lis^es, qui different beaucottp entn elles, Dana 
ce sense, je crois qu'il est bon de oonaerver ft 
cea nations le nom colleotif de Tisrtarea, quoKjuc 
eorrompu preferablemeot i oelui da Tariara 
qui paroft plus correet mais qui appartient a ua 
seul trlbn ne doit pa* servir h designer les au< 
tres tribus en general". The Mssagetse, Getas 
or Gothe, seem gradually to have advanced 
from their ancient limits into the more fertile 
districts of Asia, and all the lower and mid- 
dle pirta of tbe western boundary of tbe Indus^ 
went by tbe name of Indo-Seytbia. The Scy- 
thians, chiefly tbe Getm, had expelled tbe 
Greeks, who continued long after the retreat of 
Alexander, and re-peopled it with colonies of 
their own nation; The Getm were the braveat 
and moit just of aU theSoytbians,aiul oontnu- 
ed to preaerve this lAanatar in Uwir new posaea- 
sioas. They pursued the faunter'a oeoupntioii« 
living mont by the chase, though these avoca* 
tioosare generally conjoined in the early stagea 
of civilization. Asi was the term applied to 
the Gete, Yeut or Jut, when they invadedScau* 
dioavia and founded' Jutland. The Asi aeeoi 
to have been a northern race with several divi* 
siona some of which -appear to have beea 
conquered by tbe Egyplain king 8eti Hi. 
Colonel Tod considers that Scandinavia was 
occupied by a tribe cl the Aai. lie aayi that 
the Snevl or fluiones erected the celebrated 
temple of Upaahi in which they placed tbe sta- 
tues ofTbor^ Woden and Freya^ the triple divi* 
nitiet of tbe Scandinavian Asi. Uerodotua saya 
lh« Gete were thoists, and held the tenets of 
the souls immortality ; Amongst the Ohagtai 
priacea from the Jaxartes, are historians, poeta 
astronomers, founders of syatetfts of Ooveru- 
ment and religion, warriors, and great captaiua, 
who claim our respect and admiration. 

The Jut or Jal in the north and North-west 
of India an known as industrioua and auoeessful 
tiUera of tbe aoil^ and aa hardy yeomea, equally 
ready to take upnima audita ioUow Ih? plouKh> 
ThayfotD, pvfi^'lir^faSt'&ffi^ popub. 




tion'in Xndiii* On the Jmuna tbeir general 
anperioritj is apparent, and Bfaartpoor bears 
witness to their' merit*, wtiile on ibe Satlcj 
iclijjrtous porfannatioa anil -political atcen- 
dan^ aervfxt to giva •spirit to Uiair in(h»try 
and aetirity anil purpose to their eonrag;e. 
The Sikh an not n race, but a body of 
idq^tDiiisU, who take their name from the 
liindtwon), **'siUiiia*' to leavn, Sikk maaain^ 
a diaeiple* Vw a akon- ttmf , the Sikh rosti 
into a ftreat uatioB in: tim. eoontry lyiag be- 
tween XndU wd AfFft'*"*'^'*^ Duriojc the I «tt| 
and ITtb qBotnrin, Nanak and Gorind, of the 
Khatne raoa with Ibnr autau e di ag gun, ob* 
trined « few nanverkt to tlKir celigioua views 
amdbiC the J*t. pcasanto of Lahore and the 
soatlieni baafts of the 6^(itlr>j, Towards the 
dose d the tfithr centary, they grew to be a great 
nation, wthun infloeaee which extended from 
tbeKarakonitn moahtaina to tUe pliinsof Siodh 
and froai VtiUi to Peshawur. Their dooci- 
niors weft mdiidad between the *8th and 
SAtk paraltela ol north latitude, snd the 7l8t 
nd 17th nsridiansof east lowgitade. This 
tract eomiatabf brand plains^ slightly abora the 
sen level, or maaptBin rangfs two or three 
Bilra hUh. I'he fiHkh paptthttMi of tba Pnn- 
jsb hM commonly been' estinated at 600,000 
souls, but OiipUiin- Ouaaimghftin eonsidered a 
million would he the more oorrect nambei*. 
^he ti'tid in alt India is 1} miltion. la the 
ro<-m« Sikh territory, all mrt not of the Sikh 
idigion. The people and dependent nilers r>f 
Ladskh profess I^maie Bo^idhism, bet the 
Tibetons of tskardo, the DiiHoo df Gilghlt 
and Kuhka and Himba of the rueged motin- 
tains, are mshomcdiint of -the shla iwct. The 
peopTfe nf KAhmir, Kfshtwar, I^htmbur, Pokhi 
ami nf the hilltf sonth and west to the satt raage 
and the Indos^ are irioBUyi<(wiffil>^hottwdans, 
as are likewise tUa trtbea df- -PdriMwar And nf 
the valley of the IndiM smiChwsrd^, as also the 
inhabitants of'Moo1lsA,aml< of AtH plains north- 
ward as fur as Find-dAriuifkhsA; ViiiTneeot and 
■ptoalponr- The J>eopl* of (he Illmnleya east^' 
ward of Kisbtwar and Bhimbtf^ are hindna of 
the brahminical ftitth, with: sote* btiddhftt'fcfW 
kmtes to the norA and tnrtie ntahoniednn fami- 
Bet to the southwint: The' J»t df the Manjlia 
and of the Mal^a dtslriets, in the Punjab tnri. 
toty, are mostly SAfh, kut pfrhnps not orie- 
thinl,ofAe whole poptilMiAii between the 
JTdcbiin and ^umna, biN; *» y^i, embraeed the 
t'mets of Ilfanak and Oivtfid; the nkkei't«o-. 
thirds befng »till eq^alfy iRVWiiH bMween maho^ 
nedsuism and brahtninisfn. ' fitost 'of ,t^e 
modem Bikh in no w«y Mf^nTate from their 
tribes and' iire known s^ J<ii'; tiv Khtftri or brnh- 
man' Bikh, one menAer of n farfiily being 
frcqoently ■ Sing'h while o^ers nre not; 
Tho writtm character in use is trailed Gurti- 


mukhi. It is the Devanagaif, in form, but 
with different powers to the letters. The Sikh 
are the ofdy sect whose religion teaehds then 
not tt/ smote tobacco. They have, hont«ver, nb 
objfwtkm to other nerooties, opium' snd bhang 
aud snuff tskir^ is not ao 'common.' Sitaok- 
'n^ was first prabibHed by the tenth Gam, 
Qovind Sing^b, whostf chief objeefeioh-fo it np- 
pears to hsre been that the habit waa''pnina> 
liveaf.idleneks,.a«' people would sit'aaioking 
and do iwtbii^. . > • ■ : 

Th« Jul} rncfl hare sptfead alnng therbanks of 
the Jnmoa, in Hurrtana, in the N. West pnrri^v 
ces, Bhinipar, Dholpnr, nnd Btlniiiir,8odeoiMr 
of chnm aoeording to -'Wibon, elnlnl to har^ 
come from Ghnzni and tbe Eir ■ Wast, -mhiki- 
others claim to be desoended frott the Yadn. 
The mjah of Bhortpore is s Jat> There are' two 
sub-divisions of them, the Dhe md Hele, or 
Knch-hade and Beswale but there are nany' 
tribes. They are partly of Uie Sikh, partly 
hiadii, and partly c^tbe mahomedan retieiian'.' 
The J at race ta regarded by 3fr. (tempb^l a» 
b3.loBgittgto the Arian family, btit to have' ap-* 
peered in India Ister thnn the hrohminiral 
hindus. The Jat nre hiadu m nndi hf thnr 
speeoh.laws^and naRncr8.bttt"ha«tf80fliefgvnip> 
matiod forms of apeedi not to be traoad itf the' 
earlier brahminical writhigs. . The Jat (rSMfs 
pressnl the most perfeet example of the ddmo- 
cTHtto and more property Indo-Oermanic raets. 
They vonstitate over a ji^reat part of India, 
upper aad doitilnapt stratum of societyt aatt 
have, to a great degree given tlieir oa^ tonfr 
and eolout to many provinoea. Zii great pailr 
of Jut land, the gtent body of tbe ptopb 
aitt'Jat, and rrtatn iheirorigioal liistibot^s^'in 
thetgr^test nurity, Itt^Ie modifted-bf, modem 
bnlimlHieal laws. In the west etMtttty tktsr 
mMCis pr<yAe>An«Bd J3it, hot inHhe Pai^Bb 
and in ibc -east eotfnlry, it hds ^« 4flrQg 
Bonhd of JSim ■ Writing ' ^erteraHy^ the Tht 
are' Ot* mahomedati ' Nsli^on in the- 
whst, and 'ft* Sifldh r of ttia Sikh sect , in gti^at 
pnrt of the Portjab, and in eottie SM^e cffthe 
Irindui'Mlh' ill the east' and near ^Bfnirtpore, 
assimitaliWgltt Iheir dress to thrir reltgiitia 
cbnfVcres. Tiiit has impy^ssed mAny iftth tbo' 
bellef'that these /eligitftiMth diffiir from e^oh^ ' 
other also in race, but by' ttadag this popu- 
l8ti6n, the AilAirences Vit fhetyp«'miippisar and ' 
the one-Axtnme- ia 1iMiti4 Iff '!■«%«• ttfto. tlf* : 
other. There Tnay, hoSrerer, be a dMfereiit rac* ' 
in thfl we^t, and thosi^ nn the weatr aie paaloml ■ 
and predntoh', while (vtptain'B«i40n nwmione 
thflt a wsndering predMorf Mb6 bearing their 
niime are found ^h* 'llio wWWrti'* parts 
Oenttnl Aifia, WlkWl Candahrtr, Herat, Mbshod. ■ 
The Jat of the > tower Indu«; appear to be 
of the same race as tba Bli^nii and are atmost 

black. Digitized by VjOOglC 



The Jilt are not fowid in AfidiAniiUn ; bat, 
jn ItetadiiBtini to praoeedinfr ^astmrdt by tha 
Bfjitin P«M md other ruutev, there, tb^ succeed 
Ihe Tpjik end Drhmr of tbe met of Afghs- 
nhMi and the rieintty of Gattdiihar, mid occu- 
py the plaint and the bUty oonntry* tleaccnding 
into the plaint, eprtad to the ngjk% and left 
along the Indua and its tribataiieat oecnpjii^ 
Upper Sindh on one aide, and the Punjab, on 
the other. But in the Pwijab, they ant not 
found in any numbert noith of tbe.tialt nnyie, 
and in Uie Mnnabiyii* they are nholty uoknown 
whi(^ would aeenl'to ahov that the Jal did 
not enter India by that exlreooe nortbnrn route. 
Also tbej«t does tt'it occupy lowerSiedh and they 
•M not found la Gnxerat .The Jat is -hovever 
the prentHing. popubition-in all 'Upper Sindh 
nnd tfadr tongfne is the lasgnagc ofthe ooan^ 
try. They were once the Htistooracy of the 
land, bat Uttaly haT<e been dominateit over by 
other races tend tlius have - loat sorocwhiit of 
Ihrir position as the higher . clasaes uf the 
aoeiely. In theiaouth and vest of the Futtjeb, 
too, they liare long been subject to raabomedan' 
rtilert. But latterly, aa (he Bthb, tfasy became 
rulera of tbft whole Punjab and of. the country 
iM^ond aa the upper Jamna, in all which 
temtoriea they are itill in every way the domi- 
nant peculation. Over great- traete of- tliit 
comtry, three vUlagea out of four are. J'^,.and 
in Mdi J»t TtUajEe, this raea eenatitnte per- 
haps two thirds of the entire conunuaity, the 
remainder being low oatte predial slavct, with 
a- few tnders and artizans. The Jst extend 
continuously fvoro tbe Indus -ovor Uajputanth. 
The great aeat of Rtjput population and an- 
cient power and glory it on tbe Ganfcce • but, 
unoe vanquiahed there' by nahomwlana, the- 
chief Bajpul hoQses hare retired .into the. com- 
paratirety unfruitful ceuntriea now known aa 
Bajputasah where, however, the Jut ia the most 
nsmenuii put of the people They afaare the 
landi vith the Ifeena, the reroaina ef th« 
Imhnaa popnlatiMi and the dominant B«ub^ 
Iwt they haw the l«rg*at share of the- eoitiva- 
tion. Tbe northern part of R^ijpotanfth was 
partitioned into- smell Jat repnhliea before tlw 
Bajput were driven btck from ijoodiab and 
the (?«ngea. The tontbem and more liiliy partt 
nf Cajputennh aMi not Jat, but are occupied by 
the lUiBir, Mitena and IMiil ; butin Unlwa, 
Bgain,' tHU Jat are nntneroua and teem lo tlutre 
that provinee with the Rajput and Kunbi> Thoae 
of Belachiitanrare described by the people of 
Candahar. as fineraUilelie men, with handsome 
features but rather dark. Those in Upper 
Shuih, np the-eeurae of the Jndut, and. in the 
sonUi ««at«rD Punjab, are foe tbe moat part 
nf^tba-mthomadan ijidigioa.- They bave been 
hMtg tiybjeot to fonign rule and seem to be 
lonwrliat inferior to their uneonTerted brethren. 

In all the eMt of fieluchistan, the Balnefa* «t 
but a later vrave and upper stratum. Thetw, 
about, the lines of eommnnieatiim between In- 
dia mid Westpm Asiai in tlie proviiKvs of 
Sewestan and luieh Oaadava^: the Jut forai 
probably the lai^st portion of the agricultural 
population and claim to be the onginal owoem 
of the soil. In the west, advancing tkrongli 
Kajputanah we meet the Jat of Bhurtpora sad 
Dbolpore ; Q-walior was a i»t fortress belonginir, 
as is supposed by Mr OainpbeU^ lo (he Dhcrf- 
poPe chief. They dot not .<ga aaui^ furthtf 
south' in this direction. From- Ufs point, tli^ 
may be uid to oeenpy tbe banks of the Jumna, 
sU the way to the hiltsi - ^ JMhi territory 
is piindptdly n Jrt eonntfy and from Agra 
upwards, the flood oPihatrace U» pasacd ib* eonsidenble nnmbors<aKl-fonn8 « larptn 
part of the population of the Upper. Ooab, in 
tbe distfiets of Akighur, IfMtit end Muzafar- 
nagar. They are juat known over the Giinjevv 
in the Mortdabad district, but they omoot be 
said to hare eroteed that river in any numbers. 
To sura up, therefore, the Jut oouutry extenda 
on both aides of the Indus from Ii» 26° or 27^ 
N. up to the 8fdt Benge. If, from the ends of 
this line, two lioea be drawn nesrly at rigJit 
angles to the river, but inclining south, ao m 
to reach L»L or %i° N.- in lialw*, and U 
39" on tbe fiimna» toaa/lo uielud^ Uppei 
Sindh, Harwar, part of Malwa on one aidcw aad 
Lahore, Umrittur and Uraballa on tbe otlier, 
then connect the two eattero points by a lilia 
which shall include Dhelpore, Agra, Atigbur 
and Herat, and within all that tract i he Jat rac« 
eUinologically predominalet, excepting only tb« 
hills of Mewarand the ndgbbourbood, still lielit 
by aborigiiMl tribes. Advancing eat'warJa 
into tbe Fui^ab and Kajputanah, we find 
hiodo sad nabomedan Jat much mixed Hnd 
it often happene that one-half of a villatie or 
one branoh of n family era niabemedans and 
tbe other hindus. Fiirthev east, jnahomednn 
Jat beeome rarer and rarer, and l»ih about 
Lahore and all that part of tbe Punj«b rIouk 
the line of the npper Suttcg and Jumna, tha 
great- mats remain UDDOUverted* In the Punjab 
tbe Jat all take the desigDation of Siitg'h, and 
dress somewhat difftirently from the otdinarj 
hindu J«t ; but for the most part, they only 
become formally Sikhfl^ whfxe they take service 
and that change makes little difference i;i tlieir. 
Iatts and soeiiil relations. The Jat of Dehli, 
llhurtpiir, &C. are a very fine race and bear 
tbe old hindu names of Mull and such like 
And nre not all Sing'h. in j{Djpata»ab,r 
the.Jrft are quiet And subroisjBive cui^ivatora. 
They have now long been autyect lo an alien, 
mie nnd are probably a good deal utermiKcd 
by coolaet with the Meeoa and others. 


Jet SiDgl»^oJ. 





8«tlrj mmf pmbriily be Uken m tW but n- 
]H««wUtive ty|p« of tbv ncO' Compimd to Mr- 
tlieni nam, tiMsy an ibric : thay mn tall, Utgt 
aud Wirfl fa«UirMl, wuk.plwUrul and hmghttttiU, 
fioe tttih and a very plenuul lopm «ipres«iwi 
uf counteiiaiice. 'ili^ am Inrgsr arid taUer 
tkau the Aijglam Patbao with tba uppw part of 
tbtt- botly aspaoiaUy trrll deTelopeil but not «o 
aiottt limbed or qaite to robust, tkry an a &ifl, 
jwautrkMbly baodsomoi raae of inau^ Mt Motdkd 
bjr amy noe iu Au*. la «oafagi9^ •■'Wyir, and 
iwUtaiy qualities, ttiey ckocI Ike more beautirul 
noB-Paibaa JMesof Uw.uonbfira^illi aad tb«y 
we aa eaeritetia in ib» pewefid' irta m in tbat 
of war. liiqr ai«go«d ouUii^ia, bard wort* 
img and thrifty ; ikey let Jittle land lie waste 
ami pay tbeir laad tax piMetiia%j Tbrir mo- 
mm iroric aa wctt at tbe »en aad oabe tbon* 
•elvaa genermUy aiofaU Tbey ara nut iaaroed, 
tbougU uwiy «Mn aiid wnw wtviien can read 
aad write, 'Ibey have a graat . fraying iftei 
fixeti owiienhip iu tbe leiL Tbey are osmq* 
tially Bgrieidlunat, seldom gardeners, and to 
Uiudiutaa an never pastoraL Tbey breed 
cattle birgely, and eoBKtimes rear camels wlien 
tha oututtry is suitable, and in Jat countrisa 
betk ontiaary oarts and large merosntile 
goaa am usudly pleatiful, and ai waggoneni 
Ibey not nnfieqiKUtly carry tbeir grain and 
other prodnce lo dictant marketa on tbeir own 
aeoouat. Tfat Jat formerly dweltin Ssjpul»aa 
ill republics, snob as, iu the tioteof the (xreska. 
w«ra alluded to as demoeratie imtitutione, aad 
•ne nseoguisnl r^ublicau state, that of f booi 
*r Uamj, came down to the present dsy aad leas 
tbe Jaet ree^aised r^bliean atste in Ifldia* 
It waa a Jat repabUe, aad gave tbe chiefs who 
fottnded tbe states ol Eeiialah, Nabab, Jbseed, 
fcew The kerrito^ o( the Fbeolkain n«e 
was MOfcaiaed 1^ the ]IiiU»b and treated 
■Ms«Bt the .proteatal Sikh Sutes, bat bas 
noeMllT bean bnmgfat under tbe (rencral rule 
of British dominion. £nry Jat village, hiWr* 
ever, ia, onaamaileealr, odemoarHtio re^blkA, 
•very man having Ua own separate and divided 
Amn of tbe eidtivated bad. Tbe union in a 
joint vQlaxe eoaunaaily is rather the poltlioHl 
iMi<« of the ootaBMne, so wcU known in.Eu- 
npe, than a codnaM eojoyment of property. 
k father aad son -may eulttvale in otimsBoo, 
but eommeasaliiy gots no further. The vil- 
lage site, the wssto lands and grazing 
gioo^aand, it saay be, one . or two other 
Ihmsi bdong to the coamune, and tbe mem* 
hera of the -eonuinne have,' in these, 
ri|^ influomon. For all the pnrposes of 
criiivatioo, iho lOMinder of (he kod 
is in every w^ soparalo individual property. 
The government is nofc patriarchal, but a repre- 
leatative oummiinal council or puuchayat. All 
Uk Jat see sttbdivided into anny Ct«utai and 


Tribes, after tbe uiual fashion of tbo pellet 
of tbo Aiyou or Indu-Germanie atock, and tho 
uansl fissUen is lo marry into another Gani. 
The Jaft.faan little of tbe bindu eeramooial 
sivieUets, andiu Fuigiibi regiouuts, tbey mess 
(reely like Kwopeaus, and have then (wo or 
three menls-a day eomCortab^. The Jat, Bsjput 
and their oengeuen are branokea of ooie great 
stock. BeabaisBs of Kcshmir and t4ie froaftier 
bills aie hindus in an earlier stage of bmbml- 
aioal denraiofsemeat. The Jat eounkry is just 
each as wOidd be :oocupied by a large streiai 
of pQOptesBStting kbsongh tlie Bolan iu 
-Lst. 2^ Of 90« aoctfa, and the Biiipnt a« 
nnged . im a semi oiiaibir form jnHind the 
eaaieinwid nertfaaruMid aooth odgo of tin 
Jot' aiea, tbe mats oi them oecnpyinif tho 
riohor-valleyDfthoQaaKCs. Mr.Gam[beU^ 
jeoture ia (liat the Ba^ut ax« an earlier warn 
from tbe aame source as Ifao Jat wlio eeme ia 
by the sdne' route, have farther, advanced end 
beenoomphitelvbinduised, whibthe Jat havd 
coma in behud thesn. Pnnjabi ia.tfae bn* 
cuage apokea bv tbe Jat, but whieb ia Upper 
Simlfa is e&Ucd Jati-Oui or the Jat league and 
Ur. aXasBon ealb> that df BcUiebistan and 
Sindh Jctki. It is am Indo*Germamo tongue 
allied to thC'SnnBcrit. -Xo its main gramnsatieal 
aad esaaatiai Ibaturss it is not widely different 
from the Hinds of tho Us^at aad ■ other 
Hindustaai peopb. It is mo of the asoat 
praerit of Indba ternacubra, The Jat, Jit-, 
Jtt, Jut or JhLt, partly hinclu, partly sikb, 
and partly mohomedan, thps occupy the 
North West and bonbriog proviocei, also 
Uie Punjab, and Siadb. They all refti to 
ibe west of tbe ludna aad to Ghaaid aa 
their orifiinsl aeats, and the Dbe or Paehado 
reached India from the Panjab about tho 
miiidle of the IBth cmitury. The other avotioa 
is tbe Ueb or Dta«ab. .'The Jat seem to han 
cone throogb the Bolsn :pass, oieuj^d- the 
high pastoial bada aboat Qnettah and theana 
dMeended iato the fdiiaa -vhioh tb^ still oo< 
oupy> Tbe Jat u gnat agricaHural tiibo 
in uie Panjab aad in tite ^>jab parlance^ 
Jat and umtndar or eultivalor am synonymous. 
There are no Jat in Kashmir or within the 
bills. The Asdt tribe of Jst dwill in Panipot, 
and Sooeput. Ibe Aolatiia Jat, in Paniput, 
claim to be shove other Jat by having had tbo 
titb of malek or king eouferred on them. Tbo 
race, however,as.spnad from Herat, Kabul and 
Kandahar, tbrentthout the Fniyab, doao the 
Indus into Kaeitand Gandbava, and castaanU 
to tbe Jsiana ami Gangca, u the. samr^aud 
wbererer apreari, tbey retaiaasliabet of thoic 
own. Ur. ilasaoB abo fsiprda than as 
deaoendants of the Getm, who, bo ai^flt 
once possessed the whole of tho oountriee isk- 
oedUlely east wdo.^j^f 1^.*^ ^ 



■amladart; or cultivators of Uie aul, al JeU, as 
throughout Katihi, are Jet, wbo ihem aeldom 
maved abroad bui otn baliooks «ufl nem uulete 
BriiMd.-A Jet.mtiy getteraUj b« sBBBihalfiiakod 
-^waMonii'Uaa bnUock^udforaidably-armad 
m%h matoUDak and avon), aud to thiB north 
»iKt «r Ktoli Oaudhin ; «a. alao ia Herat, 
K^nd^har, and Kabri, they are, be saya, iben aa 
iktMrtut artazaus, Hkts ^paiea. .Inthh Fuhjab, 
ibeyi«ve bot Caaiifl. west of the Jilam; bat eait 
o(> that rtrer the Jet otlliivAors uab iragiEana. 
Xh« Jet kia been sq kmi; settled 'in -Kaoh 
GiKuJhkiva, as to appear iba -:;ab6rtgtu^ 
AiQOOgBt their uomerour BubdiTnidna -%rb 
tiie Kaioni, ICohir, Uampi, Taaia, and Abrak 
2tc-nuu-^|C* of widowB ia pttmhted.. Acooid- 
ittg M> Mbhdoi Lai, tlia S k ■ Jat are polyaa- 
•drone, add oiit brother talte hU biotherVirife 
■kvA in u^uiK -Cluo- hs tfioat to aUude to the 
diuatom oi Ouraa, aUo writtea kano aeemingty 
StotA " Iwaoa," to cauae to do, thia being the 
'term given amSda]; the Jatr^ Gonjur, A.btr, and 
other rafes and tribes iu weaterti Hiadastaa to 
CQUCubinage gaoerally ; but mote eapeeiatty u> 
marriagea of . widows with the -brolber of a de- 
ceased huaband- This practice ia knbwa io 
■the eastward by the name of - O^rburee, in the 
Deccan of But' bee And, in other provlttcea, 
h}f the terotOhureeoba; and is followed amond; 
-thhie cbiiaea, -bat it not very openly coiifcesed 
<Tai an^Dg .tliaaa. aa some H^gr^ of diacredit 
ja auppoaed' ib altadi to it. It ia only yDunger 
brokheiia .who fonn tbeae coimeetioaB, elder 
-bkotbcra bnng prohibitad firooa marrying their 
younger brothera widows, but among lh« i\l 
■of Uaihi even this ia not prohibited. This 
.{uadtice baa been eommon among atveral oa- 
tioiia of, the Bast.. Tba JeWa. followed it 
•«tid io Egypt it wai admitted for a childlesa 
widow to. co-babi& with a brothtir of the 
decbaaed busbatad, : "Wliwi the laws of Menu 
vtrd ea^cted, .Garao oppean to have been a 
fBCa^ilxcd mifcitttttaa, but as ih not uriusual 
•with the Institiilsa,fthara.ia much ooiitradiotiioH 
between tba snastmnBts ntatiog to it. . I'am a 
^iuideratilM|«f<aU.3lhe-paaai^;ea ou ibe sub- 
ject, it apfaaas Uiat failure of iasua was the 
poiut oa which tho legality turned* He wbo 
,WBS be^otteta, accoriiitg to law, oil the wife of 
A niao .deceaaad, or ioAfo'ueat, or disordered, 
after tlie due authority pven to her, ia called the 
lawful sob of the wile (Ch. IX., v. 176.) From 
itbefaiiof Draupadi marryiug tlia fiTe Pandoo 
ln)othec«, we leaia that polyandry most bav« 
■pMtalUd anoagak oae of th» xaeea of that 
•-period ;'and if polyandry, the practice of 
%>«^a6 was, DO doubt, not uucommou : indeed, 
!thft «oit|ular of the Mahabharata, Yyasa, was 
iti^lf 'appmited io raise up offspring to bis 
-deoeasad brother. There is perhaps no dr- 
wiiutuun Tkieh M dttongiy ahom the North- 

ern desce&t of the deified heiwa, of thS 
Mahabharata, aa tbia mArrtege. -HeibdotM 
tidls us ihat the pnetioe previailed amoBK 
the iiomaiUo . S^tliiaiis, as it does at pre* 
seist amoag tba Motia. Tbo praetiee is 
•dofted aim by the Nsir of MahiMar. b«- 
tweeik whom and die people of Ibe - Himalaya 
Wilson traces obsoure Vestiges of a ctm- 
neotion. Atnoiigat the Jat, (itoojur and Ahir, 
■ehildnn bstt-o Cunao an oonaiderad t^tiinale, 
and Jire entitled to iuberitanca acoOrdiB|;ly; 
GbAdren begotted by the Women previous to 
Omtao, exceptinihe case of fraternal Ouraoi 
Are koown by tihe itamtf-of Kudhelura, and d» 
not itiherit the l^ropeny of tbe fHtber-in-law. 

CapUia Peatans tells us that iti Sibdb, tbe Jat 
Kke all the tribee in tbe Stddb eouatries, are di- 
v<ided iato iBnumerable' aub-dMsloas ealkd 
" Kontn" Mid are there « hud-woiting race, 
occupyiuit themsel?t» in waring camds, 
feeding flocks, or cultiTatibg the soil. They 
are invariably found in larfte communities, 
ofien living in tempomry Imis or wauitd.** 
and migrate all over Sindh and its confines, 
as sbephenla, iu search of pasture. Where this 
ia not tlie case, lliey are farm semnta 
either of the Biludii chi^s or wealthy ssmin- 
dara, who repay tbt^r labour with a modieufla 
of the pfodHce. 'I'he Jut in Sindh, are a 
quiet inoffenaive oinss, aitd exeeedinyly Ta- 
luable BubjMta. Their womeu, are, throughout 
the eouiii^, noteil for tlivir beauty and, 
to their or^it, be it also epoken, fur tlietr 
chastity. Tbey w&rk as hard as the men, aiHl 
ttie labour of tending, drivinfir home ikeit 
flocks, milkiilg the catUe, Ssc isfsirly divided. 
TIte Jut are ^t;ry numerooe and form a large 
dirision of tl^ popuUcJoa ef Sindh, ttiough 
aeldoio foumi in iti towua,*: being dispened 
over the-whole fn4« of the eouotry parUvularly 
eastward to ttie desert tnu:tr- which separate* 
Siodh from Cttleb, kuorwhaathe Eunn on which 
this tribe rear -large docks of camels, besides 
the Tut. There are other pastoral aadpeaceabia 
olasees of mahomedan penDasianf. sudi aa 
the Khosa in Vppw SindW^h Lobana im 
the tteka, and emtgrauta fnm the Furtjab, 
wbo have in many itiaiauess- become amdva- 
mated with the people of the oonntry. The 
Khosa becoine a predatory tribe on the eaatero 
oonfiiiea of Siwdbj verging townrds tbe CutoU 
territories, where 'Uniputs are located : they 
are very ti-onblesome. 'Viuj are alscea tho 
eastern boundaries as wanderii^ herdsmen. 
The Daood Pntra who inhabit |ireuendly the 
country of Ihat naneia the aerth .are to be 
met with in various parts of Biiuth. The 8u- 
mah are Jut though th^ are- geneiaHy known 
by the former title. Such alao ar» the Maehi 
and numerous other subdivisions of the Jut 



•rptrable rrom the cuinel a* tha ATali from IiU 
kontt. iu Arabia 4 Ibejr an MfariaUy OHtntl 
drirws and fceden, and tra oeMuUeU on 
etngr oeoawoa wlMie-thft bMlih or .«ffieievcy 
ofUiu uvalaable anioud isiii qihastion- ilie 
StA of Siadk and Kbeh Gandkava Ittn becont 
■ahomodaM. Aocording la Ur. Maaaoi^ tbe 
Jaiki ia evcvywheie the lanfuiiiie of the Jut, 

ABo6niti% to dietioiuiies, Jril^niteiu a raor, 
a Uibe^ and ia Upper Smii -m Jut ibeaM • 
rearer *t cmnele or bldok wUlor^or a sbvpberd 
ill oppouiion. ta a husbiuidaan. . lujj^te fuitjab 
gcBcraliy, Jul meMU a viltatceraiHi bu^Mmd- 
Mn in fippotttiotk to.aa.arctat or bBiulicr»f44- 
man. 'fae Uirk or Virk. ia od« tS tb«. moat .du- 
tiBraisbed of ibe O^at irilias* ,Tba i^t (Gbete ? 
•wiYoe^hi?) «lw emigrated teoiaUp^r Aaia, 
■It noir sprrad orer the i' Labore tnd 
oa Utt banka of the Junoa, and tin Biiutdb, 
Ck— rh, Viuraildi ChhiMheb. bidboo* Kurekji 
or Knreal XSondal, &C., are jKt auWdiviaioiM 
in tb« Fuiijab. The Jat in the nerlk aed 
v«at of India are idduDtrioua aud euoceaafbil 
tilkn of tbe loilt'Bnd hardy yeomen, equally 
FMify to fake up arme a* io follow ihe pluogb. 
On the Snmrn* their petieral saperiority ie 
Bppareat* auJ 'Bbaripoor bore witneee to ilidr 
mntiu. •Some of Um Jatareaaid to be dea- 
coidaHtaof tha Kabkaraf the SmU R»n^^ 
As iiMlaacee of- the ufetrow and coufuscd 
sbrta of (wr kMnrla<%a reiarding. the pe^s 
of India, it 'iiwy be aiqiiUuBod tfaat Ibe Birk 
Or Viik, o*e of the ttoit diatmauubid 
tribes of Jut, ii admitted amoun tkc Cbalodk 
Sbjputa -by Tod ■ (i. . 100). Further, tbe 
fimiUy of Onerkot ia Siodb. is staled by 
Tod (Rdjaatban, i- Hi^ to be Franiar 
or Fowar. irbile tbe empai-or humayooD'A 
ehra&icler'laikaof the fwllowtr»'(* e. brethern) 
of that eUief aa beitifc Jut TJiceditoiB 
of ike Jooraal of the GM^pbiml Society 
(liV. SdT, note) derive Jut frim the Saiiwrit 
Jyeat'ha okl) «iH0ie»t, aftd m make the Mim 
cqntvalent to aberi)tinea; but4bi« etymobjty 
pabapa too hutily aeta aside tho auffioteutly 
eUaUiftkcd bote of GMeaitd Taeelii eoiitcra- 
tioBS, and tbe euNMnstanon of Tiaiin'e warfare 
with JeUefa ia Central Alia. Outttani, or 
gatwara, but more correctly, Guul' binir» aM a 
toibe of the Jat rao* who bold vtilaftee io 
Qohana, (whcte they are caUed Aolauea, after 
iMr obicf toiru), in ^oneeput Bangur, and in 
tbe Doab oa the oppuaite aide of tbe Jumna. 
Thtj traOB their origiu from Oliuini,- from 
which plaoe thry were acc<»ipauied by the 
bhat Bajwaen, and the blaok-emith Budea— 
all of wkoie deaoenduila . are now liviag sad 
engaged in tho oeeapatioa of their Ihthera la 
tha viUagea of tM Qnnl'hwara fratar* 
lily. Among tbe Labia and Jofaya Baj- 
pooto of the ladiau deahit, wher6 Lh^ 

fouoded their first capital. Derrawitl, ataoy 
(rom eoupalaioB embraoed the aiabooMdaii 
faith ; on irhieh occaaiou, ho aBy%. ttwy 
aeauoied the namo of Jat, at which: at imH 
twenty diftwtt -offfcta an enumented 'in tha 
Yadtt ohronickB. 

Ths Jat Uiag oontiniied aa a powerful coin- 
DiHaliy on the'enst bank of tbe Indus and in 
IbeFut^b. and we bara tka moat inteniatiikg 
reeonia oE - them iu tbe history of Midimui^ 
v^hoee proareii tlie; checked iu a manncc 
unptecedented iu the eunala of eoatinental 
.warfare. It was-iu 416 of the Ilr^ra (A..D. 
'l(>2rt> that Mahmad murehed an army a^aiiifli 
the Jut, ttbo'had harrasaed and insulted him 
nn the rclarn Jrom his last apeditKm afajuit 
SRorashtra. . ■ ■ 

The Jat tbni, as now, iahidiiftd tha 
oonnlry on the., borders oif UooUan.. drag 
the rirer that rune by the mouilsiaa of 
Joud. When Mnhmud reiiched MooUau, 
finding tbe Jnt cwtatiy defended b; 
rivers, he built filieen hundred boats, eAch 
armed with six i/on, spikea projeotuitc from 
their prows, to prevent their beinf; boHrded t>y 
tbe eafifty, expert iu this kind of warfarr. la 
each boat he placed tweuty archm, and some 
with fire-balU of naphtha to bum ilie Jat feet. 
The monarch having deterniiiieJ oa tbtir ex- 
tirpation, awaited the result at MooUaii. Tha 
Jat sent their wives, children, and effects to 
Stnd Siigur, and tauoched four thousandi or, as 
others say, eight thoiisabd boats well armed to 
meet the Gbuzniana. A terrible conflict ensued, 
but the pri-jtiilfBg spikea aunt the Jit boats 
while others were act oti' fire. Vew escaped 
from tlus scene of terror ; aiid thtt^e who did, 
met with the mui<e eetere fate of- captivity." 
Many doubtless did escape ; and-it is most 
probable that tbe Jat communities, oh whose 
overthrow the state of Bikaner was fbu&ded; 
were rcmnHnis of this very warfare. 

Biill the Jat maiiAsined himself is tbe Pun* 
jab, and till the midule of the tiineteenlh 
Century the aiost posFctful aiid Indcpeiident 
prtoca of India was the Jat piincs of 
Laborr, holdiog domienon over the identical 
r^giona where, the Yucbi coiouistd in the fifth 
cfntury, and where the Yadu, driven /roia 
G-biiziri, established themselves on. (he ruios of 
the Tak. The Jat cavalier retsina a portion of 
Ills Scytbic manacrs, and preaerres tbe use of 
the chukra at discus, the weapon of thq Yadu 
in the remote age of the Bharafc, Acoorditig to 
Co1oBelTod,the ladu-Bhatti priocesi »bentb«y^ 
fell frosi their rank of Bigpoob, assumftd that oif 
Jat, who are aSauTMily a jnijunra of tbe 
Hajpoot atad Yuti, abraneh of the. great Getie 
rase. Though reduced from Iba rank they once 
had amongst tbe * thirty-six rayal races,' they 
appear uem to Jiaje /^jigfi^djl^g^ lore of 

157. " ' ^ 



indapendeiioe, wliieh they contested with 
C^M in their originid hanats im Sngdiaot. 
The nane of the Cmwaatua of the Jst, who 
abtodooed his ideugh to lead his ouiBtrymm 
ms Ohootimua. Taking adTantaga of the 
smnguinary cLril wars amongst the auoaessors of 
Aruoys6i, they ereclad petty eastles in the vil- 
lages (whose- Lands they cultivated) of Thnoo 
and Siusini, aad soon oblsinad •<the diatinetion 
of Kunfik, or * robbers/ a title which they were 
■At siow to merit, by their inroaib aa far as the 
B^al abode of Ferokhssr. The Syeds, thai in 
power, oommanderi J«y Siam of Amber to«ttaek 
them in their stronghold*, and Thoon and 
Siuaini wen sinmUaneously inrasted. But tJie 
Jhiy even in the very inEiney of their pownr, 
erinoed the same obstinate akiU in defnididg 
mad walla, which hi Utertiices gained them so 
maoh eeM»rity. in ad the aneieot oatalognes 
' of the thirty-six royal races of India the Jit has 
a plac*, though by-uone is be ever styled ' lUj- 
poot ;* nor does a ilajpoat internuo-ry with 
a Jit. 

In the ?unjftb they etill ti^in thieir andent 
name of Jit. On the Tumna aad Gunge* they 
are atyled Ja', of whom the chief of Bhuitpoor 
is the most eonspieuous. On ihe Indus and 
in Saurashtra they are termed /itt. The 
greater portion of the husbaudmen in Hhj'hs- 
thanarejit; atid there are numerous tribes 
beyond the Indus, now proselytes to the inaho- 
raedsn religion, who derive their origin from 
this race. 

The kiogdom of the great Gete^ whose 
capital was on the Jaxartea, pieserved its in- 
tegrity and-aame from the pmod of Gyrus to ^ 
the .fourteenth century, when it n-as converted 
nahomedsMsm to Herodotus inrorias us that 
the Qeta were tbeists and held tite tenet of the 
soul's ioiBiortalily ; and De Gut|;aes, from 
Cuinese authorities, assitrU that at a very early 
peri^ they had embr<iced the religion of Fo 
or Boodha. 

The tradltioDS of tba JUfiMBt the regions 
west of the Indus as the cradte of the race, aad 
make them Of Tadu extraction ; tlius corrobo- 
rating the annals of the Yado, which 
lelate their migration from Zabulisthan. Of 
the first migracion from Central Asia of this 
not within the In<)Qs, we have no record : it 
might have been simiillaneons with the THk- 
■hac. from the wars of C\ rua or bis ancestors. 

The svperiortty of tlie Ghineae over the 
l^nrka vatued Gbengix Kiwn to turn his 
arma asafaist the Nomadic (reta of Uawernwl-* 
Nehr (Transexiana), deseended from the Yuehi, 
and bred on the Jihoon or Oxas, whenoe they 
bad extended themselves along the Indns and 
even Ganges, and are there yet found. These 
Qete had embraced the religion of Fo- 

The Ba^i tribe^ inhahitiag the 4iitnet 
el Bagar, betweea the 8onth Weat bonlszB 
of UariaM aad the Satlq, •are said ■ to 
hsve been Rajputs but are .also supposed to -be 
Jat. Then is a robbar r«c« of this name 
setUed in Halwa. The Jak o£ Mewar diiige 
to 'his patrimonial estate. In. the aeoond Mab- 
ratta war, the Jat of Binirtpote wen iaoliaed 
to-eide-with'iTeswatttKaoHoNcaT: thatfoitcea* 
is on the bonders «f the desert of Kajpotana, 
and was invested by Lord IjJre in iMa. and 
afker eeveml determined assaults, made mtfaouk 
captariag (be plaoe, the Uiqah sued for tense, 
hi 19ftS, however, during ttie finnnese war, Ui« 
Jat, pu^ Up by the b«^ that their arod-fOTt 
wae impregnable, i^alavbwir down.tiie anger 
of the ladiia OuVmnwDt, and .thn Xnt mm 
taken by storm on Ihe lath Jaoaary ISM. 
When besieited by LoVd Lake in iSOS, with 
10,000 i^ularaeldten, four determined aesautta 
www made on January 9th and 3Snd and Fe- 
bvuarf SO and £ 1, but tb eaeh instance nputsed, 
though at the olese, the besieged on tin ] Otk 
April 1805 yielded to terms. In those four 
fruitless atUcks, theBritiah lo«« was 8,&03 kill* 
ed and wounded, of whom 103 wen of&cen. 
In 1826, it was i^aiii besieged and aueoafti- 
fully atorased by Lord Gombermera* - Xbe walla 
were built of uabaked briok or eUy. 

The patent eoui^ry :of. the j*i aeenu to 
hsve been the banks of the-Oxus* between Bas- 
bria, Hyrkauia and Khorasmia. iu.this poaiticw, 
there wm a fertile distriiit, irui^ated from th« 
Uargus river whmh Pliny oaUa Zo,tale or Zotliale 
and Geoeial Cuimiiigham believes tliis ta 
have been the original seat ef (he Jut, the latii 
of FUdqt aad Ptoleiny aud the Xanthit of Strabu. 
The term Jat k only tbvir tribal name, 
the general name of tlicic horde i« A.ber. Takitt|( 
these two namea, their oouna from the Oxua to 
the Indua may be diuly trsoefl,:in. the XaatUii 
of Strabo, the lalii df Pliny and Ftolemy, tho 
Xuthi of Diooyaiua of Season who are oou* 
pled with the .Ariaai, and ia ihe 2riithi of Pto- 
lemy, who oentpiad the Karaumjan desert, oa 
the fronUer «f Droagiaua. Subsequently, the 
main body of the letii seen to have occupied 
the district of Abiria and-Lhe towns of Fnrda- 
iMthra and Bardiixema in Sind, or Southera 
Indo*Scythia, while the Punjab or Northern 
Indo-Scytliii^ was chi*-fly eoloaized by th«ir 
brethren of the Med. When the ouihoniedana 
first appeared in Sind, towards the end of the 
seventh century, the Zath and Med were the 
chief ■p'^mlation of the country. But the 
ortfiual seat of the Ued or Uedi. w«« in the 
Pnnj^ Proper^ from wfai^ Thomeaecm- 
elodes that the oeigiasl eeat of tbe lalii or Jat 
flolony was in Swat.' At the present day, tbe 
Jst sre found, in every part of the Punjab, 
where they fotm^i^QU^ ^yift^l^^^e popu- 



Vuf m diffidcd into not lesa ilian a 
pkIicH diflcrent tribes. They mostly jprafen 
Mhtwwtinnci. To the eait of the Binjab, 
Jat, ppolsmag braliiHinUiiif are TaunU in 
tdmble numbers, in tbe frantier state* 
Btkanttr. JewbnMr, ru<1 Jodhimr, where 
Tod caiinated then tb be as numer- 
M all tbe Rajput races put together. 
f aia fooM) also, in grmt numbers along 
ipper eosne of the Oanxes and Jum^ 
I firentawd as BaretUv,.Barakhabad and 
dior where they are divided iato two' dis- 
I dins. To (lit aoBth of tbe Pai^ab. the 
vhe prafeas miAmedainsn, . ana aaki by 
iHanwt to. font entire poiMilalion of the 
dirtriet of Ifmnd'-DBje], on tbe r%bt 
of tke lndua, and the bullc of the popu* 
I u the neighbouring district of Kach- 
ITB. la Sind, where they hare intermarried 
1^ vilb tbs Bahicbi and with raoes of 
deaeeiit profosaing mahoniedaDiara, it is 
poarible to estimate the number of the 
PpDlatioii, although it is certain that n 
Imv prapoition of tbe inhabitants must 
Jit 4eweamU 

^JKbaccr, im L. 72° 20* £. , and L. 
' SB' K. it the ohiel town of an iiidepend- 
wmt^ittiy, diiefly in i he great lodian 
It bas an area of 17,676 square miles, 
rtk popab^n ettiuated by^' Tod in tlie 
[Of the 19th oentury at about 689,000 
'Mfcaac i* about six lakhs of Uupees. 

Baiatainaa force of S.lOO cvrahrv, 
laboat l,9W tDfantry attd 8U guns. Bi- 
a-as (vigiuaUy inhabited by Tatioua 
liibei of Jat and ethers, the qearreta 
! vUeh led lo the conquest of the 
t ta 2458 by Bika Siag, a aon of rajah 
rSif of Jodfapora. A^ter eousolidatiog 
^fBKr ha conquered Bagore from tbe Bbal- 
FJtielaiere and Touoded the city of Bitca- 
r; he died in A. D. U05. Bai 8in|r. the 
in ilcWeat, from Bika Sing ; auoceeded 
ria 1073, and in his time the con- 
of Bikaiieer with the Delhi em^ 
bq;da. Bai Sing became a leader of 
fi» ALbar'a aerrioe and received a gtanl 
tve fieTgannahs inritidiDg Uansi and 
The people dmst maneroua are the Jit 
the lErtitety was (hko populous and 
"ky, but tbe plundcfittg BMdarwat bands, 
Ataateu, the Kfaaaa aid Bqur tobbers 
mn wcalera damt so ikatroyed 
1, that ntdle fbrmesly there were 
levaa and TtlUgea, in Colonel Ted's 
rattaae-balf of these remained. Thrae- 
«f the pofwlatioa are the abcwigiuid 
imtaietbeir oonqoerora — the desceod- 
IBik^iBdndiDg8Mabte(8araswati brah- 
fClMias, budi ud a ftir of the serrile 

Amongst the Jat, the ^' Earao" is tiiejuar^ 
riaga ef a widow with the brother of a deceased 
husband, as practised amongal the Jat, the 

Gujar and Ahir and other inferior tribes, in the 
N. W. oi India. The term Kaiao is also applied 
to roncubinage- At pretent, the flower of the 
Punjab population is Jat; they form the 
majority of converts to the religiou of Nanuk. 
They are tlte cure and Ducltus of the .Sikh 
commonwealth and armies. KqoaUy great in 
peace and war, ihey hare ipraad agrirulture 
and wrattb Irom the Jumna lo the Jlielnn, 
and have esUbliahed a politioil auprevaey, 
from Bhnrtporo and Delhi to Peabawer. 
]£steiitialLy yeoaun by lineage and habit, tlity 
can }-et beast of two regal familiea at Lahore 
and Bhurtpore^ who in their day have stood 
in the first rank- of Indian powers. In the 
Pufijaub they dispUy all their wonted aptitude 
for stirring war and peaceful ^riculturev 
and the feudal polity of the khalsa has 
imparted to them a tinge of chivalry and 
nobility. Their chief home is in tbe Nlanjha, 
or centre portion of the Baree Doab, and their 
capital ia Umritsur. But they have alao ex^ 
tensive ptdonies at Gonjerauwa'la, in the 
Rechnab Doah ; Gtyerat, in the Ciioj; and. 
about Rawal Fiodee in the ^ind Saugur. ■ For 
centuries thry hare peopled tlie sonthrm 
Punjab, of which the capital is Mooltui • bnt 
there tbey are held in djl^erent repute, and 
their importance is merely agriculturat> In 
many localities tbe Jnt profeaa the mahomedan 
creed, having been converted chiefly during 
the emperor Aiungzeb's reign, in the south 
Ihpy mainly belong to this perauasios.— 
Records of lite Oovernment of India, No. II. 
Thomas' Elliot's J/ittory of India ; Tioma^ 
Prinsfp*$ 4tntiqviiie$, p. 239. Tod, Ma- 
jatthauy Vol. /■ pp, C. 60, 106-7-8, 8»3, 
420. 605. Vol. U. p. 98. Aiteiutoti** 
Treaties, Vol, IV, p^UI .ieipUfuUm^$ Cahoot, 
p. 1 0. Memoirs of Ilttmejfotm, 46. (hin~ 
ning1tam*i Bistory of the SiAJa,p. 6. BWoi*t 
Supplemental Oioesary, p. 228. Mr CempheUt 
pp. 77, 81. 82, 85 to 288. riU. Jiecierckf 
snr Us Fgyptie»» ft les Ckinoit. Seleetions 
fromtheM(J*ttbkarata,pp. B §-&G, l ennaat't 
flivditttan, p. 63. Chatfield's Hitidutiau 
RerJterches sur les J angues, Tar tarts, pp, 1 ^ 3. 
Kennedy on the Oiiginof Lajigupffes, p. 67 . 
MasBon'sJourmryttVoLII.p. 126. Masvm^M 
Kalat p. 352. Histoire General des Gent, 
torn, I. p. 375. Vigw, roatana. See Afghan ; 
Baber i Brahman j (Jhatuns India; Bqpttt f 
Scyiliia ; Yue-cki ; Yuii. 

JATA.. See Khaki. 

JAIA, 8aks. a knot of hair on the head* 
of hiudu devotees. The Jata or matted hair 
ussuiued by Rama and liakshmana on disniss- 

ing the royal chariot att. thei lyitl^ve^Sria^ 




JATROPEA cunc^(l. 

f^Tsra to iiifllonie their mteria^ JSptn k foiml 
or noBtic lire. Jabi therefore ia h braid of hair 
worn by tlie hinfJu votaries of Siva, also a 
twisted buii of hair, worn by bindn >it08tie«. — 
Sam. 11. 40. Hmd. Tb. VI. p. «00. Richard 
f. Jiartim's Sind&^p.HSl. See Indin. 

JA'I'aKALA,. Saks. Mvristica itioiohatii. 

JaTAKaKMA. Sen ViifC byasa. 

JATAKI, in BeluoliitUn, n langiixse spoken 
by the Kind, T^lpur.Mnrri, Chanilia Jdmnli and 
l^BKhnri who speak ^ither Jataki or tlie hill 
tonfcue of the Belndhi. The Jntaki is also 
otUed- Straiki fron Siro or Upper Sind where 
it i» «oramonly apokeo by ihe people ; but also 
JAilu'chi from its being used 1^ sevend of the 
Biluoh' clans sptlled in the low eonntry. The 
word '^Jataki,** rpelt with the ecrebral T, 
and the peculiar tSindli J or Dy. is an ad- 
jeotive formed by the proper nonn j»t, the name 
of a people who were probsbty the aborigines 
of tlia Punjab. The author of the Dubiitan 
applies the term '-Jnt di»lect*' to the lan<>uaf;e 
in which Nannk Shah composed his works. 
TMe Jounint of Ihe llombay Branch of the 
Aaiafio B^ety, 1849, contains a short Gram- 
mar, which serves as a specimen of the 
Jataki tonirne. 

J&TAHIf — ? Hymenma eourHaril. 

JATAirU. A fabntoua bird killed hv'Ravana. 

^ArPAUA.V^f. HfND. Sans Tkl. The 
Oypenis stoloniferus of Heyne, Ketz, and 
WinUt Contr., but the true jatamanii is the 
Kardostaehrs Jatafflansi,— J7. G. and Koyle, 
the Balch'ltaru or H»! clinr Hind. S^nbsI-uU 
t»ib, Arab, and Sanbst-i-Hindi. Pers. The true 
pUnt ts only found at forest elevations beyond 
the tropic'i and, in south Indin, the term is 
applied to the sweet smetHnjr tubers of various 
species of Gyperus, and in Upper India, td the 
lemon srnss, A; schoinanthu?, and other species 
of Andropogon, which are also known under 
the names of Aakhar and Sikliaaas (ox<*«i) 
Sir W. Jones ideniified it as the spikenard of 
the aneients. — Elliott* Ttora Ankkfica. See 
Jntamanst, Kanlosthaebys Valerian. Mar- 
dostachrs jfltamanri. 

B dchnr: Valeriana Jstamansi. Boots ofNar- 
dostachvs jstamansi. 

J\TAUr*. HiJiD. Bcrberia aristata. 

JATKKU. Unya. Grislrn tomentosa— iZorj. 

JAT-POTH, the Jjipheih of Scripture. 

JATI. Malay. Tectona grandi*, a wood 
of tho Architttla^, much nsed in making prahns 
and in house bntlding at Bawean. extensive 
forests of tht Jali or, teak of India are fonnd 
in almost all the eastern provinoee of Java, 
at « moderate ebvatioa ibore the lerd of the 

JATf. Saks. A kind^ a race, from Jan, to 
be bora. 


JATI. Hnro. flowm of jMoiattm gmiuU- 

JATC or Tati, a Jain teacher.' an weetic 

JATI. HiNp. also, Vdu JathL.UiMD. Jm- 

JATILADUI. See Inaeriptioris.. 

JATI MIiSAK. Himu. Haliotropium nao* 

JATI.f ALLAU. also Sadtkka. Sikgu. Nat- 

JATI PHALAUU. Tbl. UyriaUca mso- 
flhaU -^r^ai. 

J.VliPATBE: Hisro. Hwe. 

XATLEA. HiNO. A rsligious assemblage al s 
hindo tensple or ehrios. See Jmnrik ViraCbadn. 


OuCigliouia lobata. Ra'u \ Carona \tMTpea.—AditAM 


Dandl birri. 

Bag BherenilA; 
Ba{{ Barendi, 

l^«sg«fthMMida... H ^ 

h^Ml BUHM. 

Mafa nitratle..i '.. ('.vK. 

inotl DtTK. 

An^iiUr Uaved phy< 

3ieniit..... £^0. 

Phjsic niit „ 

Pignon d'lnitt Fa. 

Umahmisa tdiwane.OaR 

Bh»gt)h'eren6a.. HtSO. 


PAlkMrinr lrMd .. „ 
Uot«njr>b .. w ... Ka8V« 
Kab avanaku MalbaL 

NepalA .:. Saiw. 

K«nftn> katctidAiD. 
ltati«sdaC9c>...-,.L aiKos. 
I£.aUu^ak ; lut- 
tammaftu iiursm.TAir. 

Kat Diichi 'f, 

M^aiit. Adivi 
i unlda, Tei^ 

Grows in New AmUWsia. HaviaiHU,and is qpe 
of the raoat oomroon small Imshes throughout 
[Hdia. It js in flower snd fruit all the year. 
Tne ssails are putative, but Tery uncertain 
in their operation ; proving sotnetimes violent 
like ihase of the Nervalum, though tbt^y are 
naturally milder. Befom. adroinistering them, 
they sliould eleand from ttv tliia fHament 
in which they- are closely enveloj>«d ; after 
which two or thrw may be taken as a dbae> 
Neariy all the Jattopha are powerful ettkartiee* 
aad Fee ritea J.gossypifolia,Ameriea. J. glsndn- 
lusa, Arabia and the J. mnltiftdii, or .oeruL 
plant, (Arejlsna pargatiiz, gpind ben pnxn-. 
liO a native of America and Lndis. a ehrab 8 
or 10 feet high, replete with acrid bitter juice, 
with large pinnatifid glabrous leaves, the fruits 
sliglitlj pyriCorm, about the siw of a nutraec ; 
a single seed is sai<l to be purgative. Lindley 
says U is *' one of the beat of thf emetics (uitl 
pui^atires, acting bri&kly witk«ut inoonveni- 
enee, and the eflacts readily albived by a gle«» 
of white vW Ur.. 0*6baughaaay. hawever, a rery. da^ceraui article. Dr. Wight 
gives alaaiJatrepha peUte* ami J. .villoaa. Tha 
leaw* whieh ami ftve migledvan oonsidcrM 
M'disdiuieat) and-the milky julbe of Uie plant ia 
auppoaed to bsve a drtergeut and heeiinK qw- 
lity. The seed is called in l>ukhani> J,n»gli. 
nrundi ki'binj in :^^ic Uundebirri and in 
Tamil Kast amsnaka mootoo- A fixed ful» 
(called in Canarei?Mnra,lMU34t>v!^>i'2) pttpared. 



from tbe wdtt k mkonfltf s -MlufM« ^exinmal 
appIieatioD in easeaoC itch abd l)6rpc4 i it ib iiko 
nmd ip okoai* xliemnvUan, md for bwrau^: in 
luBpL Tbe saj^y juiee boiJc^ Mkle of ifw 
nukes a- fine bliysk varnifbL*— O'iSAofi^Mtsy, 
p. 568. Maafn's Ttmmtrim., <U€ffkor)h ^maft 
Jttp. Geal. Mtd. Top.: p. ^Oi^ Hoabwrffi't 
Fiom Jftdiita, yok Uh €87. 
M«aan»U9Mm,V^l,f^n.Qak.mik, 1801. 

Jstropha gUfu^, VaTU, 
Glaueoos leaTcd fliysH! | Nlla aauda Tel. 

tnit M Bro. I bnndmapu cbefiCii. 

Mdi^a.^ „. ; *pAMi iKatiiUidvptt „ „ 

A natire bf tba Bast Indiea. ^6 ptSit or 
vfcey oc^red thin juioe, vhleh exudes &i>i&,a 
ikeA woitnd^ la employed ti^ (he 'Hindoos as ; 
an eacbarotie to nniova flaws irtra tbe eye«. tts ' 
aeedi alsO yibld a itlmaUting oil.ln &ppear^6e ' 

Siroaches castor oil* fluid and Jigbf MraW- 
ored. This is noir chiefly tued mediciaaHy as 
a-eoimter ifrilant, but if proct^rablB Id suffit^ieul 
quantity seems lAi^etT to -prove a nsefal otl.— 
Mnh.Jf.S. of 1835. (yShatiainaai, p. 599. 
Tim, Sn. HZ^I, p. ill. 

OMm«a«atfoe...«.EHa. IMaiava^litf. y.^jtm: 

]firacbMaia„ . w Hu.. l^at^okk* iBiMoB- 

tjmomk mnrnVWA. Though a Aa- 
tirs of Adier!i!a th« l06i«l ^lant «!th its 'biOHeitt 
onrae ei»ytiib« 'ik ecrtombn fH' tlificttt «tt' 
Indhn gardens ; (he 'seed somieUbiea ettten- hj 
cMhMn, but ia of del^rioua Mttfre. aiitl att 
cmtle eheiutd be untiiedititely: iklmlnfatered.' 
The inspissated jtiiee forma a tfttbtftaiiiOS Vkb 
caeateboucv— ifaKnr. 'BUdelk ' ' ' 

jiiiee ia ww^ by the lui^ves \9 ren^ve sj^cka 
Irooi the eo^ea. 

JATV-KASUl.' Bavs. prom jatsj born, 
and kacman, aa actiQ>n. See Hindu. j i 

JATULV See Inscriptions. ' 

JATtATCEA. ITAL. Evil eye. ^ , \_ 

JAV. HiMD, Hordeum heiastip^unl, , 7avt;. 
liesi. Commop 1)arky. 

JA^. Bx^d, Artemisia sacron^i. 

7AU IKSL Tau. .^irrow root. 

JAUK, AveLo-ltiHDi ; at ' 
l$ad <rf eo^Teyance, fiom^ina go. 

^AUK-PAUN is<B oq«>reyapo». liia a>ilhi|'r,, 
«itk ah^hb*^and o0veisd iO:ps.«U ndc8;i 
with deorik pan^ib coi!twia andi c«o«py. . U ft: 
eanied by four mea ait |i tinpe^oii .ttM^il shoul"; 
de»i two to eaeh H**' Tbeia. •ve:/fi-.|r4stt 
variety of shapes M Simla, jHswmpn*' «»d 
l^ssjeeUqg jaunrpaun, the buhion^lB oonv<^ 
aMainthMe Sanatoria. «|id tiw iQeiii<j«ui- 
piani) wha (Acinte «a the «ml«% of the^ 

jautt-psu|i» KB m}y attM k JKAby eoiour«d 
garneate, or diO'enat Uads of li»ry, selan Las 
(jouta varioa^u bean naadcv— ifrv. Ufitey't 
A^ntttm t/ 4 Midjf ^ Slirdtf;^. /. p. 

JAU^}StAKT|Qj[;S. IPs, A.U«4 bf 

JA WTAAiC UftfB* . MsMm ^i^Muais ; 

MtTNPUB. . atalnsarijiUtfDa. 
JAVfSAO^.UftfiVw ObcDopodiwa albiM pO*. 
f att ia Antonlaift jel^gAda^ . . . 

iASJ^AM:. emu. . <£tnms. 
JA^aUi;Bi HiNflK A nwdieuial Kam.n»in, 
ena o p s faiyH t.: fraift Opoponaii ehvonum. 
It is-filcO'CRUMl .Wwisbff iQttJto Lahoie bisar, 
"JaKoihiV, MBhiiia,)u)d "hosM" isthe uame by 
whiahP)CiXip(ttey«btaioe(|i( fytm Behi^taa. 
, iAVZmKMiUA^ , J«uauifcaddar» 
Hnvn. Paiiaisdlflfi" - •- ^ 
, JAU^TfTTWa fiwn* The imtneg. 
JkVk, w ialaml iu the JSactem Arohip^ 
IbM, the. soBtb.pobi ef ivjhiohi is in latitude 
a»4^" £>«Bd lM|it«tfe IW »9* lO-^B^ 
ftteihfelurfflfaMHUade.iiUehtiM Dutob 
hobi Kudorth* designaUgftoC Kctbecland In- 
dia, jtbo bead rider btsiag sidled the. Oovemor 
aettmJ«,or Abe Dutch IndiesK'CiKalnianaer'iii. 
Ohiaf: o£ «U "lha fwoea «f iHis Miyesily tbe 
king M HalkiDd :to: ^ aasit ^ the of 
Goad HDpeJ"<It, w aowRtiy ^eraiQed .wubh- 
hills. iBWBt«kift>aaidi.vitUex%. iVi|i«to the sputh 
00B!^t| the steep sea walla are clothed to the 
vbry beach." ■Wilh lattirijmt wgoda.' J«v4 has 
Ipn^ tieloUged to th^ Dutdh^ but dbrhg' the 
oinvulsiont'tn' Europe, it was taken possession 
<trby file British la 1-911, bttt Restored in fr816. 
t)a^ iB« BritiKh-'Otiieapstleit of Java, the 
^uft^ pf Paleittbuig emued ajl ,the DoCch in 
eh6^t6wa to be"Arass8ered, Ibfttking that by 
Ihfs enamaW OfetM b0 enbted to 
lid btfflself'eatinlyofBuyapMm^nAnnM ; bat 
dbe ^tish gcftbAimeM at Bata«ia, 'hbiror- 
struek' by tbeiftMMi^ ofth ooddnct, for the 
pmpbM of WtWeiw thtab* diipleasam at the: 
criMe fAd thutdfltemiiHathmfM punish St, cb84> 
pMohed c r4iW>ttttd«t*tha''iloAlDiitud«f oblonel 
OlUe^iJiey Wb«r In the «Dewtltm oC -thlt duty 
Ipeiifttttobd oheidf kha adtMl^falbntiflBpfeitB npon 
IrMmd.' 4li«i<tfro«''eaMe(^tiii lifiaenral veseela 
iofwir.floMI-a iHifM bbdy of'tAwte. Onduend- 
ling the river, aiibMteryf of Winmdndiarga 
iga«t fl«tke(l-.b](' drmed vMfb, .swciiffl^ved 
'without firing a dtot, and the sultan, 'tfl^riSed 
jat th« 'i9ifUtabh<to{lli^ 3riti^,fl«d into the 
intstioii Iritb JUa. trsMi^vCb .With the .nfws of 
bbhfl|gkti,the.Sriti«b DOramaqdaPt was informr- 
e4 tb^ tbe Malairs b<ld ri<btif ^ were slaugh- 
tering the GJkiaese and' other foreign settlers, 
OpHqqel <jU^picy anxlofis ;t9,ppt a stop to 
thflse frigh'f"* outr^esj embarked with a small 

' Digilize^y VjOU* 



ing otden fat a larger force to foHov Iffline' 
dutety. When the little party epproacbed the 
town, datlcneu had already Kt inland theftKrieks 
and outeries .^a»ly evinoeid thattha workof car- 
naRe was coatiQued. The Colonel and hU 
party, whioh obinUied of ten pntons kimaitlf 
Qiduded, landed undUfM^red naeng a vast 
mnltitude of blood-thiraty wretches who, para- 
lyzed at the bddiMM or the action, allowed 
their npiponeats toenler tha flace, wbera they 
vensoon aftenrarda joiued byaamallf ni»- 
forcement. At midnight, about Arte hours 
after the arHral of the fiiM party, the nnin 
body irftrooM entered the pUuw, and a town 
defended by foft* and battflvie*, taOantii^[ tvo 
bundled and fifty' pieces of oannon, was taken 
possesaion b( witttdnt the Ibsa of a single life. 
The foUoving day saw order restored, and a 
new sultan was soon afterwards plaeod ipon the 
throne. The population of Java, In 1810, iTas 
3,U00k€00 or SO to the sqnam niila^ In Ul6, 
the popnlattofi had iacrsaasd to 4,015,^0 and 
in 1857, includii^ Madam, it MHmnted to 
ll,&94,lff8 and 180 to tba nila. Batthv 
other Dutoi possessions in the Indian Arehi* 
peUgo, tontaitt 4B argregate populatioft of 
•ometking iu* than 6,OOU,000. Java and Ma- 
dura are separated by n narrow alrsit and may 
be ooDsidered a« one territoiy, with a mean 
length of^O l^gUAmika and lOO in breadth. 
The popotatiost anMgrid4M» olasaaa are, 

European settlers ^ SO,SSl 

Dutch Army, European 10,706 

„ „ African soldiers....*.. 4^7 
^ „' Malays and Javanese. 15,036 

NaUws Itr4l0,85« 

Chioesp . >S8,8{>6 

Anh^ add Asiatic^ ' .24,615 

The w«Bio«,'in «|ppo^ion to the fola in 
moat tmpkal «MntnM» ozeeed the man tqr 
700,C00. BUmy aontinned to be Mmotibned 
until 185^-wbeii il ma aboliabed, but had so 
fallen sway as sa institution that there existed 
then only G,280 elavca to libernte. lu Nether- 
lands India* th» Dnteb Gavemmeiit has ban, 
since 1824, a eommmial firm assisted by the 
Tracing Company cstabliahed in 1824 uader 
the patronage af kiag WilUam. This hps proved 
the aalvatiea of Javti and theit ihaieo have 
been at a iBODsidemble premninu 

1897 hapotts,Giiitdets. 
from ' - 

< 8,121,808 

OtW coun- 
tries. 1t9,l7S,45l 



Total. 68,634,569 

Kzports, OaOdva. 

HoHaad.. 75^64,705 
Kagfand. 831,451 
China..., 4,995,673 
Japs*..... 908,859 
Other oo«a- 
tries. 23,353,197 

Total.. IM,938,884 


Since 1848, both the Imports and the Bi- 
ports have doubled their value. 

The natives dotbe tiwnselves entirely in im- 
ported cotton stuffs, spending, annual^, about 
1«. 9^ each on doUdog, Tbe prinoipal of the 
importa an eotton stu^-, wines and spirits, 
iron and machinery. Amongst the indigenous 
avocations are tbe cultivation of tea and coffee, 
and 450,000 tamnliM afo employed in tbe cul- 
tivation of the coffjEa plant. In 1867, Ibwa 
were, in Government plantations 14,739,700 
tea abrnbs under ealtivatioo, which produced 
neaily 3,000,000 English pounds of tea and 
gave emplqyment to 100.000 families, Th« 
mode adopted by the Dutch, in goveroiog tbe 
people^ has been to continue the aomblanca of 
authority in their own chiefs, while the real 
power rests with the Dutch offi^en termed re- 
sidents, in Java aloine, are 10^,105 native 
chieftains or prince« supported by the Dutdi 
during good behaviour and whose united sala- 
ries amounted in 18S7 to 1,834,007 guildenu 
The wild sand iooast of Bantam m JaTih is annnal.. 
ly frequented by largh numbers of turtles, whers 
they nave often to creep over nearly a quarter 
of a mile of the beach, to the dry and looie soil 
at tbe foot of the land dunes. In their pn^rese 
to and fro, th^ are attacked by partiea of wild 
dogs, birds of prey and even tigers. Among the 
small groups of i^ands in the Java sea, tbe 
waterspouts are frequent, and net sbvagra 
acoompviied by strong winds ; more than oae 
ii eeen at a time, whereupon tutdonds whence 
they proceed, disperse, and the enUa of tbe 
vaterapouta bending over finally cause them 
to toeak in the middle. They seldom bst longer 
thaw firo minutoa. As tm^ aia going asrajr, 
the bulbous tob^ which is aa palpable aa that of 
a thevmomaler. bacomea braader at the bass, and 
little elduds, like steam from the pipe of a loco- 
motive, are continually thrown off from the 
circumference of tbe spout, and gradually the 
water Is released, and the c1oud» whence the 
spout came again closes its mouth- Sir 3. 
Baffles says tbat /ara was originidly peopled 
by emigrants cominii in vessels from tbe Be«l 
Sea • from whence it is inferred that these 
Boaent l^plians might have been the an- 
cestors of One class of the people. The Javan- 
ese seen by Mr. D'Ewes ate described 
as small In stature, bub mnscnlar in form, 
supple and active In their movementa and of 
a Hght copper oolonr. Tbe people of tbe 
Ten^rmoudtalos, ah<ntly desenbed in BafHes* 
History, may be a relict of an aboriginal 
raoe. This rJce, like a few <rthers in Indie 
and the Archipelago, adopt the singular prac- 
ttee of building their villages in terraces and tbe 
prectioe seems to have once prevailed in tbe 
FhilippiMs. Tbe InhaUtante of tbe 8erwattl 
ialandi^ lekot tbo lommita of oi tin 

Digitized byVjOOQ IC 

hMnafaBSi vhkh riM thnflly ham the 
sMtMiilMCpr tlidr luibitatkiM. TkoeMat 
or cKtreaw mnmit of the hill is oMttftiBd 
bj a Ufff^ mriiig tree, tha Fiona indiM P of 
B»pliiua, bomtb which th6 Hlola 'of the 
TiUuce m plaeed on sqtuie platftMiM of toMe 
stOBM. Here the elder* neet when any in- 
IMittat matter is to be diacuaaed. ' Below the 
tree ibt aide* of the Idlla an acarped into a 
meoetttoo of phtfortna or temees, on whioh 
are erected their obloog bani*Kke honiea with 
■ooden walla and palm leaf thatoh. At Lettl, 
I neigfaboaring Uland, wham the hilla are far 
iBlMid»thehniw»«f tbediffa whiefa .machaiig 
the aaa an ael wt id, aad a aimilar node ot 
aearpiagurtoferfaceait Wppted when neofes- 
any. The eaine avaten aleo |rfb«aib at Baba 
aad ItMor liamt, also aMoDfrst the MaUe 
Aranr, or hill kings, of the Polaey hills bi 
the ettnaM aouth erf Bidia. 

PrabaloBgico in Saat Jan; ia the riehest 
l^B^plodnd]lg distriat ia the islaad^ and 
b inhabitaata pfiadpaUj Madoresls. The 
wBlh-westoni side of the pWa of Prahbo^ 
ii^ ia bounded bj the Tengger iDoiintains 
■ksn the pe^le atUI eUog to a religini sup* 
ptMd to hafe orlgmsted ia UndaisiD. 

Giading, ia the mmn ginn to a haA wind 
■ East Jan, oeeaafoned fay ^ B. S. Hon* 
fm Uowiag right onr the hind tinovgh Che 
pip at Kalakka. l.OOU feet above the aea bi- , 
ivsea the Jyaag and Teaner aMontaina, 8,000 
■ad 9,00a feet high. The dnsa of Janneas 
Jidiei differs but Htile fron that o( men 
if thMpper daaa, ae^ inthe lad>f a being 
bsttoned acraas- ^ breast. No aofwing Q 
nn forths head, theif bright hUek heir be- 
jsgtsstefally arranged in a knot, deconttod 
with hoacho* of white flowers : the women of 
the Ipwar dam wear a Uae saMug, and « wide 
ihirt ef the «aM eolou. Bttt aaaue, bnt 
wan fntioMy the woflseD, pa» gittfe w- 
ffM t» eleeiHiieis, bathings at least onoe a 
inj. ABoagit the depei^denoiea may be 
■wU oaed the Moluooaa or SphK iBland^ whieh, 
sot to Jan, an the most impartafit oi the 
DuUh poaaessions in India. The iataads so 
Mlkd an Ambojna, Banda,. Tcnwt^ Tidiore 
ud the sBiaUer islands in the neighboniiood 
aed Aej form a anb^[overnasentof Jam. The 
giBitsit part of these islands were diaoorsred 
^ the Portagnese who we» in poaaessiBii of 
Uea at ths eomnwaeement of the IStb oentnrjr, 
hst wen acqoiiad by the Dntofa at the close of 
ikitm. ilia aoBstiou polky-oftUe ns- 
tioa hd thai at om tine to not «p wd des- 
■ny St a gnat east, ota by fane of aims, 
iB wit mag and elbntnee eieept thennmber 
■Msiy to produce the qoaatity ef tpioes 
vUthiteoukl aell, andso pneemthe mono* 
Mr* no AnbeyMW tis » middling 


height Md waR bnaed. They make good 
moontad and foot aaldiers. They an gentle, 
brsre* tery sober and easily managed. A 
ooasideraUe nnmbe^ han cmtwaeed christian- 
ity< lliair oomnm« S» nearly the ssme as 
the Malaya of Java. The averSRe anonal 
enp hf elone ia-fntn SflO.OO ) to BOO.OOO lbs. 
The chm tree begins to bear at flfteen ;ears 
and ia ln fall perCoetion at 30, aad the twenty 
arerage yield is 5 Ihs,, Umngha tree has been 
known to yield IS tba. U attains a height of 
3S to 40 tet. 

Bands ^esidei^y comprises aenral islands 
of which an B^nda or Banda Neera, Ounong 
A pi so naa»d from its terrible volea- 
no^ liOnthcdr, Bosisgain almost absndoood 
aft^the aztiipalioa of its spiees, Fulu-Ai, 
aad PuMmg. Banda ia Tsiy Hnkealthy and is 
SubjpQbto frightful eaithqw^ ; many of the 
people an ohristiaiw. The Senrittti islsoders 
ban « more geaenl leeemblanpe toi the inha- 
bitafta of the South Se^ Islaada/,]aum to those 
of the Indian Archipelago. They are taller 
and tsinr than the tlsuy «r fingi. They 
wear a waist doth made <rf eotton or of the 
hark (tf the paper mulberry, and , al^w their 
loo^ wavy hair to float oief their shoulders 
or tie it at the back of the head. Their boats, 
the cora cora, atv loog and graeefTil with low 
sides and great Jbreadkb of heamt- high stems 
and stems which riae like honm a^ each ex* 
tnmity o^ the vessel, and am ornamented 
with bstopnaof la^ cowrie itdlp and bnndtea 
,9f faatheis* Thy buUd tl^ Tillages on 
the summit* of elib or the brows of hilla 
which rise abrupt from the sea or on the banka 
of rivers. Oa ike cnstofthia cUff is a fig 
tree , (Picas Indies, BumphY the wsringio^ 
beneath whldi sn placed theu idols on square 
piallonnB of loose stones ; and below the tree 
the aidea of the hill an acanped into a succes- 
sion of pbtfbrma er terncos on whioh the 
boose* rest. The. fishing psnoe* or flying canoes 
of Jau an Jongr but nicr Barrow— just broad 
enough If oaableamay to si^.hetwwn the 
gunwaloi ; (he cnw seldom axe^oda lour men. 
They aiis rendered steady by ionc iamii«izea- 
Isr outriggers, one and iB«u«d to the gun- 
wale, the other to huge bamboos sod of the 
sane length as the ,o«noe itself; and, as they 
sn daubeid aU over with some br^t white 
substance, they have the appearance of hnga^ 
spiders crawling onr the dark blue sea ; their 
speed, when propelled by paddles, is very 
l^eat £ but, gieater under thaut large triangu- 

In 1851', the aggregate vrino trf Imports 
aadBzportsof the Island was j8}8,7«I,980. 
It has a population of J2,000;000 with iOl 
iuliabitanU to the aquan mile^ 

Digitized by VjOOglC 


"niftUwdt otieapkd.fay the 'Dbtab ill tiie 
£«8tara Anhipslago^ tb)ir:eUUQonsniinBnl^ 
»re dividol iitM>«l pionqoeBftr pnfopttym, 
fapwa MP<ff *fa» mmm at. HariiigMkiK The 
oeiwu •( ; l94i^t.riMiw«l • ipif Bhikn ' In Jtia«,««..' .J -f V 

Accordb^ ta 'tV« Utdikwru of .Ue .Ja^vD* 
e»Q„ . &MiiMrai« ' JuVay' Bali, LctaJbol: and 

give Ue fbtn of A.,&J '1198, l>3a.«i(l 
J3$0, bitf Mmm .bU nob't* (hB^teDBwed; lite 
diviiling line between Asialic faant 'Btad'tlUl 
of Australia, miut. be drawn dQira thp Btxaits 
the Strait 6f Loml»t betwMB liombok'.and 
Balf. Jam,' locally Jftwa) is t^e HfoA bf 
origiAal oeeupatits oT ttte eaite^h -part of 
the isHAod irto in latter jrea^ Ita+i! spt^ad'tAl 
olree tbe'fstaiDd ami tAve |flreh it Ihdr iitttto. 
I^he CfefueSe ca1?ft C^t<^o. Marco PMo wtfo 
described; tlioa'gh 1m dfd not VfeiHI, ttlli'It 
Ginua. 'Vb to lire «»Wm^ pf th*J fBth- dentui^, 
the peopWifi JifTa, ' ftdm' Ofc^bon fti Loi^. 
1 09 to- thfe wtai, ^Ictf the S^nSsResi tongue : 
But in ISI), ^ine-teutha of ttH the popuUtimi 
of JavR,^ spoke Jafaiiese, Riid the 9ufld«nese 
was already cottfineid to jfte momitamotis parts 
of the foutir shcF west, fitid 'tv'a ttbtiV colony 
near Bantani: &ir fi*. 'IUflI(!9 ssys that Jiva 
wai oligtually «tiopIef ^ elniifranls' bomttig 
in vesaelB fiMA the/ Hed -Si^ ; from wTretioe- ft 
ia laMn^'- Ulniih^ ^ni^At EMtf^rn m*y 
Iiav« been fb« andeaUM df,plitf e&ss tif tlio 
people.- TRe ■'IkTanen ani mtffl^'.^fctlrt. 
but Buabrilar fai form, si^fphs anff keHVe *!n 
their uovetiletfts a l%li^ ' eopp^r co- 

lomr. ' TFrtf people of ihA ^ffenger «Hhtttta{A8| 
BhortSy ^s^rfbed in'^i^ea* ^Moiy. itfily'be 
a relitit of an'aboriginsi rfce. are « peeft- 
Hat pt^op4« Hho ti^eAfc » (fiiteet df Jmrtinue 
and, ifc^iie tbh seiloos etTorta '0^ Hie-m&home- 
dftn^, th^fttitl molt the hifldn rd^fon. TUa 
race, We afe^w other? In Jndia, ^n* the Archi- 
p(4aga adopt %he rifaftuUr praetie* of* bufld- 
ing IbeSt vflfaigeii ib terra6e«. thl« 'ttrsctlea 
Beeme tob^re^neij pA^iled in the Hiinppfnes. 
Tlie {vihiAftanlS of the Berwatt! %Iaiid«. wiecl 
th««im«K»^ftbeUIl8or^1wbtow« -of diffa 
iitt' ahinittny A«di thh' m sitea for 
hAiMfons. Thii trett or extretne shm- 
It of thfrltill Is occttpied by a large warrtitg 
flitf-Tlcua iodica of Bbmr^itis, beneath 
WUich th^ IdAHi Hie tillage are ptficed on 
square {^attbrma of loose afcones. Here the 
elders mieet irtieb any rmpoitant matter is to be 
^seussed. Beiefwthetree, the sides of the hills 
are acarped into a auccession of platforms or 
tenradei on. which en creoked their oUong Ibarn 
like bcrvBdft with wooikn «alU ud pakd leaf 
tkajteh. Ai tiHti, a.ntigbboaiiif inland, (rbqre 
the hills are far isUHuj^ ih» brours «f the dliffs 

Tfce i 

irhioii HtcAug 'the aM aM 4«ieeM« wd«^ 
o^r inl^eQCaolrpvglnloteniioeaMailo^ 
^)»9'^^o9Mty* The flmne ayatan alaftpnnll 
At BtbA.Hid TtDior Laut. At fittitensorg, ~ 
JttHm- i«lMi4 ktm Aitwria,. btwdveda •! 
«C.«Ht)ittMa Rbd vallfv oaunUy an 
wd vpgfttedk ,Xle awM eyafem i« ^niMid 
B»li, ffiit liQi&belc-Md aMiaaia b«r* ' 
tK)4«cedby(ho brahi*t«iaB);r«oe. Th««|sia 
oC ..tomci'vit Ml ivaetised eiatoget the Uall 
ATitHXtftrlkiU kiniiStOf the Fatefey hOkialh 
Mtitmr.Botitk-ol Xndia. i 
. TJne JC<4i»v. pMpl« bo: reside anDBg t^ 
iahs^iiMpts «f the Tcng'gec mouBtnil 
ve: said to, bave been htj«w tine ohm 
ottB (iq vcriqiw, part* ot Jan, leadM 
» iVa«dsl|fig Mifel praeiiiiiig. Ntigions rit 
4t0vent frMn thoae of tk» people m 
AToUbig inMeouiatt lotk them-; bst mAj 
them are now redidad to.nJ|ieirioai| an h 
Mfpfr aMiodsiy.iiiAalt icaKkM^ud hn 
mbnoed the makonedM TaAtfa* WhtBe« 
ttie Kalai^ .|i<7e fiMaa one pkoe to aaetl 
Ihsy are contused in carta, hty'w^ two 
wbeefai iritb a Jdrolfing aii* nod dimvn 
\w fit mftr^.pain ba&letat •«aeMdiig 
the circwHUaD4)dS'ofifcfae paitj. 

The rolcanoea af Jara are an i^a Ito z 
MWraencii^ noai eafn^St. Jfkhoiba/ita 
ftsMiunity paMw di^imally aoross the 
td tie & £. hoBdlaad <on the SUhit aC 
The oUfiT li« ruu paraUely wd extai 
bom. ChoribM on the B. Cotat' t» ih« 
ofSmdak. [The TVleiiwflB m ia two 
.ftHdrtf ia the cwth^ entst, aad. the inaleM 
Je^it we eo^flt of sleTCttoilj eash distiawfei 
-•dpfiMte:6'kh«irli*Mhti being 4l8,Aiid iioaaM 
tb«n«f immmfee«iBe- Th^y throw otA'VolQi 
Mkm^ mmA wi aasriie and aomekiM A 
tifiitaa* White elAiiiteoC auiiAnrie; Mid 
edutiiHidlly ircebth thelt peaha «nd is : deMi 
Uver to' Uf<k ' Lavse ^quaAtitwa Df uftphw- 
d4^'«at« . A aevon tartliqiHla hraa expcriM 
in JftataTia*. aad ov«r an «aanin« re ' 
in, la^ OB Ibe Uth of Hovnnter I 
Xnthe <kiiNRut: of Ue 37th..CktolMr II 
it «■« Mentioned, thnt: a shower •£ ashna 
UkU tiSlmUtiotg oalM night of ih« 1 
whieh fltttw froia the Gnntar MnwrtaiiSi ia> 
dlBtriot'Of Unbavcan, reaideacy of Pnengi 
Oa&inABy tbo UtA. Oeteher, ot II o'eS 
?. the evth^ake ahoeks, feHowinff («l 
other in oulclfDUieceMioB, w«o fait at X^Qaaj 
jur. Iibe KPtt: Of -wtiioh was ^ry atirag. <a4 
lifted for ,fu}ly ten seaondk The ahawccdt 
ashes, beg«a to fidi the aaots. night. - and jjj 
the ftdlowug mctraittg hod almdy olotM 
the esrthi grfm* trewi sad baiUinga mil 
bMvn eovetiag* XkclatLof ashea aad oM 
lasted the Vhoit day, and made it very iam 
vmknt to Iw io (he opca niti The tjm^ 

Digilized by 


Mhf nCMd. Om mftli^kM had vol 
itcwidatTwindiW Mi'ttM SBtfe Ocfco- 

to be ai nit» ud no dMMite bad- bnu 
ky tW enplHu. Xb« ^*vt of wW« 
>MliwihiilMfara8 tto fcoutwa of the nai- 
4iMr ^ BwUiait a ditUnao of pawa tb«A 80 
to Ua teat. Xepgei aoDttbMna,nifiaa 
wida cr apMiawi vonnteiito^ libera it 
«■ «U n \ nm mtk iu iawh7l» .«nt«r 

ailMr Xiia tlfo latyaat crater in Ja«a and 
tflfcaliqfNtuUB iroilijU..Jto b^ttowia 
larel loor of and, wUqIi ja .MM itbeaa ia 
bf ilw vwd lite .tha aMi- wet la Mlled 
IhiifalaiaUM JUwfc f aaac ort Snvdj wa. 

of almiioft liaa ft^to'MiiB. sand 
•.thaiaaUeat of iihwh. aalM Broaus is 
im t« aatiro Urowug oat < a»hM. It riaea 
fte Ibole i»aiaaa 2* Uo Mater. of Veaairim. 
latMa49t4i«bairiiaaB«4 puttUoe heen 
inn oot in anoc^atMa. 

hfmdtsms T«lnii(^i».l779y-inji)ra avnth 
^im.mlu IQ"* tfi in »aiB|;le iv«lrtilinw 
m me and mlm whiah ii)r>.>JQiighttba 
M» vda- a Uyw Qft M tfairi? for 
Mm ittki around. In Dr. HpnifleU'e M- 
4Ntt4fil, draw»«f fteai tto.wtiiv teaii- 
■tqftitiialated an extent of grooMli^ 
#rai«kn«Miitv amtoiia.'19 snlM long 
«iUUifi bMd, mwfbjr Ihiarirammotion aval- 
iNnlifvitkia tbe hovobof the eartbtbut 
IBbiUiifr aaaofidiBg t9^)ln.BiiiiBon(^ 7^) 
ilKaataKm to kKVn OMttrrad- 
Mmi GaloDgtgqtig. a km m^m V. ft., of 
ia alaft« Juts Kokwio, On tin 
at. nooO) a^t a cloud was «acn 
«k9 wben aitddndr ^at i paat. iga* a 
thBodcring WAS beard intha'aMBlh 
tof of) thja.nW TolcMM).- a dark, 
na aam naMg JkfflM Ukber 
lk-aiibf«l Bpund^^ oMelf put tfviei,th« 
tkj with tach «ft ai^«Utng . rapidity that 
ife* aomenta tba whole IndMipe waa. 
iatha 4ar|oea» of^nigbt. Thmugh 
Ma«fla»hM of iig^taniti glfamed ia » 
linta, aad omb; Htvvos wer^ utrwlL 
^ friling atooaa.. Ilieq a .^duge of 
Wleraad flowwft mnd mm ovot the rim 
af Ik old enter and pound do#B tba iftonti- 
In mimt aveeping away dm« nod 'beatta 
■an bei^ca* Aa. the auaO' noment, 
ind aabea and land w«« prcgeetad 
highiatotbe aii; -'anf}.afi|bey leV dM^ed 
snriy croyihing wjUiin » ndim- ff' more 
iMiSO wiea. Afvw YiSkjsn$foa tba ' k»»eE 
dt^titiea of the aMiitaiiK' esoved*. jfrom 
b^ bait «a anteenoea aa ibey were 
iba atraaaa itf bU-iV^ltcr and' mud, 
ibe atMca .tb^mioal. 'Wl 'beyond 
W ^ d n rfioy iif •« .« griMei ^ipB, 


By 4 p. Kt, tWestreoie Tielaace of ilw anipfiaa 

had p»saad„ by aunaafc ibq afcy vaa ^nin «lear» 

and the ttw afaimng ji>n.a icm-of deaolatiM* 
A aecopidi ex«p|iof {pc^ifed fire day* afterwds 
and by Uiat iim. nore tbav S^tOiJO paraoaa 
had perished. JEUtavia ia bniU on botb aidaa of 
s aataU river aloMMt m a: moraaa* Batevia 
UeaideatV baa a total pypulaCioa 517,76&: 

Buropcana^... 6,6^9 
Cbineae......... 4j^70 

Arab*. 684 

Eaatsto peoplH.» 841 

Tnmbar Kesidency hns a population of 
t,376;dO»6f #hi(ih l,Ul,i7l are Na^W^s.' 

The Javanese are of short stsltire, the men 
do not kvenl^ more l%an 6 feet S incites^ lace 
tozenge'sbRped, «fawk bones high and promU 
nent, nHmtb wide, and now short, ' They all 
gamble greatly. They profess naboibedaoismi 
bnt still fbllbf» Asny faiirdu etntcmn i a few at« 
professing diristians. Batkria anohoragtf li 
shdteted by the Manda at the- nontb of the 
Bay. Stirtaiaii g Besidfentrf a town in Jara^ 
has l,OtO,S78-'of poptdatiOB'; eadaaif e ttf thb 
niUtilry : Tie. . ■ ■ 

Euioptan.,',,.. S,lG2| Aiabs,, ... 43S 
'NatlTea... 1,001,2621 Other eaatetn races 1982 
ChliTCse 41,441 1 ■ ■ 

Kear Samaran?, U the Head Qiiarten of 
the aripy of Ketherland lodi^, strongly foiti- 
6ed. Samar^qg ancborag^ ia exposed to the 
Western monadon. The tbirn ^a bwU on bo£^ 
sides ofa amall river. , . / . 

The pectus furc$tu* or ifcreen jqngle fetal 
ia . cmiwoi^ . in . ^i^jfi ; . »lap, ; Q. baaluva* 
Buceroa lunatua tbo .gyt«l v «pod*peciEar 
more than four fi^t ipn^ , an^ Loriwltta 
pusiUna^ .a p:fet^ liUja'> Lopl^fci^t^^ .four 
mchea long- ' jliv . Rcatc^ . ; (liyti^, of 
axe tlifl raUipqr bufatvpyipiciiif ea ^adepii ; 
the el^ant green and yellow Trogon ; HarpfA^s 
.;B«ifiWWilti, the gpre^pBp Ijttle ^nipir^ fly- 
■ catchfir^ ^ericrpcdtiu niniataa, ^hichkvks like 
a fiifM of fire ameag the biiahei^ and the raie 
blaf^ and crimBon oriol^AnRl^ipoa faogainal^- 
tns. The i'apilio (Uj^iut, has 4ts wings .coyerad 
with t^D8 of j^olden green. ai)d Coon^ also 

The Amphctrite or leaworai of ^ava, hrfs 
in holeaof the great , solid i^repafe*.- The 
gills of these loraly creatures aire in the form «f 
spiral ribbons of brilli^t orasge-green and blqe. 
These gaudy plumea ace alternately extruded 
a^d .tetra^d and «ein througK the pellucid 
Water» present a. viery einjKolar and beautifvl 

■.J4ra haa aaaen pigeons pec«ii«ii taitadf: 
a poaooak. ; also the greoD jungla cocfe ; two 
bkia grand r tbroafaeft Ujovga' cyaaea and 
Myoi^Dnia AsviroMriaX the ^ne pioliJMadad 
dpve: (BtitaBtiru P«tpbynii»)^i> urai ^htotd 

Digitized by 



taOsd gvomA irigMm (Ktonpjgfo) and many 
oUwr intareiUBg ttrd* fimiMl no where ii. 
Ambipdi]^ ottt of Jiva* — Adam's, SVav., 
Yk SI; fFaUaee.Voi. I.p. S4, 116, 147, 160. 
Mr, 0. W. £mtl, Jommai Indim AntkipgiAffo. 
Ffvter*8 MM^tame. OwionHea ■ of Btienee. 
KeppePt Indian Arehtpela^, Voti It. p. 141. 
J9o. 3, Jtmr. fnd. Atth. Cfw/ttrd. Sfkmore, 
J}* 74* 30. Jammat oftht Iwticm Ardt^^k^fOt 
J)«cr. 1857* i>.Sei. 

JAVA ALMOND. GMuriom oonmttiie.— 

JAVA BY'AUU. Tsx.. Hofdaim beueto- 
ohion.— ZiMt. 

JAVA CAT. ViremiQueniBgettlieMuiBODr, 
(tf the Javanese ii found in Java and Suinain. 

JAVAN. In ancient Santkiit literature* 
a designation of tfaa western worlds generally 
aupposed to be applied also to lonia^ M>e isl(^ 
(k Greece, and Asia .minor. In tbe form of 
Yavana, it i» also held applkiabLe to the Greeks 
and th^ deaaeodaats wlw raade uuropds into 
Jadia through the N. W. and from the 
Euphrates, and ire said to have reached Orissa 
through iCsthmir and the term tavaua was 
«ppliM sUo to Oreeha left by Alexander to 
garrison the banks irf the Indna. Javan 
or TaraUf is, however, applied by the Hindn 
both to Greeks and HahomedanB. Ezekiet, eh. 
xxtii, alludes to (he .Javait and Dan, but 
Yavana, has been used l^y the Hindus to mean 
lones, as it is used in Gknesis, ehnp. x., and in 
the Arabic Persian, Coptic and Armenian Inn- 
guages to si^ify Greeks, lOnes being onee the 
asprilation of all the 'Greeks. — Plato de Leg. 
iii. 68 4| iMJohnU Indian ArehipelagOf Voi. I. 
p. 9S4. TbtF* ^tmUj p, 875. 
- JAVAPHALA. ' B«MCi. NutmesB. 


JAVA FOaHPAIin. TiL. Hibiecna nm- 
diveana — ^inn*. 

JAVA SEA. In lUnrnary, the western non- 
eooB' blows idmost continually, witii great 
violence. In March it blows irr^ulariy ; in 
April less v ehemen}>. Mr. Logan writing of tbe 
i^rther east in the Journal of the Indian 
Archipelago remarks that amongst the lea' 
basins whose ethnic influence has been in opera- 
tioti daring all historic limes and Is uninterrupt- 
ed at the present day, are the China, Ualaooa, 
Jan> Mangkasar, Solo, Uindoro, Molucca, 
Banda, Papua, Jikdoi Wpnan, Fapua-Anstra- 
Kan and Fapuft-Hieronesian seas, and the 
Archipelagic eeai of Johons, the Tnnt-JaTan 
orTimorean Cbaia, the Bisayan gnap, the 
Holuoeas, Eaaiern Uelaneua and the dtOiirent 
' Polyneaian and Mieronesian groupa. All these 
bssina exert a two (old influeuee. They provoke 
a constant intercourse between the rivers of 
thnroppoitta margina or the IshAe scattered 
thraugh them, tbej bring the vMe u»der the 


opmlion of fnrefgn eMIInUbti md, openhg 
as they do tato -each o(her,'they aerlre ea bread 
binihways tr«wnlBg tbe whde Archipelago in 
different dmelioDS, and eniting it, both for 
foreign navigators and fdr the laore advamed 
and enterprMng of M native eonnimitkn. 
Upon the northern eoast of Jatm the pheneme- 
eon of daily land end sea breeces is fiaety 
developed. Snnihaya harbour in 6. Java ia 
8bslCer6dfnn»aUgale«t8anbayeKe»ideney has 
a popnlatioe of l,S78,600 of which l,2«l,S7l 
ennctivei. It Is btsSt on both sUee of a 
ndaU river whiefa it beiag vUemd iato a 
oanaL-^JS/laseni^ 67. Logwn, 

3 AVA SPARROW. lioxi* eryeivovt. 
JAVK. FvsiiTo. OVMm tomeetoaa.— Aks*. 
JAY BLIN, tbe anelettt German warrims had 
a custom of orowfiing tbnr javelins with 

coronals of leavec Awn the saeved trees. — 
PottMt'g We$(em fndii, V'ol. tl. p. t9A. 
JAVISLLlRl. Tah. OrewUhiffaeU. 
J AVI. Hind. O^. 
JAWALAU. Hikb. Onm Anble. 
JAWA. HniD>. Hibisoua foaa*«iMnaai, 
etio VIbsraum eothiifoHM. 
- JAWA, dr JaM kher* HlHD. Hoidewft 

JAWAerJAWAN. finrs. AlbagtiMtuo- 

JAWALA MUK^HI. Tbeiames* mostb, or 
spirits* mouth, a eetebrated hUl, in a sandstDBe 
nftge opposite Nadann on tbe Amritsir mad. 
A stream of hydn^iv gaa, whieh oofeee Aroa^ 
the sandstone, fseuea from ten or a doaea 
ftsaarea in the rook. A HKbt applied, the 
flame plays around the fissures whic^ the devo- 
tees suppose to proeeed from (be Mnk'hi or 
month of the Jawahi or spirit. Sea Joelab • 

JaWANB. Hind. ■ Cieer eoM{;arieank 
JAWAR. Hind. The greaVBiUet, HoIom 

sorshtim, SorghnsB vulgare. 
JAWA KAC£. See India. 
JAWARL Millet. Holcas sorghnm. 
JAWAR KHURD or bftrik. Hihd. Hohma 
eoighum, caHed '* smnM*' in oppositiow to 
maiae, wMob being stilt Urger is somelimcB 
called " Jawsr kalan,*' Wilayiti jawar, ImlspM» 
tl Borghum aaecharatnin. 
JAW ASA. HiHi>. Alhagi maurorom. 
JAWASHIB. AaaB. On. HiM». Op^ 
ponax ehironnm. 
JAWATAi. HMD. Keee. 
JAWBB. SeeJakm. 
JAWI.-i-AfaderaehtB Tadiea. 
JaWLF. Hnrs. Gedjan. 
JAWUL. BxNe. Odina woodier. 
JAWUK TAGH. See Knrdistan. 
JAXABTRSt the modem Sir river. Cheag$a 

khan and hii bttda issued from, ihe peatoni 

Digitized by VjOOglC 


Ink be^rmd tU« river. Oa the Mslm side of 
Centnl Asii, » ■ hrlite tnet, irat«red by tlie 
Kmt riten Uk Jaurtw ftiid t)» Oxo, imd it 
ii ii Uii httiAo tfMt ibftt tbe eonqaaMs of 
B««i win niMls between ISftiand )668. Af- 
krloDfrieMtipentiM fortifying petto, Rueaia, 
M 18M, made ■ sudden irraptiM into the 
np^ nlley of tbe Jaxsrtea, and in that year 
took thne (urU et Kokand, vis. AouUetta. 
Twfcirtan end Chontkend. In tibe apriog of 
1865k <be«hier of fUtoA Ml in bnttk, and in 
IiM the oity of TaahkeAd wha etomed. 
Oalba SOlh If^ 16SS, they Araxhtand vM tho 
kaUle of Irdjir, agnest the Bokhiriotea^ and 
hurinAhayearcaptuied the foita of Oratepe 
wl Juaak, within 40 milea of Samarcand. 
Oa tbe IStb May ISfiB. a great battle was 
bagbl tndec the waUa of Saflsnreand,. end the 
dtj uirmidered, and later in Ibe year Bokhara 
xUid^SmHtdgiliy Mewiem, /Wy 1868. 
Bk Xatenk t Unda; Kelott Kabul. 

iAT. 2n wooded ainiation^ oo the western 
oapB ef the K. W. Uinalaya, the trareller ia 
Mnth Ihn-ctenolerislie and elegant kwit 
taU lay Galoaitta «iMneia« Hum. Tbu 
gwarfal erca i n w nttwetrntlMttion not only by 
Ibe briKianey of iU phiiMge, hnt the loud, hanh 
mssM it utien as the tra?eller eppreodica, 
Bt*)erUD|c up ite long tail, after Um ■atiner 
«f tbe laappio, mnr mrrulena^ ebstteruig, aa 
Aeiiik repraaohiaig oM lor iaMrwliBg on ite 
bonti.— i4 dama. 

Jm CUANDBA. See Zoeoriptiona. 

JATAD£VA. Few £Qr«>eans probably are 
familiar whl( the name of Jayadeva, and yet 
Uii Bin, like Cboitunya will bold a promineDt 
pfaee ia eome tatnn bistonr of India aa an en- 
thMiMt and a rcfbnner, who has left n lasting 
iaplesB in BengaL Be- too iplrHttflKaed tbe 
wonb^ of Kriahna, and denouneed the eaete 
iTileBi. One of his moot eiAebrated poems *as 
1ruulai«d it foR.length by Sff WflKatt Jones 
ud 19 printed in one of the eerKvr volumes of 
journal of the Astatic Society and theugh it 
abewidk with that oriental imagery and< pasaion 
ahieb seem to have obBraeteriaed the moat 
popilar eastern bards , from tiioe immaicori«l> 
it osgtains some undoubted b o antiea, nnd 
Ihewi a aew light upon sonm important phaaeo 
•f rriigious development. Hia tomb is still ta 
W sent in the dietriet of Bkeerhboom.-— ZVae. 

• Simd^r^l I, p, it. - 

UTADRATHA, bint of Blitdbn, stole 
nj Draapadi bet wae pMtned and enplandi 
He took tbe Kaurara side in the batUe'tf Ku- 
Mabetra and was slain by Arjune; 

MTANTI. tbe birth day of Krishn. oele- 
Watoii at a fisetival by the Vaiehbara sect. 

JAYANtl. Hind, i^bynomene seaban. 
hi mMll yellow lldwcr ia held saond to Sin.: 

JATAPAIi. Hind, GiatoaU|liim 

JATAraAXA, the 'frnit of vielovy/ ia the 
nutmeg ; or. as n native of Java> Javapbala, 
* froit of Java/ is most probably derived from 
Jayadiva. * the viotoriona isle.'*— iWa Bomw ■ 

JAYAPALA- Sams. Croten tigliiim. 

JATAPUB. See baud. 

JAYASINHA, of Ambhere, adistin- 
guiehed netronomet trf He eoaetmeted 

a largo set of valuable Inblas} - orectod magni- 
ficent obeervatMlcs at Beuaree, Delhi, Kotahi 
and 0(^^^«. /for. VoL V, m. I77» 167. 

JAXATARUADKVA, fiae Ineerntious. 

JATEE8URT. See Bbairava. 

JAYFBUL. £i(lo. Nulmeg tnei Hyris- 

JATPUR. See Khaki 

oMTota. — Itnit, • • 

JAZUH. Ak. Hard. AeepUaUentax^ *. 
m aho— d an noli tax na Don-eoillbtaers. 

JAZnUH. AmAB. Aniabmd, TheBea oC 
Oman, ot Persian gulf, called also the- 
Persian Sea, and Erythnaii See, -aM 'Ihe 
Scaof Fanj bao levand U^s, the JbM- 
i-Lafst oaUed alio JaonJ-daiai, or Long*' 
Iiland, known on maps aa KiiluD. Also 
Khar^ iskmd, on maps Kumek, a emntt. 
island but mU watesedi not very far fimm fiu- 
ahir nod whieh oBoe belonged to th* Dutch, 
and iraa held ift 18SS to l&l&by the Brilisb. 
—OvseUf'M TravelSt Vol. I. p, 334. Kinntir't 
Geographical Mmmr t>/Mr Pakkn'lSn^Wt 
p. £1. Ce<Miel Cktan^'t HufhrMUt a»(l 
Ttgrit, p. 210. iWlerV2V-a«e2l, ^ei. I. p, 
453. See Am ; Arden; Ardekaflf Indct 
Iran ; Kashgoi ; Kabt Kirman; .Lar{ Laris- 
tan ; Oman ; Erythzean Sea. > 

JAXK. KsTlT. DaiciieaiDln.—- £^ 

JAZZEE. A lieev in eowliUteeb 

JEAPOTA. Hind. Pntraniiva -BMhughii.> 

J£BA1\ Ual. MuekJ 

JEBEL HASSAN. lAroeky pKMuntOry to 
the we«t of Aden, add very similar tolhe Aden 
mountain ; pruperly Jab'l Uassou, 

JEBEL NAUKOUS, er ** Uountein of (be 
Bell" is abont four kondied feet, in faeigbt, and 
the metnial of whiob it le eomposed ia a light 
oolouied friable sandstone; but an inelenod 
I^tn ef absoa impalpnbJe sand, rise* M an 
angle of 40" «it^ the horicob, whk& when, put 
iu motion rabee bubiqiI aounds. Aiithssr jBaai*> 
menosment thn souda.-m%hl be iieii|n>liiil to- 
the ftibtslnins of aB.iEdiw harp -when ila- 
itrings first catch the hreeao: as tbe send be~ 
comf-s HoreVifrfeotly agitated, by the, increeaed 
velocity of tbe deaeent^tiie noise.mofe aearly 
resemblea ihat produced by . dnwitig tbe mois- 
tened fingers over glass. As it reaches the 
base the referberalioas mttaia tbe kmdaess of 
diifuit Ihuader, causing Uw rock on ji^uck. 


Digitized by* 


WtlWed wM teaitea to tibnta, tttd Oi^JliHls, 
anitaullB not umif fH^htened, be«ira« so idann^ 
ei^ thtt 'it w« wtok difiieuHy their drivcm 
cwU4 VBUi» ihen. TIm Mufidt eobu^tism Ml 
quicker on the ear. at other times ' wwe' ibot» 
prolongMit hotliftii «irelHdf(«r rihkihgapjfeW- 
ed to depend upon tha^ ArtbtinereaeUt^ orhe- 
taidlBg the Taboity of iAm. AevMtiif~''9iiUUed'a 

•iZfcxMl*, 7ol. il.pp.'2iy U; M; 

-.JfiDDAH, * tpM ia ArnWa, on tHe bwdttv 
of the End ' Sea. lU «f««tid- pepul«tMn 
haa (Men dBtioMtttfd mt SftfOVd AeooirrtlBf 
to Oafteu BmoD/ Arabitii ciliea are 
none of them larst, th« po^Utlon ' of 'El 
MBdittAh:u inm I6,a00 to a8.«00, aiiilhe 
Kizam troops ia garriaon 400. ilvkm oontaina 
about 45,000 iDhabibmlft/YaiiAiu frma 6,OU0 

JEDDO, or Yedo, the capital af tl»e luafHra 
ot JapiniwaltoateA at inoit^rn tfxtnniity 
of the galf «C iha'BHDa mho, i»- «n i tto o a tw 
l^atiu-^iCteArMTfti^ and SU<^ Juptai, 

asaUS. . SteTin. 
-MBitPOOVA^. fiflro. ^hanuU-oTPdlnnc 
jim RbxIwrgUir wUab itf Indiii te»-atiDi« 
tk» ttalini nMsd tfaa meki'of 'diiMtfeD «• 

- JEBfiON OB JBfiBUWA. ' Bna Spoai* 
Qfftatitalia. 'JZ«9&. a^ of Oeltk •neiil«lif:-4«*£iMt. 

. ISflL U>UBtOH. Bssow PMgOUuB indt' 
omn, . . ' - 

JEBNaUA» DoK. Praarn. 

JflBIU.. UiND..C««ift teed. See Ul8i>jera> 

JEKRAOA. CxW.- OnnjaaMd. 
. JEBBik^-KANlS. Mavlx, Aaiued. • 

J£EaA*aUBKD. - BBiia. : floA^' Hih». 
Cumin seed. 

JBEBiei SBUBAb Bee Oyia aaU>a. 

JEERUK>'-£nitf. Gwuitfum loymiiiiun. 
CmiUMo eeWil . " ■ . - 'T < / ' 

JEEVA Sams. Llfe,'froiik >bv, iJ>4i«e. 

JEBTQHU^ flat UonieiMu : : 

- JKEYA'SHIM' B^Moj UbM /rdbrttorum.- 
JEHBTU. Seetnw. 
JBGU&A.Tah. Cla.Ttia f itillii.-^AwI>. 
JfiHAU. Ak&B4 a ^igioQS arar of tU 

uihoaedaM: gemrallj need 'to deaigiiate a 
Iter afftinst othei' rclifnioliitto. ' 

JBHANABAD, » tl« district of Sekooba. 
gDvnMl by a ufcief of Ue tribe of ^Mgi 'the 
moil:pMnrral.iD Beiatan. Sbaaepii'so caUed 
fftfU -flWMdc. tW naiilHMe of this oUefs 
MlfynAvBO of tlw psinlikpfll:plMei'iii<Beiii-; 
taM^JVrui^ /own. p. 416. - 

JBHAHABAD, « town In the HooftWy d» 
tiiok of B—gul near tbe Didkee 9ar tirar. 

JBHANDA& KHAN. &ee ^byber j Sfaah 

JEH&NGIB, fciairof Oelki, m» the title 
Miuaed by Belia, Ihe ooa o£ tbo tOfm 


iUbanoKUs«ceBabioi»tol&eUitoi»ii 1M». 
Hemrried, iff 1011, 'KurkFebna, « beootifat 
woiaan, ifllie'wasitbaMilOv Of Sber A%haa, 
Her nsau «a« atfuWiate4 «ttb Hat of her tau- 
batfd on tho ooitw; Hea btietber obtained kigk 
ofieet ftnd ber fbthcr wsl amde a anaister, aad 
proved an oMe statesiMA<< Jehao^ vaa ooo- 
tenqiorary with Jaaes tba 'Fint. Malak Anbir, 
aai A^aainian chief and AtiaguiBhad atatet* 
diao, topk obsfgb of tbe kiajtdoin of Abaied- 
nugpar on Uie astasnmUoa «f Oband SBUan, 
iiJ «000. He^bmeda rohilivooftbelatehing 
OKlhotfaroMj ¥W -twenty yean-' hv oppiaed 
(bo UogbalolbiUt bnd in 16 IS xepaked tha 
eflbiM0 4»f Vehangtr, b(i« ia Iftll be was ddeated 
and poHbaaed peaoe. Oodypoor . aubdiiMd 
to thepoarerof DebU in after barisg 

bam fbr eipbt eanOnriea iadiapeMtent. iehasgii 
ntM> tnniMd a- 'liaTWtree wife, the aiataT 
of rajah Maun. But tbe Bajptttfiee pria> 
oeat early pok aa anA-iaher iife by awallowiag 
poiaoBf diagoaled 'wMi tbe .qiiamlstdf kcrhos- 
baod and ao«. ■ In AlUbabtd 4hay ahow tbe 
saerad asrama ot'berodtagfrof Bbkadwij Hud, 
a binduaageof wliaantiquttyj fthd/tbe foia* 
Miflr-of (ba iHvMat ' Mookefjao Bratain, 
alao in.4bo> nodalo of tbo -lUiusro»'iteBb an 
thMoaaaiiMtaiiS) tvoawer tba priiioaa Ubaaroo 
and Poms, ■ and a third onr tho Ifarwaias 
Bagm «r Jehntgir. Tbe 'tonbo aaai aU cn 
the noddof anahaBiedaBTiriab.**^aV. fiind., 
Vol. I. ftp. 388, 329. 

JfiKA^ KAkAH, (it A *.'<»efecripfticfn of tbe 
world** ia a voric qnotfed' W the 'Ajaib^ 
bBldan.~Ot(«!£y« TraveU, YoL t. p. fSO. 

JEIHAI^'nVUA. a Turlcieh wprk pnatad 
at Goaa^atinopla in 1736. tUoufcb. bearing a 
I^uaian ^)it^y-0*ifd^M^av^t VoL Z. paSU. 
See Mqmn^i 

JI£UBi, The plaiiLof Dasbtri-Giran, bquUi 
<tf iC^wai ia inhabited t^ £(Uv an,. \ branch 
oC thci.lfd^ taisbq Af.nw>^r*S«9 KalaU 
, i&UOIAJ^IM» for tbrsA wcuiU^ of 
laaaU. fin .B. G. «e&y wtulo only 18 yeaia 
dd, N^cbadneaiar bunud and ptflaged bii 
paianBiSBdabe tetnpla of Straiaalem and took 
tha.kip^ aad Aia aaolhet and eourt to Babylon. 
Uews^ •aceaedadbfUa-nitole Zedakjab mmai 
Nabbohadntaaar placed «b tbe throne. But 
iaBvC.6ft», Zodekisfa robenoA and in dS8, 
Nebnohadnezzar laid . isfege to Jartsfiltin,. and 
IB. a JS6, took it by sMtfik - bornod the 
tdapioond palace and pHtoatiKedelriab** eyes. 

. JEHUB. HMD. a pile of watir poto pUoed 
one on tbe other. Tbowoid ia pronouBced abo 
Joftfanr «ia alio wriUon Johar. To labB the 
water peta off lba bead of a<direwqd voman, 
ia tokaply eooeeirt to mari^ bet. Tbe costom 
naeraUa aaoongst tho t/of, t^krar M^Gotgwr^ 
W priani^ XBOiigtMbc iotasx, wA von 

Digitized by VjOOglC 


wmadj ta B^pbotena tiUan te tlM Oudh 
mhI Dslhi pnriiMH.— JS<{t#i. 

jmNOKKMUGGUfi. A unttof Dmsa. 

JEL Hind. Atcm fahu. A. eatirt. 

JBIPOOK, WMtlmlutoflibBinriiKipaliljct 
of tUjpootuu to aooept ike pn>ie«fcioa teudeted 
by thBgoranUMtitcf fteiUsh In^is. lo Ike 
IdatmoaiNt, tkp debjed her MttcUaa. toa 
^itNi wUd wtt to baaiih fw mr Uie 
oeuet of «dar.^JZ!Nr« ft^oiAUii, Fol. 1. 
}k 371. 

IBHE K&CHUK&. Mai. BbTdum mx- 


JBJFKT. A li!na« temple in Chft Sfithntti 
eomTrr. Tbe sitnation of brado t«mpleg, 
ifter lilowing for tlie neccMary proiimfty of 
water, is gfeoerally tbe moec benutiM the 
Beijkbotirhood rfords. Jquri iemple i* 'ftrf 
rii^: it is said to exjpend liatf a lakh, 60 OOV 
topcea, ;earl;, i& th* expieosesmd eatatUi^- 
■nitror tk« deity, Kandeh Kao j honea trnd 
dc^tiare kept for bin» he end Ma sponK 
m bithed ia tjaages water, roae-mter per- 
had witH otto, aod decorated with gema. 
llf nvennea, Cke thoae of moat otber templea, 
IR derired from hootea and bnda ^tm by 
pou people, and ftom preaenta and offbrings 
toaatantly making by all deaeriptioiia of vo- 
tarintnd risiiora, according to iheif tneana, 
•r their faith, hope, orcharity. The Mnrfidat 
Tofflen,hoirever Daoierous, are iioi,perhapa, any 
eipedse, hut rather a aovree of revenue to the 
topk At the animal Jatra. or ftir, wUeh 
eoaneaees on the last day of the dark half 
ofChaftra, ^n lamtary) a lakh or more of 
pmoM visit J(^ari;it i8 cnatomary for tite 
nnl^en to aaetlAce a abeep, and the BraV 
am aaaert that twenty, or, In particniar 
Trail, thirta thouaand are abrin on ll|ia ocea- 
■o^lo tbe* honor and glory of Kasdeb Bao.— 
Mtor.p. 432. See KandotAh. 

iSK. Hind, Melia azedaradu 

J8KU. Ujkd, oTBasahir, Daphne ol^idea. 

JSli> Hind. SeabaBia.^!^ptiaQa. also Her- 
potda lunniera, B.B,§r Awia. 

JELiUBAD, a town near Kabul, alao 
tkpMvime of which it ia the capital. The 
tm ia CTieloaed withi]i mad walla, and ha* 
bataaMdiffenntappearanoe. The pronook 
otcods from tbe K«td or JagdaUak to Deka, 
■ iUnfima areat toeaat. Tp the aoMfa, the 
SiMt raiRa of Sakd Kob dividea it frvm Kfau- 
na, and to the noeth ■ kanfta -hiUa, of 
Hady equal /alevaUon, aepaflite at from Ka- 
Mataattd Bqar. Safca, the easCem point, 
hal«ha«BtniieB«ftba KI^Fber paae. Tbe 
hawtiM- vaH^ df Jdalabad ia ammdr wall 
««md. Beaidea tboSdEkh Bqd mS Kara- 
Kaaamber ofriTideta flow from the Safod 
Kik, aad the great lirer of Kabftl glidea 

tbromgh it, jrwaiviog i» iU «oqn« the oaiUd 
liver of Lvghnwb m^vmi. of jtba aMipwa o< 
Aliiha^ and AUngar, and Ipwsr down Aha 
fioe ri*ara of Kaneh, KboMr Cbi^ial. 
llHoa rireio flow fron tba Jiqrtb, and i«v« 
tbek aouroei remote from tbii pait «f tho 
ooaintr;. Theotiinate of JeMfhad ja remark- 
ably direraiavdk The winter aaaeov ja par- 
ticttlnrly d«%fatftt}^ attbongfa aubject ta violent 
wind starma : b^t i|t the amnueri in tho 
oeaine of tJw TvU^, or aJo«g tbeqoorpeof tho 
river, the beatjaexoeaaira.. The great aioua* 
lain range, Uw Safed Kol^ definaa the limita of 
JelalabfKl valley to the .aodtbt fiiid divide^ it 
from Bangaah, Vign* leiparka if JelaliJbad bo 
tbe Nyaa of; Arrias .«a it i»oat Ukaly i^be 
abonid certmnly think that tba 8afe<) KfA. or 
** White noanuiiii**' •mn Monot tf eroa. 

The plaiti of Jelrfabad ia calUfated to a high 
degree, Sotidea the Kabul rirer, tbe plain ia 
ooptMsly irrigated by other atreant, snd 
notably by tbe 3ettb Rod, which eMeftit 
from the west, wid fallafnto the main river, «t 
DaruMa ; by the Kara-^it (ortbo blade river), 
which, eaat of Balbk Bagb, anitct with 
tbe Sutlh Rud • and by tbe numaiou «bd 
bMntifnt apringa of SolUnpvr, Which' form A 
rivntot flowing tbrovgli the eehtre^f 4lw phiu 
by Ohar Bdgh. Few conaftriea oati poaaea* 
more attractive acenery, or caa ethibit ao 
many grand featuea in ita attiVoMiding laiid- 

Jelalabad is aaid to have been bailt by 
Jelal-ud-din. The town ia advantageonaly 
aitaated for coipmeToe, beaidea being on tiie 
high road fmn Peahawar to Kabul, roada lead 
from it to Darband, Kaahmir, Gliiznf, Bamian, 
and through Iiamghan to Badakbahan and 

The fllimate . of Jetidabad is Hke that of 
India, exeept ki anmer. Tbe inhabitanta An 
wmttly doM ta d a hto .of todiag . ppople, . . Tbi^ 
apenfc alao ihfl ffiodnatbani lapgiugab Jboa&iea 
Itanian andA%hianL Jalalabad oontaW mmjr 
a^pnkhral topea, whioh dao oeeor at Pazwita 
and. at Hidda or Idda in Ha augbbourhood. J^Ub^d waa. opened by Mr. Bfaaaoa 
and the inaeriptian maluB mention of 
Kadiphea. Of tbe Khyber tribee, ,pr9per, tbere 
ai«, three great divisions, tbe Afntdj, the Skiin- 
w«ri, and the Orak ,Zye. Of these, the Afredi; in 
iheir .preaeni jocallty, are the most Dumerousj 
the Shinwari, more disposed to tbe arte 
traffip and the Orak Zy(>, the more orderly* 
1^ AfhBdi occtipy tbeeaMemiwrts ofthe hHts, 
ikeareat Peshawar ; ind the Shinwari the irea- 
tera parts, lookmg opon the valley <tf Jdabbad.- 
The Orak Zjro Maado.ia TlMb^ inttittln^ 
with the Afredii and aomo of ilHa are fdnnd 
" theiiiUa aoiit^wea^|f,|i^^T(^. 



malek ot cliief of this tribe wbo 6aiKl8«fe-1 
Jfadir sbah and a fom of earalry, by the route 
of <;bata and Tirah, to P«hawar» wb^n the 
priDfli^ xoad Ibran^ the hilU was defended 
against him. The 8Mn«ari, beiides tbeir ipw 
tioa ■eftbe bins, b«T« tbelinda inaediately 
met '«f Hmn, wad aome of tbe valley oft^ 
Sflfod Koh ren^. More ^eaterly atitt, undw 
the sanw bill nmg^ tbey ai« found aoltth of 
JebUbad, and are there seisbbonrt of the 
Khogam. These an in tbe condition of unruly 
BUbJecta. There are dao some of them in 
GhoT-baDd, and they dwell in great numbers 
bordering on Banjor to tbe north-west, where 
they are independent, and engaged in eonstant 
))6stilitiei with the Mbea of Bajor and of 

Tinh and Charah are fertile and well peopled 
Talleya,eigoyi*g«oeplolintate, io wnpnriaon 
witli that of Peshawnr ( and it was not uanaual 
foe the eirdais, and others, who bad an under- 
atsndiagwitli the inhtbitants, to pass the warm 
weather in the former ol these plaess i which also 
frequsDtly beoane a place of refoge to the du- 
tr^aeed. : Xhe Kbaibari like other rude Afghan 
tribes, Mv« tbeii maleks, or chiefs, but the 
aalhority of ititeie is very linitud ; and as evuy 
individual Ima • voue vi pnblui aSsirSf it is im- 
poa^Ue to deaoiUw the oosfusion that exists 
ammgat tbem> 0( oounei nnaniinity is out of 
the qneatio*. and it^eBenMy happens that a 
uanawati, or deliberation on any business, ter- 
minates not by bringing it to a conclusion, but 
in strife amongst tbemselvea. The portion^ 
of the Afredi and Shinwari tribes who inhabit 
the defiles of Kliybcr, (hromjb which the road 
leads &om Peshawar to the JeUlabad valley, 
are but uicon^iderable as lo numbers, but they 
are extremely infamous on account of their 
ferocity, and their long-indulged habits of rapine. 
Uuder this Sados Kre prince^, they reoeirad an 
annnst allowanea of twrivfr^hausand rupees oit 
condition of keeping the 'road tinm^h thsir 
country open,- and nbstvining from plundtt. 
They dalled themadm, therefor*, the servants 
of the king.— Viffin^t FtrtKml NtmUwt, p. 
S8S. JToMon'k Jcmiff, 'VtL I. pp, 174. 
i6 UooWje$ '3¥atteSi; VoL L p. 358. 

Mohm LaVa 7Vaw/», p. 848. 

JULLXLU. S«e Punjab. ' 

J£I<A.LANI, one ctf tbe Biluch tribes who 
occupy tbe mountains and the low country, the 
Sebaroi, Suwarni, Gulamanni, Jelalani, Ghan- 
diab, and Shaliani are sections. 

J£LALTUD-DUI,kiag'of Kharaam fsitght 
wiUi CboDgiz Khan new Buimoo, in liSl, 
but was defeated and swam the Indus river. 

b( Baber, aad aeventli in deanot from Tinar, 
^ eUl^ aoB of ths empetor Hnnuyun 

and of his wife Hamida Banu Beg4m. He 
was born at Amerkot in the ralley of the 
Indus on tbe 14tb October 15 it. See &kbsr. 

JBLAL-VD-DIN, a farnxmi author of tbe 
Sofi sect «ommonly called MolU-liami. 

JSbAH OK HY0A8P£& This river takes 
ita name fiom kh« torn of Jhdam, bneatfa 
wbiabk flows. In Kashmir, it iaeallsd fiebai 
a contraction bf the Sansknt Vitaata, which 
tbe Grieeks altered to Hydaspes. Acoonling to 
Vigne, the term Gbikar, or Ghuka, or Kluka, 
is appUed-to the people dwelling on the right 
bank of the Jelam or Jylum, and Ghuka or 
Kuka is.-said to mean ritcht ; whilst those oa 
the left bank are oallcd Camba fsoin the Sxn- 
scrit word Bam the left. Tlie tract between the 
Cheaab and Bebat or Jelum is named the 
Cbenab doab, that between the Ravi and the 
Chenab, the Beohiu doab ; and that b«twaen 
tbe Beas and the Ilavi, the Ban doab. Tbe 
Jel*m, is tbe mqet western of the great men 
of the Funjsb, and taku its name from the 
town of Jelam. It drains the vallw of KiiBh- 
mir, and flows through tbe pass of BaramuUin 
the lofty range of Fir l*ai^Bl.'i'lie whole ojountNUi 
course of tbe Jelam is, according to Geueril 
Cunningham, SSO miles, and its fall about 
8,000 feet, or 21 feet per mile ; but in the pUin 
of Kashmir the fall is only 3 feet per mile 
From tbe bills to ita junction with the Cheoab 
below Jhaog, the general direction isaouth-west 
and the leugth about 240 miles. The whole 
length from ita source to its couQuence will) the 
Chenab if about 620 milea. The Jelam is the 
Hydaspes of Greek hiatorians, the fabulous 
Uydaapea of tbe Bomana.. Arrian and Strabo 
record that ; Alexander the Great was supplied 
by tliis river with wood from Kashmir, of which 
he constructed bouts. The Jelum riaea iu th« 
valley of Cashmere„ and draining ita watf^rs, 
flows westerly,, making its exit at tbe Pass 
of Baramula, and joins tbe Kiabengungs. Its 
Sanscrit name is.Vitasllia ; Vayat and Bebut 
in tbe dialects ; the Betnata of the Ayeea 
Akberi. Tbe last, which is still it^ loml 
name near Jelalpore (the supposed site of the 
battle between Alexander and. Foraa) isi.the 
l^obnble origin of the Hyda^M of Arrian, and 
the Bidaspia ol Pt*lemy. It iaeatled both 
Bendam and Tamad bj Hherifrnd-diii. ' O s » ^ 
ami Bata^ldt of Akmniar -and Fonu, 
hy Capt. Abbott, H. A., m tJttTmr. At. Soe^ 
1848 i» Diary of m rtiy io Find .DaJat 
Kham and ike Bait Baaget'' hf A. Slenmf, 
J£. B. — /oar. ^ 8oc.y 1849. Dtecnptiee 
Xoiife of ike ^elmm Diatriei 6g L. JBtmin^ 
0. S. Jour, Af. SoeAUQ, MopoH oir tk 
Getlogioai Sirueiure ami Minaral W«Uih tf 
tie Salt Mange^ 6p A. Flemiatf^ U. />. Jmr. 
Am* Soc^ 18A3. &vrve$ of ike Jdmm riwer^ 


Digifzed by 



S*. 7L 1861. EiMtary of ike Fin^aB, Vol. I. 
p. iS. CUghom't Pwtfat Rtpcrt, pp, Iftfl^ 
Ids. Cmjiingham'$ HitlBry of tAt- Pimfab, 
foL I. p. 9. 

JBLLs « ton in Belw^Htan In ilw woth* 
wcMm ((barter of Kadi Gnadafa^ in a <Kitrici 
itfdeta Willi noAumants, nnmaato of a former 
pwple, vbioh bear a gnat malogj to the poH- 
iluMis Ciitie vatiKea of aaoient Buiope, A 
kottpring, the tiarm-ab, pteaarreB ka tem|n- 
ntowthntiKbout'the year. Th»- Bidfburaou 
■(•rioft of Lakba ia-sone Uveoty nrilea aoaih of 
JcUt tben is anotlet a little- ImIoiv Scb«a% on 
tke kah vat of the Iidn, . ud ^jaia irtkor 
Toy hot wfm^ neai Kanriit TbcM aamal 
■priifftan foniid in the Mae Km of .bilU, and 
Ao9» inftfior ones at the baas of aufieriar 
iHuo Gliding- 9>nd and iwachii frem Beladiia- 
te ; nailu- the aanie billiv narth' ftf iell and 
■tritfSuran aod Sanni nro aolphar niaaa, 
inAiitioBa of the Bame- geblef ioat fommtin. 
MttadSbadia an tbeohief towns irftbeMay- 
ihtfi oneof Ibe Betoch tiibcB, who have faaen 
fanted for a long time in Kaobi. The; an dirid* 
ed hto. four prinoipiil familiea at (dnu, «r 
vUdi tte BotUH-iB. U« mm iUostrioua, and 
hriMhMtbs ainlaroftho wbofe. Tbeyboait 
of bdag to muater two thoMaod fighting 
MB. mnI wibea* nailed by Umaon, had 
\m e^aged in aidleas hoaUUty with tbwr 
MigMoun, Wo Hind, ao Mientiafnaahoble 
Uoiid-fiead exiating betweea the twO' tribaa. 
neMaggbaiA and tbe Rind- am alike nddiat. 
ed to the abuae of 'ardent ipiiita, bhang and 
•(Mai. <Cuhivatioo in the naigbbouihood is 
oteasiTe, pritaoifiaUy of Jnw and the caMon- 
flM. The sonnti; eeci^ied by tba Hagghasai 
■ abiindutly aaopUed with waUr^ifo*- 
m't ihmwyt, 7ot //. IM to lid. 8ee 

JKLLAS.ZAr. See Kelat, p. id». 

JBLLINGHEB, A river of Nuddea. 

JSLLY ¥tSH. One of the Bhizoatona, 
TtKse are hardeaed in China by means of alum 
ud eaten. Some are three feet across. lb 
i* the only one of the Acalephse knowt to be 
ued aa food.~2l<fa««. 

lEUJDAR. PxBa. Poroerly csTlrd r^ab-^ar 
* the " stirrup holder/* a parson who, on 
bot, Mcompanied a liocsemaft. 
^ .J£UADAB. a commissiooed native officer 
is the natire army of Briiish lodia. 

miAL-QD-DIN. See Abd-nr-ltaaduq. : 
iENlAU. AuB. A cveeae or duger. - 
JBIiBV-KEBADi. TXL. Bugwfai jaabeai 
ilHLAHGOAT. BaoOapicci. 
jUOJDU, also GheandB. Tbw fin- 
l^Mliia tirMaHid---£iMs. alio, tortilk. 
mkMlM ^ Uauy. AnetbniB gmnolna.- 

JUilA GHSTTU (HT faM.Chattv. Tu. 
Grewia rotundifdia.— lAMa. 

JBNGIANA. Bp. Oantwa. 

JENGIHRR. also, Agenglbre. Sr. Ginger. 

J£NGiZ I^HAN lired in the ISth eentniy. 
He introdoosd eonB|d^ ehangea in tha.«OMtk- 
tniion of Central AuB. Uagavoaproasinentitt- 
flucHoe to the Mogbnl race wJwr after the lafNso 
«l UuDee caotBriflay crossed the lodua snda 
Babert^and erctttuaHy aalahlisbed thsmaelffeain 
India, till finally remoTed by the Britiah. Sao 
Ohangk Xban ; A%baniaMu. 

f JfiNMXl. ' A liser near Jainalpeor aanloii>- 
paant Hui naai BhHmuiiu in Noaaeerabad 

JfiOKA. Hues. .n>rqniait»a of black- 
smiths, wasbennen, carpeuterai.ud othar vU" 
Uge servants. — SUiot, 

J£ORI. or Jiireeb. Hmn^ a.«c«dv a rope. 

J£ PAN, is « ootf option of the words Ni- 
Pon or fisaten tand,*r*-iljao«ft. Sea. Jopaa* 

JBPSTHAU. SeaSMrifiae. 

JEBAD UL-BAHB. AUB. Flying fisb^ 

JfiHAli KOTIAU* Uauul. Autidoo- 
jia pubeaeenaw— Aox^ 

JERU IIKA. ' UauilL. . , Ctetedandnn 
serratnm.— Mwnie, Bl. W. Ic, 

JGli.KAJO.H%iE^ • also. Kntdila. 

Odz. Hihd. ' NnzTomiea. ' 

JERDON, T. C, a medieal officer of the 
Madras Army, He g^re,'in the Uadns Ltteraiy 
Soeiety's Journal several contributigns on the 
fresh water and salt water fishes- of the Penin- 
sula. Also, in 1839, a eatalogue of the Birds 
of the Peninsula of India, arranged according 
to the modepi system pf chusifiioation • wilh 
■brief notes on their habits and geographical 
distribatioDi and .deseriptions of new, doubt- 
ful and imperfectly described species. The 
total number of thiSQiitalogne'was nearly 890: 
which, howBTer, inclnded 10 of Colond Sykea* 
and nearly aa many more obserfed by Kr. (noar 
Sir) Walter Elliot, of.theMadna CivitSakrice, 
who plaoad at Z>r.' Jerdok's disjiMd. nhmble 
natea on birdo-proanrad- hy hinft by which, 
ill addition to the new spedea added, this na- 
toraltst-wa* enabled to eWeidate aavend doubt- 
ful points, to add some interesting iafonsatioa 
oa vanons birds^oad to gim the correct native 
naiDea of moat of the speciaa. Snbsequent to 
this, Dr. Jordan pnUiahed «i aanea of. sappla- 
menu to hia Catalogte of Birds, corraoting some 
polnU 'and adding otheil* Jardoa's Birds of 
India in three volnniea, pmitad in 1 863 and 
1864,. haa done mach to oompleta our- know- 
ledge of thia olasa of the -animal Jtingdom aad 
Ma •* Hammabor India". TvabfiM in Ml, 
has been of similar valne icx that branch, 

XBEPALCONSvJonot oaeiir in tin Eaat 
Indies. The Bahri is a noble bird, and is the 
Fako peregriuLB, Gpt^ M Jp^BB?^* 




Ibwgh MM enottdoDily eondteit ttirlety 
oftlw Jer-fttcon. 

JERICHO, ai Mdtht cttf o^Ot Hbbntra, 
SMur ita the w llkab ■ BeiUaia vftl^ge. The 
skftBMtt of atrMtm areMnd Jeriebo an filed 
«itlk tbe n^bnk tKM, KpiNHnnklf indigeiioiis, 
aod grawiRf move loxiiriaMly tlan en tbe W Utt 
Kite. It u a nritrtj of the flhamiUi mi m 
Mi 4twn ivf bOliDMi u tha Bphw Chnaii, M 
vbioh Um Mviour'ft afaok owMi of thorn ««t 
■Mde^ The tirigs an long md jtliant, akd 
armed with small, tboai^ ibost eroel, thornt. 
The mUe applet wbieh it beataan aligbtly acid 
and eiealleatfer aUwiaUagtWnfc.— 4byIcK« 
iSamcfli,]). 68-9. 

JBSBaAM UULtiA. UaxIal. Xuidsnm 

JABEI. See Seraaar. 

JSRBKIAH. NMiiAr pvet tbia naiofe to 
tba Ambt of a dbtriet. The vattef. of Jeremiah, 
is a MielBaAoIf Mlitude, when, ithn been 
coDjectnred, itaod the vttlage ia vbidi Jenniah 
«at bom. Ai OM eaj of it is A oastk — 
aiBgnlarly ntaated an a lock eaBed Ibe caelle of 
the Ifaceabeea.— AKMner** Otwrlaarf Jintrnagf^ 
VoL Lp. 197. 8tdiUrtikiya» 

JEI^HHS. A TiTVr nekr Butwk in Chnpra. 

J^BIAM KOTTAM. HaIKal. Autidea- 
xnf pobesoens. — Boxh. ' 

JlE&IDAH. Accordfog tb tie M.S. Barhan- 
i-KatUk, this signifies a linit 6f small spear or 
lance. But instead of real jiTelins, the Per- 
sians nte in their equestrian exerciMs, branches 
of the palm tree (jeiidali), or sticks of some 
lieaTy vood, vhich they dart at each other 
with considerable violence, and from frequent 
practice, learn to parry and avoid with much 
'ugennity.— Ouse/^i TrateU^V^L p. 190. 

JEEIKA. Leeches. 

J£BMAL Goz. Aoainirta oocoulus or 
Coocnlva Indicua. 

. JBEN. SaN; InD. 

JABNAIN, kt. 14" 06*. N. Jong. SS** V 
S., ar iMall islaod o» tba aoiuh aide of tbe 
-FHsiati Ooir. 

JftHEOW. Hm. fiuM axktotelk.— Ow. 


TsL. CaiTota mena. 
Uauv. Citaua attraatinai. 
Onnye. Oiinw nediea. P— tfoarb. f 
J£RUKA. flAXa. Cuniaaeed. 
Limooia Addittiiiia.-»£in». 

JBBU-KANDBL. Malbal Ka«delia 
Bbeedii.— 'H^. d. 


mu KIBttANBUiil. Mauai.. Pbyllan- 
tbm nriDsdrtft. 
ISBVK-iJUlI. Xat. Onoge. 

JERUK. UANI9. Haut. Oiboa 
JBRU FARNA. Uaual. fiidaaflBt«.<M. 


JHBV8ALE1I, an anoieafr of 
Uebmra fraqaeat^ atykd in ^ Scnptvas^ 
tba Holy (iaa, alviii, % Dan. ix, 
Meheas. a, 1^ ; MaU. 6, Bevi xi, S.) aad the 
lews to tUs day saver call k by aav atbor 
appatU^ ^ El-kadua, that i% tlieboljr, 
ssaniliaiiis adding the epitbsfc SI Siwreef, or 
the aable and BialHinmlMiw atyle it Batt-al 
Ma^MMaa or tbaboly dty. Vfae prophet scribe, 
SaiB, oallad by the nabanwdansyOxiiir, wn aa- 
anding to mahoHsadaJk tnKlitian, «f tin imb 
of Jaeoh,of tbe tiiba of Le«>i andfonrtttaMi 
sn deaeeat hw» Aum. Tbegr tbat the 
Holy Scriptarea, and all the aanoaa and dee- 
tan ikh* oanMned and iatev^nt tbeie,as- 
eeptng- a. fbw who wen taken captina to Ba> 
bylon mm laToInd in tha daatraction ef 
JetoaalsDal^NelTnchadanur. Earn, who ms 
dsan my yoaogt was easoag tfaia cmmbM, and 
oontinoed to read and teaeh tbe Jaw of God bi 
bit eowitrymea dnring tfaeir oaptivrty. At tbs 
eiid«f tbe oaptivity, £cra ntunad to Jwa- 
aalcmt and sona aay then, abon, aaar Babyloa, 
while be «raa occnpted n weepi^ aeer the 
:niiBed t^y and (en^d of Oedt hs said tohia- 
aeM^ Haw can kUm /anualeiB diwrin agaiar 
Na aooMB bad be eOMilral tbia teght 
when Ood atncb bin- dead, , and . h* rMaainad 
aaCavoiiebundrsl:rnTevwbeB b» waa raiaul 
agebi and eaiplayed tbe net of bie dsja an 
earth in etfksning the word of fiod la the 
■Jewa. The Ohnatians of tba Beat ai^ that 
San dnnk three lunea af a weU. la wUsh 
tbe holy fin bad been Ind, and that thaa be 
neeiTtd tha «ift af Cba Hq^ GbaAt, whiah 
rendered him eapaW of teaatabUshitag the 
Holy Seriptmea amanx hia coanlv^iisea* Aboit 
100 miles aboT6 Kooma, on tbe rMiht bank of 
tba llgrity ii his tomb. It ia a prelly mosqnt 
of tetaellated brickwork, aurmounted'bj a itrsaa 
eupobi, and the comers and tc^a of tbe toaib 
are oznamented with large b«Ua of ooppei jplt. 

Jerusalem waa conquered and destroyed bj 
the Babjiloniana B. C. 588, sptl the twQ tribes 
of Jndah anrtBetijatnin, were then carrnd sway 
eapii^'C, for 70 years. They were then allowed By 
Cyrus, king of Medo- Persia, to return to Jodea, 
to n-build Jerusalem, and they remained triba* 
tary to Persia until that coimtrv was conquered 
by AiaXaader B. C. 330. 'jenualem was 
built on the hills ZIon, MiUo, Acn, Beaetha, 
Moriab aad Opbel,tb« nBUHidtaiaa wbioh ** ataad 
ronnd about Jcniahlem."i ila firet mm 
WM the eity of Melehitsdek, then ft waa nlled 
Salem Md then Jofaaa, but tbe tadba of Ba^jaaun 
eaUed it Jemaakm. The moaf intensttDg popu- 
latioaof Jera^9|e^ it 

iiil«lkr Mtbmtani, «r« aonfiMd U a 
wliMlaT ^uittt. THk, the holkw tpMB 
^ botvcM the uto of Un tmumA tmpla, 
■Ml ftrt put of Murt Zkn wbioh is iaoluded 
filhk themlk. It it «M UMr«l-d-y»bwl. 
Tlw kttbkatioBi » mam tftfmmue (man 
MIottt, lMui9gmaDa% fanik «f nnpolbkad 
Ms« haatiljr pat tdnaHiei!, witikout, any tft- 
topt m aidiitectaiiri am^ttishiiieat. Thit 
rfKtail KmptiaHy doaa'oot atiMfMi* . fwnerty. 
' iamom af ikem an m nay atraamataasaa* b«t 
ftm pndealial «oli«ai» ii haing fotmd 
Idooaeeal tiwr iralth. Janiaakra 
tea ^^Ndatfaaof aboKtlS^aM* 


Jtrmmiaiit. tSO 

SmriatM Copli»*.j..,„lCO 

PratMlwto 100 





•tola pmporiicn of Ue iew» an vomn aad 
lirik TW ■yntigaat in Jatupalaa are both 
INtaaduMU* Mfcwnag lo .tha.pDTCrt} of the 
|aM«MBB,or the vaatof at«ii-Jh>ni aUNnad, 
tiifia* pra4«ntial Motim flMKtioned abon. 
IWlnibaaf thskmfia, sidutaft ip a aaull 
11% lo the nartii of 4ha tAtj, h«ar tone 
MMfafaaaa ■ thaii genaia) plan ta ihmo of 
Tlwhw, Mrlipt IhatUiaf am withoaC (VDMnenfta, 
i w l ptiM M J f p aia lwl Then art <Mg- 
aiala <f g>i oap hag i ia nana of . than. 
imtdm k Iho Qplia of tba OtoiIh. 
lladUtf MUn MiMhry it tha iMAnbelAre 
.if aHp aad *'J«nualam varV tbit.Ulter 
w'lliift of ehaphtt% anaiibae^ bMda» atMiM, 
«h1 the liki^ inado for ihc most part at 
lekhkhm, and aeU to the pUfErim% - who 
MaaHf toak te iha koky aiijf to the Mmber 
Vf ahaatl^MOL Tha popalation of the ea- 
8ia^, or prowoM^ is atinMod at 
NMOO.of«l»m l«0,000 «n iiiahoiqttiniB* 
Ihrias to tha abaoDca of gaoci roadaaod the 
haBni% mmg from tha prada4orj tribai 
il the Badaaiaa iahilMtiig tha oirtefciits of tho 
imindf ml and fimila plaioa.lia waste or 
bat laitialtr and poorly coUivaUd i it ta 
hifaiad that aolpbww faitii«ai^ and wok aalt 
ot lhaahofai.of iho Dead Sea. Tha 
•metaUa predooe ia barl«gr auffidrat for local 
w miaw a aa ato. Jaffa ia the port through which 
JuaMkin dealt with fon^ ooantriet. The 
af Jaffa aperieneed a eoMidenbtc in- 
ialft6S; tha qaaatity of eottoo .ez- 
patadnwefiotti &5,000 ihe. ia 1863 to nearly 
M>a lioHa the RWHint in IS^, with a proapcct 
^tkaifeiift briag trable4 or qo^rupled io 
^Ui. There aie Hgalar Uae* of fnqoh, 
Martria, aad KoaMaa alevnan^ aad.a talmrf 
•Iha haa between Bqrnui and Jaflbi thaiwe to 
w«Miad «i lo dOeundrU. 
> .TiwuImi waadettwfed SSft, ita t^eoad 
.*BflawM qM^)lBtod3.C.10Ui Manh »5 
Siria«r-9uM U tha Afgtnm l)«re 

aaMrtad thai tii^ ar« fsauiafai of one of tli» 
UabiBW Mbearand u thia view, Uiaj do. aot 
obieol lo tha datignaUoB of Baa-i-Ivul, which, 
.of oonnw^. doet not include t^Tabadi or Jew* 
and Coant BjQrn«tera« (p. S33-334i) ataU^, 
that (h(i(f that Nebiwhadnezaar after 

the destruotioii of tha ten^>te of Jcratalem, 
removed theift; to Baaean, aqd that their 
preteut sane cama froia thepr leader Afghana, 
who ma aon of the . updo of Azof (Solonoafa 
WMir.) ,«ho was the of Berkin. fifr. 
Maason, howerer, (JourDeyi, Vol. I. p. ui*YT,> 
axplaioa that the introduction of the maho- 
medan futh, wiih Uia tegeada and traditiona 
af that religion, haa induoed all the Afghaaa 
to pmcttd to « detoent from tha Jewiah patri- 
•ndia and kiagi, — a pedigtae, hovew, which 
Mr* Ifataon ragarda at only due to tfaeir va- 
nity, aad which does not require to be too lari* 
oualy exanined. In another tanee, they affirm 
that thay . aro all BiuB-i<l8iBel. or children pf 
Isnalf . vbieh merely meaus that they arie not 
heatbena; for they afKrin chrittiaua, although 
aatai^BOwladgiog their pruphet^aod tbo ahuh 
•eat whom (htef revile aa heiaticat to be, eqaatly 
aith: theaMelyaBr Baa-i-Xvrael, although they 
molnda I^indoe, ChinetB, aod «U idolaters. — 

JPaktHiia ami Syna, Vok L pp. US. 

Troth, p. 9. Toiauewft Ouiram 
and Hmehak, p, 30&. See Koorpa ; Tig^i^. 

tubaroaoa* A epepies .of mo-flower^ ^ native of 
South America. It goea to aeed generally in 
Oetobor and .November, aa the, plaptt grow 
Ih47 ouaafc bo well earthed i^p, and if >Tery tall, 
■ay probably retire to be ^supported with 
■tidck Thia v^etabla it ripe as soon aa 
the italk witbert, and the beat method of 
preaanriag them it to let the roots zenaia in 
iha gnand. Tha atcma abound la fibres. 
To aov tbaii, piH.ei(het a half or awhola one, 
ata loot disianee, in. rowa, the aaaiaaapota- 
toes, Md atiand toi Uwm in like manav-' — 
RosfU'i rianU, pagt. 301. BiddiH. See 

JKRU^SALBM SAGE. Phlomit, &>. 

JfiHU-TUAKU, also Jaraiika. UmkU 
Clerodeodron terratum. — Sfmn*. 

JJBUVU, U»y)T Thomaa fiaa^ aathor of 
an, addreea to the Br ttiah Astociation on thh 
pregreu of geographical iu^uiiy in India,-- 
in liep, Brit. Aas. 1839 ; also fioau Geo. 
Tr8o«..Vol. iv. Oa turveyt in India in Load. 
Qeo^Traai. Vol. vii. lid, and Born. Geo. 
Ycans> v(^ir..it3, Qaomphiflal aod Sta- 
tittiealMoooir ofthe Koaun, Calcutta U44< 
JoarD«y to the Mis of the Cavvsiy and NeU- 
ghtfiy UaUsi Land. Indian Metxolof^, qr 
aOMKVVof .aoias, m^ts, at^iwr^i^ M of 


Indin, 1 Vol. 8vo. Observations on the bore 
in Oulf of Gan-.bay, in Lond. Geo. Trans. Vol. 
viii. part 8. 203. Topoftnpbtoat dMchption of 
-^fale-lnnd on Oalleiy mounuin.— Bom. Geo. 
Tnms. Vol, Ul 19&— i^r. ihtM'i Oatah^ 

JERWA. Arinr near Serotui in Bern. 

3ERZ. Pbh. BattMTd. 

JE3SAM!ME. See Kametl. 

JE3S0RE. A district and town in Bengid, 
the town 77 miles from CntnuMa to the «att of 
Barasat and Nuddea . Jessore, is an alluvial 
' district. 

JVSSULMER, « town and proTinoe of Baj- 
putRoa, conlnining Hajpals of the Bhat Beetion. 
The mlrr» of Jesulmtre ityled nq, form the 
dynast; of Bhatti, and sre n branch of the Yadu 
FHce of the Ghandrsvanaa. JessDloair, is separat- 
ed on the north ■ front Snhamlpeor by the 
great desert, and is the modem nana of a 
tract of oountry eomprehended aoeordinK to 
ancient geomf^y, in maroost'bali, the desert 
of India. It is tenn«d in the trsditionel 

■ nomenclature of thiBTcyion, from bcinjt « rocky 
{m6r) oasis in the heart of the sandy desert. The 
greater part of Jessiilmer is t'hul>or-rooe, both 
terras meaning a * desert WMte.' From Lowar, 

' on the Jodpoor frontier, to Kharra, the remote 
angle touching Sind, the Oountry may be der. 

- criMd a* a cotitinnoua tract ol arid sand^ fre- 
quently rising into lofty tceba (sand-hilh) , in 

■ Bome pMto eofered with low jungle. This 
line, which nearly bieeots Jesaulmer, is also the 
line of demareation of positive sterility and 
comparatiTe cultivation. To the north, is one 
uniform and naked waste ; to the wuth, are 
ridges of tock termed mtiggro, rooe, and light 
soil. There i» not a running stream throi^h- 
out JcsBulmer ; but there are many tewporify 
lakes or salt marahes, termed sire, formed by 
the collection of water* from the aand-hais, 
which are easily dammed in to prevent escape. 

- They are ephemeral, seldom lasting but a few 
months, though after a very severe monsoon 

' they have been known to remain throuKh- 
ont the year. Onft of theae, eallnl the Ka- 
n6ad Sirr, extends from Kanoad to Hohongurii^ 
covering a space of eighteen miles, and in whieh 
some water remains thnnighout iha ye»r. When 

■ it overflows, a amall atream issues from the 
Sirr, and pnrsnes an easterly direction for thirty 
miles before it is Absorbed : its exiaience depends 
on the parent lake. TliC palt wbieh it produces 
is the property of the onJwn, and adds tome- 

' thing to the revenue. The country still depend- 
ent on the Rawul extends between 7 a* ftO' 
and 73* 80' B.long, and between the parallels 

'of SO' and 37** 60' N. kt^ though a small 

■ atrip motnidca, in the N. E. angle, as high as 
38* 80*. This irregnlar anrfaoe may be roughly 
estimated to contain fiftean thooaadd a^nare 
milei. The Tadu of Jeasiifaatr, wh* ittM 

Zabulisthan and foonded Gusal, . dahn the 
Gfaagiiai as of their .own Jndn atock : a data 
which Cotenel Tod deama worthy of emUt 
Owing to ita iaolatad aitttalMB.tliaa8faae eid^ 
adtfaoraTageaof ilwlCaHrattanee. Thefnt 
ohief with whom the Btttiah OovefwMt antafw 
ed into poKtidA-velatiana was maha nanri 
Moolraj* who sueeeadod to power in 17<t. 
In 1818, howcvaTy a treaty waa aondudsd 
with Motdraj by w^ieh the State mi 
guaranteed to his poscntty, the chief wai 
to be protactod from serioua invaaioas aait 
dangers to bia Slate, provided the eaaae of 
quarrel waa- not aaorifaable to htm, and was to 
act in subordinate ce-opsntion to the British 
Govemmest. No tributo waa demanded froai 
hittb Up to im the Bikaneer Slate eaa* 
tinned to urge ita claims to territorin in Ur 
posaesaioit of ether chiefs, but iheae dMBa 
were r^je^ed, astbe inveatigalion of them waa 
ineoniistent with the of^ a gomenta iubaiitiag 
between the British ' Government -and other 
States. Duritqt the liCe-tiaM of Ifoolnj, who 
died in 18S0, tbe>atate waa virttially aroveraid 
by bis minister, Salim Sing, who committed tke 
most awfal atrocitiaa. He pnt to death near^ 
all the lelBttves of the chief. Tim town of 
Jessidmer was depopulated by his ciudty, 
the trade of the oouutry was intermptad, and 
the TtilKtives of the maha rawal who caanpad 
death fled from the- ooantiy. in 1844, after 
theoon^uest of Sind* the Ibrta of Bhagar, 
Gnrseea, and Gnttoora* whieb had bean wml- 
ed firom Jahaolmer, were restored to that 
State. The forta wwe given over hf Hear iti 
Morad by order of the British Goveroneoi. 
but no sunnud appears to have been given to 
the chief of Jess^dmer on this occasion. In 
1846, the widow of 6uj Biag'h adopted 
Ruajeet Sing, who^ i» 1868, raceived a fociaat 
sQitiiud guaranteeing the r^lti of adof* 
tton ; ha receives a aalute of ftftaen guas. 
The area of Jeasslmer is lS,8dS square 
mflee, the population about 7^,700^ and tbe 
ravennaa Rupeea »,00,000. Tba miUtaiT 
force of the State daea not exceed IfOOO aaa. 
—T0d*a RtJaaUiam, Vol. II. fp. t1(t, S?8. 
Trealm, Bngagemtmtt und SwnA, Vtl. 17. 
p. 154. Tod's Boyegthan, Fai. Il.pp.m, 
9S0, 278, 27 ». See Sajput ; Kdat ; India. 

JESUS, an Alerandriah author, voa of 
Siraeh, who enme into Bgypt B. 0. 133 and 
translated into Greek, the Hebrew work of his 
grandfather Jesus, which is named tbo Book of 
wisdom, or Bcclesiaetieus. It is written hi 
imitation of the Proverbs <tf Solomon ; and 
thonghita pithy aayinga faH far abort of the 
deep wisdom and lofty thoughts whieh crowd 
every line of that wonderful work, it wlH 
alwaya hefead wilh -pfoit asd nlaaeuie* lb 
tbiaWE.wa ^.^t^^i^^ that wo 



ti a Jewiab writw borrawinx from 
dv Qitak pUloMpbon ; Uungh kov fiur tlie 
6Mk tboaghU were part ^ the origisal 
htbnw n»j ba ikmbtwl — 8kani» Hiakiry 

jmua CH&i8'l\ ia beliaved ia by matw 
Bdlos aa Um fiub AUah or Spirit of God ; 
kon lainciilaualy of the Virgjo Mary. Tboy 
iQHt hit nuMMHi aa a jedaraMr aod aaviour. 
aaj Q< tba biptiam, bat ratEard bim as one oC the 
fn p hi ti «lHwa ialenawioB is of valita. Ac 
•vdiag to Mafconwd, Jesus wsa born of a 
Tiipa, was a propbet atid the Sptpii of 
M or Bah Allab. MabomM) in tba Koraa (o. 
t7)ii9i,tba aaiiela aaid, Obi Mary, vaiily 
GsdNadoth tbea fEOod tidinga thH Uok shall 
bw U» ** Woid" proeseding bom himself, 
bii MM iball he C^st Josus, Ifae son of 
Ifaiy. " Vmly» the likeoeu of Jesus, in tbt 
^ghtof God, ia as the Ukeneas of Adam ; ho 
«sted Um o«t of the duat, aad tiien said 
tato bin Be, and be was." ** God said, 
Um^ nrily, I will osuse thee to die, and I 
id tslts tbss ap unto ase, end I will deliver 
On Im tba uDbelievera, and 1 will place 
ttsNvbsfoUov thee, about the ubbalieren 
aadtbsday of retunetioa."— -Sara*, pp. 89, 
SttKarund ; Kidder. 
jnvUNE UAU HOLGAK, bis manso- 
Jhb ii acv tlie acena of hia KiMtesi glory. 
Sttldbr} HnkraUa Goferanenia in India. 
m. His». Soabann BnptiMa. 

..... Dot. Oatiat ." Gm. 

|nrt»J»imteMi.. „ Oi^ts, LaBtnaa It. 

Buk ec«L...„ fiao. Gsgu8.„ «ItAT. 

^,Jsyet...„ „Fb. G8gat«8...... „ 

JH tt iaporied into India, froar Europe 
d is only worn by Europeans, large qiianti- 
litsaCbgMiearo fonnd in the tertiary strata 
llieg the sea conat of India, bul noue of it 
liksa good poUah.— J£cCrifUoeA'«£Wam< 
Mimisii, p. <M. 

m.a toa. whiA aa Jat, JW an4 Jut. 
■MUBS to one raoc^ apraad fkom Uarat^ 
bM and Kandnbw, ibiougfaoot Iho P«qatr, 
dsvB the Indne into Kaoh'b Qandhara, and 
•Hlvaids to the Jamna and Chuisss, but 
«baeNr «pnad^ are aaid to rstai* * dialect 
rfthtirown to whioh baa been «;iven the naaaa 
■fJatki. UrAUaawsefliM to imply that they 

}mi m laiito of tho Go(m wbo» he seyai onoe 

' the wh4^ at tba eottntriea immcdi* 
^Mlysmfcandwnat .ofthaladita, Xho camtn- 
dn, ar anUTators of the 8ofl« at Jell as 
4kM|[bank iLaohi. an Je^ who thoit vhkwi 
«swahnod h«( on MbMka and nerer onksa 
Med. A Jit may genenlly aNn, half 
JaU, saatod«ial«anbttUoefc,«id.fonaidn- 
«| arMd with ma^loek and sword, mid to 
HiinthaBdwcst of £«eh'h GaadfaaT4 aa alaa 

iu Herat, Kandahar, and Kabul, lh«iy are saftn aa 
iUiiecant artiaansi iiktt gypsies> In the Fa^jsb, 
they an not found west of tbs Jelura, but eatt . 
of that lirer tbe Jet enltirators uae wm))IIO"b* 
Tbe Jet has bean so long aeUleii in Kach 
Gaadhava, as to appear tbe aburiginws. 
Amongst tbeir numerous suh^liTiaiona ant tba 
Kslors, Kxikai, Hampi, I'uniad, Abrali. Ao-> 
cording- to Molutn lisl, ihe Sikb Jat sre poly- . 
androQS, and one brother lakes bis bratlitr'a. 
wile.— ifa«»Mt'< J<ntmeif$, Vol. u. p. l%o, 
Manon's Keiat^ p. ^b'i. See Jat ; Jut. 

JKTEbi or Cbitiee, or " Hajraabal Bbw- 
striaiE oreeper," Msrsdoiia traaciesioM, grows 
in dry barren places. Ita dried milhy juiae 
ssrvea aa a cMOHtobonn. Ita fibres are made 
iato thread, twin^ bow-strfaig, and rope. It. 
belongs to the family Asdepedete^ — JionU's 

JETHI MADH. 6dz. Hinj).. Boot of 
Glyoycibics glabre, Li^jaorioe root also G. 
TriphylU, Xbe Jetimad'h, or Liquorice root of 
oommeroa is obtaiued ftnm tlio Glycyrrhiza 
gUUra of Europe, dyna and mount Caneaina. 
euUivated in Eugland and 6. eeUnato ia of 
Tartnry and iiortberu China. 

JtSlXMAD'H KAEAS. Goz. Um, U- 
^orioe juioe. 

JSTKI. tbe langnagea oF the Jet rate, ia 
Balueblstan. ^ India ; Jat ; J« ; KeUt. 

JEXl^UtAXSI. GQa.Tbi.. alaoChebur. 
Gdk. Spikenard. 

JETil, ia Sontbem India, a sort of emstue, 
which is worn over the first pbaJanices, on tbe 
right band of the boiert, celled Jetti. It ia 
made of buflblo horn with four sharp projee- 
tMOB like knuebies* and the fifth near tbe little 
finger, with a greater prODsiiiOHce than the rest. 
Tl» hitting is by a sharp perpend^wlar cut. 

JETWA, the rana of Porebunder, styled 
Paneheria. wpreseutt the Jetwa one of the four 
nnment B^jpot laeaa, atiU extant in the 
KnUyaawr-peninsHla. lathe days of SUmnd, 
all ihe.weat end north of Kntiyawar belonged 
to the Jetwa fiiupfita, bvt Urn foraya of tbe JbeJa 
and Jhaicga faare oonlood them to thefr present 
di8trio^ the shagtcy range of kills oallrd Burdo. 
Tbe Jbala, of KAttyawar who own tka.n^ of 
Httlwud I>r«agdra as their chief, are sappoeed 
to have sprung from an o&hooi of An- 
bilnana, on tbe extinction of wkidi dynaaly 
4begr obtotned large territorial aggraodisement. 
Th« thdEur of tfurri in Kat^rawar is a Jahrqa 
and was tbe first iu Oohniel Walkw^a time to 
abtndon iniantaeide. He has possesaitma ia 
Gutah. See- India; K^ttiwar ; Ksjpoot. 
■ JBU. Adaodlngto tboGnoatiflswaaAdam. 
** .the primal man." 8eeAdamiAdam*B peak. 

JEW, 1b tA\ mdkomedan oountoies, tbe 
Jew* are kooirn as Tn-bud or. Yahndi, i. e. of 
Ithe^tribe of Judab, ^,t«;i|^j^ng|rded 

: W ' 


both hy tbeonolnt kmI tboM who apply it as 
ft denwatoiy upprilation. Od tbe jEtoiibay 
oMit, tbej atyle UteaaeAvM Ban-i-briB. but 
thii uma b med by tbe Afgbm, for ibem- 
mIw, u alio for miboiiwdaM md ebriattaM, 
who, m pMseaaors of mealed reti)eisnB are 
vegKrded aa ehildnn of larael. Jewa an found 
eoBttered thfoagkoat oentral, sontheni aitd 
easlern Aeia. Thej are, boiKwr, moaVnuiiKr- 
ona in Kurope, PaltMtiiie) Bgypt, AraMa, Pmla, 
Bokhara, Khira, Affghuristan, China and on the 
west coast of India. They are more seldom 
net with in tiie farther Muth-east. They ; 
ware foiaMtly widely Boatt^^ed in China, and ' 
poaaaMed a teaaple at Yih-Otmi« the eapiul of , 
tbe^triotof fiHitth^ now CMnpf-ta. In none 
of theae ooniitriaa har e this |Moplo obUaaed j 
high ciairioynmita vAder tbdir mint, bat hi > 
£^ypt and Syria, thdr position seoDS more i 
ftdf^htaiteoaa. Throughoat 1*erua, bokhara i 
and ACghaniktatt, tbM oecupy tbemselTea 
m fettj trafia, and a* banken and ij^t <Ke- 
lillerB> and in tbe Bombay presidenoy, tbey 
ind eaaployment in the sabordioate offiees af 
Gorcmasent and in the native Army, where 
tbey generally rise to be petty ofReers. A 
fnlony of this people have recided' at Cochin on 
the aoath-west of the Peninsula of India, enr 
ameelheefcrly oeaturieaof the christian erii,iiDd 
wilboot qaotiog her aothorily* Ura. Elwood 
deaoribes this aa a branch of the tribe of Ifan^ 
nataea who, on tJw dowahU of the Babyloaun 
rapir^ aflar ■ jomwy of tbtee yoara Itom 
BabykiD, settled ia Makber. Knksl Kcto 
Nair, ik» BMtt reaent writer on this point, is 
-of opiiuw that at the time of tbe grant of the 
Koa. I, 3 aad S copper plate doeuments in the 
Jews' poaaessiea, and possessed by the Ohris- 
tiaa •diurc4 there, two towns, via. Ifani^ratt- 
wua, whioh Irani Xortea of Mahadeva Patitam 
vbtained by No. 1. in A. D. and Aohu 
Vanaa whieh Jose^ Kobon a Jew obraioed by 
Jfei iL in A. D. IM, veroobiefly bibabked by 
Jamaod flyriaa «hriili«a«) atd he thinka that 
doowneat No. ti. was granted is A. D. Sli bj 
4he krt pBftMal tvtba IMsa Falli or ehurab. 
Aad, from Uiia, it Is obvious Unt the Jews and 
Syrian OhriaUans mutt have arrived in Malabar 
iMfeve the date of the docameots i. and iii. Tbe 
Jews have not maoh inmaaed. Chmtiana, howo 
«v«rioelading the Bynaas proper and those 
lowing the &«ish peiwasiai, in nwn- 
bcaredin XravaMOVOt 181,099 eonlft, iw Ooehbi 
•44,574, totai 325,6g3 settls. But the Jmts, 
in ISGO, nvnbered la Travaneofo only lU 
eouls, nd 1277 in Cochin, with a fsw at 
Chaaghat in tbe t\ia$k of llalabflr. &i the 
faod, tta 4othing of the men, and langaage, 
fityriitt dfariatiam ara «ot to bo diatlngdish- 
ed from tbe hindos and fc« of them know'the 
^rriu lasgn^. The ieirt are m nmj of 

these respeeta similar and some of (hen 
are Mack ia «oie«r. Maay of tbem an 
wiy wealthy, posaeae gardeas aad lands and 
f^biw tiados, btit aa to tbe eansea n* 
straining their inoreaae, nothing is kaowa. 
hCany aaUiavs hare endaavoared to trace tbe 
tribes who w«re removed firom their poaidea in 
the Koly Z«attd and Sr. Wolff, who Umf; 
wandered la eeareh of tmaea of them, is qaoled 
as beiuK of opinion tka,\ If tbo A%ha«s be the 
descendanrta of Jacob they are of the tribea of 
Jadah and Betijamhi. Bat en the subject of 
tbe present looulity of the ten- tribes, whom 
the aonqaeste of Salmanksar dispersed ever 
Asia, writers, ia thbir desire to dmceverthcai, 
have yielded aomoeh to their iaMfriaatioaa, 
that oaaea of them hava been sapposed Ui he 
foand In Meiioo, Hatabar, Bntihitid, fepaa, 
Affgbanistaa, Abysrinia, aorlh of Africa, Centnl 
Africa, British Indui,Pegu andPera. The facilitiM 
with whi^ paatorat noniade raoes ean remove or 
be removed ftrom one place to another, and tbfl 
practice with eastern oonqnenwa of- eaddoely 
transplanting a trouUeaome or refractoiy m- 
ticm, may hi^e Mlitated the disappearanoe of 
tbe Jewish tribes who se-m to bareeaHy abatt* 
doaed tbeir faith and-to have laliijcled wHk and 
been fused into the masa of the people of tin 
oonntry or couatrtea in which Uiey had been 
hmted. A mamonble inatonoa of soeh voluttla- 
lymifEAtioB waa afforded ia the inataiMtfaf 
I00,00a KahMok fhmmra leavim; thaBlaok 
Sea to return to Uieir nomade Kfe in thi East. 
Several instances of vahuitaiy and forcible mi* 
graiion in AffghanMafl oooamd towards tba 
middle of the nineteenth oenlury. After 
the EnitHsh mission had left Herat, the 
vitier Xar Mahamed pressed Ibrahim 
Khan of Oonr, who bad TiOUO fcmilies of 
Taymunf under hl» rale, and aftnr bovii^ 
oomplfltely devastated Ibe emietry whioh Any 
ooeopied, Yar Mabmed removed tbem to 
Herat were he established soma in tbe eity sad 
tba fBWaiaiiT'io Uuairtmrbs. Babea^aehtly 
to tiilB, ia tb» begbuiittg of 1846, vbaa Tar 
UMionbed marebed irfah hb aAay in (be dine> 
taea of the Ubif;bdb,-oB thebailka dfwhisb 
river eooie Hazara Zehlaar wen eooamped, th^ 
decamped intb tba Fenhia teriitory; aM^ Asaf^ 
■d-Dowtab gave them tbe viHage of Kana ea 
the -fmnlisr of Heval. After ibe removal ef 
Asof-ud Ooirlab, however, in the ekm of IS4^ 
Tar liahombd marohed agaiMft these amaK 
Uabek khdnata In the north of KboMnrj asid 
atUc^ ' and defHatod tbe Uaaarah -ehief 
Karim Dad Khca, ia the open leouMty of Kil;- 
lah*Dun. Yar Blahomad eaoUaped opoa tbt 
field of batMfc, andia the spaaa -of eiabt Jsya 
aaUeeted laa tboaand Itmifias of Ifca Haiank 
g iA da ut whom he lemoved from' their mfSn 
aoa to that f|cf, <of ^>^M«^of Hent, 




Obeh fa Goiun, when he sQttkd 
lka«ihsb«kaeflhaHeri*Bad. BytliMe 
M migntiom of the TayAooni ud Ha- 
■nk, lbs Hent prineifnlity beoMne more popvr- 
imlkat it hkd beM prtvionily to the tiege of 
Jbnt ia lasa, ud Tar Uafcomed eUMoed the 
Mff idvaatage of loeepios under hb eye the 
aattaihalaet I'ohahatairta of hia ilmirfoiena> 
iltaadaeueUMl aoMicw of thsM! Stmak and 
||lkv aBatpMtkw wit4 the A%^t it hit- 
Cm alaoitiapoaaihle for iht fonner to betray 
To MMW aoch feveed or Tohintaty nigra- 
Kavaaaj attribiite the dbeppeaianoe of the 
Ithnet. Om of the traditioiu cenneoted with 
U knk peaplB hasbaen that thej wen 
Imm m tn Tuluy, end there are a eooiider- 
Abuwbrol theae reUfpenirta in tfaelerri- 
«M Hlyeel to Khiva, Mary md Bokhara. 
]itW«fafaratcd hitler ftom the Tmtar aover- 
a^ haier Joba, tO' Alexiua Oamnenei, the 
mftm ft Comtaotnu^ler m daacribiag- bis 
ImMn, heaves, beyond ihis river are ten 
lAMof Jen, who. olthoogb tbey prsteod to 
kn Uiaen knEa, eie nemthdeaa ov an- 
wd tiibntaric^ The •atbentS^ of 
Ihh hMr ■ doaheed by maay, but m lureo 
HAlnRbi Jewaara itanrUwd «e beiMiD 
ttinief Kahlai £hMi. Aeeordng to Dr. 
iMi^tkChnni TartaiB were Iitaelitea^ pro- 
Imkf lb iewieb mligion and pnetiiing dr- 
mm aid niMh hai, by tome authors, 
mtk ef A« nreMaatatoe already ootioed 
the Affgbau still eall themaelvei Bio-i- 
One ef tho lefeade of the AffichaiH, ia 
tt^ vwe 'itfm whom NebuehadnesEer 
after the overthrow of Jerueatem 
tketovn rf fibor, near Bamien, and that th^ 
■^—4 m tWr futh tiU KaUd, in the fint 
•f Babonadausm anniiiOBed tbm to 
I the wars with the isfidela. The 
leek like Jewa, bH tbia may 
mi ef nany other eastern meee. In one 
that of the youmr brother mar- 
Iha «Mw of Ae eUer; the Alfghane 
iht le«4sb people. Hrw Maaeon no- i 
Ike A%kaa Mtertlon, that ^ are de- 
ef the Jewish people » merHy te ob- 
ihitthii asaertioai is dtte to their vaAity, 
ktt its OT^in in the littnitare of their 
idigioe whtdi hsa nadetbem neqiniDt- 
*iik Ike history of th* Jews. He atlndes, 
',to sone evsioQu in tbe>tribes holding 
KWhar peas, who wailr locks of hnr in 
man to mental Jews. He tells 
AiatlkHB are a few fkaittics of Jews at 
tolerated as to 
, , , M wmaa eonnMid 
J> n^ecV whi(^ ia • ehovn to AraMHfaUH. 
MM, they are permfHed to uAe vinous 
flliriiikwui liqoort, and they depend <Ai^y 
^wlird&eod sponthe elandeaiiae aele 

■H bHwkae perfeatiy 
■MHarfith, they by BO 

of them. Some years aiaee, a Jew wat heard 
to speak disrtspeetbilly of Jesiia Christ; he 
was arraigned, and conTieted before tbe midio- 
medan tribuof la on a oharfte of blasphemy ; 
the aenteuce was ** sang ear," <n te be stoned 
to death. The unhappy culprit waa brosght 
to the Armeuians that tbey» as pattiedlaily- ia- 
terested^ might carry into effect the puniabment 
of the law. The; dccUaed, on which tho maho- 
medans led the poor wretch without the city, 
and his life beoame the forfeit of his indiaoro* 
tien. It was siufcular that an attack upon the 
divinity of our Saviour sbMld have been held 
cogniaable in a raahomedan eoeleaiBatioal court, 
and that it shouU have been leaented by 
those who in their theological diapulea with 
christians never fail to cavil on that very point. 
The Jew, in avsniog that Jeana Christ waa 
the ion of the carpenter Joseph, had diffisred 
froat their own belief on that subject, bat had 
not the asaertion been made by a Jew* who 
would have noticed it ? The Jews an every* 
whoe the despised, fcbe nyeetod mcc. 

Jews have existed in la^ ooloniea in Arabia 
ever ainee the captivity. Iii no coualry have they 
preserved their nationaliljr more completdy^ 
thfli^li surrounded for eenturica by lioalile max 
hemmeda» tribes. Their own traditiau aaacrta, 
that dnring the invasion of Pakadne . hy Ke-- 
bDohadnezsar, they fled to Skypt, and aobaa- 
quently wandered further south, till tbey came 
to the mouQtaioa of Arabia, where they pet* 
manntly established their homes. The fertility 
of the auil, the aalabrity of the climate^ and its 
picturesque scenery, rapidly caufeed the little 
c(^ny to increase, by atuactiug fraah amt- 
grants, who aooght that peace which their own 
distMoted eouabry no longer afforded. .Inured 
to hardships and miaed in war* these iasaffi 
cokmists soon gained an asoeodaney ovs thn 
wild Arab tribes by whom they were suiround. 
ed^ and in a little time the exUes of Jodsi 
reigned where they had . before mdj beaa 
tckuatod. But the bilioduotioii oC roshwnr- 
danism materially altered their poiitiui, and 
severe enactmenta eonveited thdroMiB pnM« 
pflious towns and villages into ohsntel houses. 
Notwitbetanding thia perseootion, hoawver, 
every valley and mountain range still conlaina 
Duiabera of this despised bat undying 
race, who number not less tban iQQfiOH. 
souls. At Aden the Jews are filthy in the 
extreme in their penoaa and habitaUone, and 
even the men wealthy of the oommnnity are 
neariy as uncleanly and parsimbniona as tfaeix 
poorer brethren. Thapntnpal trades which 
Ih^ pursue in Aden are those of maan^ 
boUdera of Med and mat honaesi asd wt^ma 
in i^ilrar aad oatrioh featben. In othea.imts 
of Arabia, they are the most active, indnetrious, 
and hardirorking people ^ ^he.^oi^^v^d^- 

169 w ' ^ 




red from the calUrttioa of the tcnl, th^ have 
become (he -nonopoluen of erery lueful art 
and every brsdoh of trade; yet in the bauare 
and Btre^, #ber«ver me wander^ the haggard, 
wan and care-worn itw w the most pitiable 
object. Throughout atl these countries, Jews 
are held in great disettedm. A Persiiii viU 
admit the christian to bis boote, though be 
takes oare to separate liis eslablisbmeDt from 
the leet of the house ; if hie goest should eat 
with him - a separate tray is provided, and all 
contact avoided as much as possible. Jews 
and chriaUana are not generally admitted in 
Persia into the public baths. Kven when 
European gendemea go to these, it is asual to 
Kive notiee, that they may be made private ; 
and thie is toluated more beoinaa government 
find it their interest to be civil to them, than 
as a right. Were a European to travel without 
a mahoiuedan guide and in humble guiae, out 
of the Gomuott traot he should find strong ob- 
jections made to hit frequenting the maho* 
medan baths. In Persia, christian or Jew are 
not permitted to enter into any of the princi- 
pal mosques or places of holy pilgrimage of 
the country, and it is similar in Turkey, A 
poor Afmeniaa or Jew would incur great risk, 
were he fowid within the eepulohre of Iinam 
BiM, or Fatima, or the gnat mosque at Shiraz, 
or in Ue aeeques of ConBta&tinople or Damas- 

There were only a few families of Jews at 
Herat on the arrival of the Koglish Uiuion 
under Captain Todd, but tbey are aetthKl 
in numbers in different parts of eastern 
Persia and Turkistan. Those of Herat were 
very well affected towards Captain Todd'a 
parly. ' They communicated with each pthur 
in the Hdmw character, though in the Persian 
language. When M. Ferrier passed through 
Herat, the Jews were rather numerous and 
allowed the exercise of their religion. Tlieit 
number had inoreaeed on account of the per- 
seeation to whidi tbey had been eubjeeted in 
Sieshid. • 

Bfosea led the IscaeUtee' out of Egypt and 
the law was delivered on Siuai fi. C. 13SQ. 
Bunsen*s Egypt Shalaaneaer in B. 0. 7S1 
carried ten ot the Hebrew tribes captive to 
Aaqrria from which date their history is lost. 
The ancient Jewish era was composed of lunar 
years. Their mundane era is also of lunar yoara 
and its origin was in the 14tbor llth century. 
The mundane era or era of creation, is the 
aame as that of Alexandria, 4004 yean before 
the Dyonisian or vulgar era. The Jews made 
it 248 years later or A. A. C. 3761 which ia 
atill the epodi of their mundane em. 

How many of theJewiah peoi^ebave beeome 
chriitiansis not known. The first aoene of Paul's 
mioiitnttioBa in Ephcsus, waa a Jewish eyoa- 

Rogoe ; for at an earir poiod, eokmiai of Aat 
natbn were aeatlend over all the east. Bapa- 
rated frem tjidr aative bad by the fortune of 
war or the pursnite of commerce, th^ itill 
retained thcdr nstioual eharaeler aad peeiliar 
ritual, oooasioiiaUy travelling to Jerusalem to 
worriiip and sauifiee in David's 'dty. From 
the book of Esther we learn, that in the T«gn 
of Ahaaueras or Artaxarxes Loagimanus, V»e 
Jews were fouud in all the proviiioeo of Fmia, 
and in a sufluiient number to defend theaadvcs 
from a formidable oonspiraoy of their eneauss. 
After their captivity in Babylon, tb^ woe 
spread not only through Asia, but Afiioa, and 
the European oitiee and iaiaade ; and benee, 
Stnbo^ cited by Joa^htta, atatea, "this people 
bad already pasaed into.cvary eity, nor were it 
easy to find any place in the wwd, wUeh had 
not leoeived this naUon and been poseessed hj 
it." In the time of Tiberius, it is related, 
that four thousand Ubertini of the Jewish sa> 
perstition were baoished into Sardinia, and the 
rest commanded to quit Italy, if they did not 
abjure their religion. Pbilo speaks of a great 
part of tha city beyond the Tiber, being iaha- 
bited by Jews, meetly libolini who were pff- 
mitted to live aoeorduig to their own rites 
and customs. We are not, tbeKelore, surpiised 
at finding a commnnity of Jewa in the bosem 
of tht JSpheaiao idobUiy : the extent, we^, 
and commercial importanoe oi the eity, wouUI 
naturally make it tt»e reaart of all nationa ; and 
the dispersion of a portion of tbe eboaea tribm 
in the high places of lieathentsm, waa doubtless 
an ordination of providence, to give a publie 
testimony against the abaminatiena and enon 
with which they wen charsctcriaad. 

Libert**, according to tbe HomaDe, vas one 
who had been a slave, aad obtained his free- 
dom ; libertiuus waa tbe aon of a Ubertus, and 
in Acta vi 9, mention is made of the ayaagogae 
of the libertines. 

The Jews of Malabar are etilt diatingiuiheil 
into black and white. Tbe former an. mueb 
more asumilated to thetHindu nativea, and h^f 
the latter are regarded as infieriote* Aboat llw 
year 18S0, the white Jewe wcie reduced to 
about two hundred, livii^ in Ifaltancheri, a 
suburb of Cochin, in which the black Jevs 
also had a separate aynagt^ue. Tbe greet 
body of the black Jewa inhabited towns in tbe 
interior, and had many other synagogues. 
Tbe tradition of these latter was that Ijiey 
were part of the tribe of Manasseh carried cap- 
tive by MebuchadneK£ar, who emigrated at a 
later period to Crangan(«e> Tbe white Je«» 
believe themselves to have come soon after the 
destiaetioa of Jeruaalem. A, grant in favow 
of the Jewik by a native king ia Malaliar, is 
said to date from A. S31. Feiishta Usti- 
fiea to their pi^^^ ^ffiidHJtft^ nahone- 




4ma settkd OB Ibe ooaaU Padro Faolino, 
towinb the eod of tfae eighteenth oeutury 
oliMtod the Jewt Blattancberi, Mutlam, and 
Kaywi KiiUb at brtveea 15,000 ami 20,000. 

The Jews of Cochin seem to bare arrived 
M A. D. 66. or the Jews ia the Khiaat 
•f Bokhara, the gfcater number live in 
AAhira. ethers mt Katta>kiirghanf SaniArkand, 
aad K.mku In sdl these placet, separate 
^Dten of the town are assigned to them, 
MiMde the prDoinets of which they an 
kriid to seltl^ and tfaer^re eannot in- 
tenoix with the mahoMdam. Their rights 
mi prtrikgee ave exceedingly nstrietod; 
thas, Uft example, they dara not wear a 
larbaa, hvt amt oover their heads with smal! 
taps of a dark coloured cloth, edged with a 
BHiow strip of sheep ekin^ not more thark two 
fa^ in breadth. Neither are they allowed 
to etar any other apparel than khalats of 
ale^ Bor to gird their loins with a broad sash, 
HiH IcM with a shawl, but must twist a com- 
M rape roand their waist. To prevent their 
K&ff this disttnctire mark, they are strictly 
Mi&lea to wear any flowing garment over 
l^piieA kbabt. In Great Britain, as else- 
ihm is Europe, tfae Jewish people oonstitote 
'tsoAHiKt communities — thoseofthe Spanish 
mi fMflguese under the general name Sephitr* 
Ai; and those of the German and Polish 
aidvtk name Ashkenaaim. The Sephardim 
loU that they are ibe descendants of the tribe 
af Jadali, the aristocracy of the nation. The 
Itttenasim, on the other hand, are more an* 
wmm and enterprising, 'i'hey are not so 
tOiiMd to^LondoH as tfae SephMrdim, but aie 
uttered throughout the country. Wherever 
li^b opens a door for gain, there the Ashkena 
tm heaitata to settle. AU the Jews who 
Vsrri the eoaairj with warea are also of this 
^■■nBity. Formerly the light universally 
adopted ia Britain for the Sabbath in Jewish 

was a peculuir kind of latup wlrh 
mna wicks ; but now wax candles or gas aro 
we oie of, accoriling to convenieuce. The 
'^iKBOu; of lighting the lamp or candles in- 
^tniAj devolves upon the wife. On Friday 
•fciaooa, wbeii the Jewish Sabbath com- 
Macei, the wife lights the lamp, generally 
*rib three times roand it, and^ with uplifted 
hMli, ssys as follows " Blessed art Uiou, 
lard oar God, kinit of the anircrse, who bast 
•rtUtii as with thy commandments, and 
WiM s J e J n« to light the famp of the 
M'adi.*' When no wife happens to bo in a 
^y, this duty falli. upon the widower, or 
wridestmale. The Jewish sabbath begins 
* Friday evening, about the lime of the ap- 

of the stars ; and continues till the 
■■stBK on Satnrday evening. Thu3 they 
■^thdi Eriigious day from sunset to sunset 


according to the passate of Gen. i. 5, *' And 
the evening and the morning were the first 
day." And, as ia nsual in many Asiatic nations, 
when a boy has reached his fighth day, he most 
be received a member of the Abrahamie covenant 
by circumcision acoffrding to Geu. xvii. 12. 

Tophillin, is a rabbinical word, and signifies 
two peculiar articles woni by the young Jew iu 
Britain : one ia for the head, and the other foe 
the arm. Four slips of parcbmeut are prepared 
each about an ineh wide, and eight inotiea long. 
On these, paaaagea of Scriptnre in Hebrew are 
written with great care and beauty. These 
four paassgea are Deut.xi. 4 — 9. Beut. iz. 13 
—21. Exod. xiii. 8—10. £xod. xiii. U— 16. 
On two of the sqnarea raiseil in the materiat 
itself whilst preparing it to be formed into n 
box, is the Hebrew letter "shin" ^the initial 
letter of the word, Shaddai, Almighty one 
of the Creator's inccmHpunicable names. It is 
now (he duty of the young Jew to atteml 
the synagogue every morning • but if oircuni' 
stances do uot permit, he ia allowed to any his 
prayera at home. In either cue, he must put 
on the topbUUa before commencing bis devo- 
tiona. First he takea hold of the one for the 
arm, and plaoea it on Uia;t part of the left arm 
opposite the heart ; and after aecnring it there 
by winding the leather thong seven times 
around, he says the rollowing blessing Bless- 
ed art thou, O Lord our God king of the 
universe, who hast sanctified us with thy 
commapdmeDts, and commandeil us to wear 
the Tophilliii' Then he takes the one for the 
head, and places it exactly in the centre between 
the eyes touching where the hair begihs to 
grow. In the reference made to them iu the 
New Testament, these are called [Aylaateries, 
from tkeGreek pbylaeterion ^vXajcnipiiov. guarda^ 
watchers, ka,, imd were called so from the 
notion that they set as amulets especially in 
keeping off evil spirits. In Jewish society, iu 
Britiiin, is a clnas of persons called Shadchanim 
whose business it is to act as matchmakers. One 
of the first duties of a Jew on becoming 
head of a family, is to prepare a Hezuzoli 
for his door posts. A piece of vellum . about 
three inches square is prepared, and on one 
side the two psaaages of the l»w Detit. vi, 4-9, 
aiulxi 13-21. are writteu iu Uebrew. 

The aucient cuatotn of the race is stUl conti- 
nued, wherever residing, the mother of the bride 
must see the proofs of consummation. A simi- 
lar custom is ob!erve<l by all mabomedaos and 
by the Armenians but with the latter, to » 
much more indelicate degree. 

1 he paschal Iamb of the Jews was partaken of 
only by the men of the Jews above SI years df 
age, probably a single mouthful. 

l^r- WolIT found the Jews of Central Asia quite 
ignorant of the history^ |uff«ripg,jftadjg)itb of 



Jtixa Christ which ooavinceii him that the Jews 
of Khorataan and Bokhara were of ihe Un 
tribes who never letumed to Fabatine after the 
fiabjiouiah ei^tivity. 

M\ the Jews of Turkistan assert that the 
Turlcomaa are the cteaoeMlMta of Togarmab, 
one of the aooa of Qomer, mentioiied in 
GeueuB x. 8. The Tuiiomau have no 
moaqne ; they pray, apart from each othor, either 
in the field or the tent. Twice iu the year they 
assemble in the desert, and proff» their prayer. 

The Jews in Bokhara are 10,000 in number- 
The chief rabbi asaureil Dr. Woltf that Bokhara 
is the Uabor and Batkh, the Halah of the 2nd, 
Kings xfii' Q ; but that in the rei){n of Cheugis 
Khan they lost all their written aceonntsl At 
Balkh the mahomedan mulbihs assnred him that 
it was built by a son of Adam, that its first 
name bad been Hanakh, and nfterwnrda Halah, 
though later writers called ii Balakh or Batkh. 
Tbe Jews, both of Balkh and Samarcand, assert 
that Torlnstan is the land of Nod, and Balkh, 
wh6Te Nod "once stood." The Jews of Bokhara, 
bear a mark, by order of the king, in order that 
no mahomedan mny give them salaam or peace. 

He thought tbe general physiognomy not 
Jewish, but he was wonderfully struck with the 
xesemblanoe that the Youssnfsye and the 
Khybari two of their tribes, bear to the Jews. 
When Wolff renehed Cochin, be found there 
black aad white Jews celebrating the feast of 
Paschal. Thou that are cnllrd black Jews are, he 
says, sndh as beeame Jews of their own accord at 
Crailganore, and in other parts of the country 
they are of black and half black colour. For this 
reason, the white Jews do not intermarry with 
thent. They have neither priests, nor LcYites, 
nor families, nor relations on foreign coasts. 
' They are only found in the Malabar coast. 
tbpy (Auerve the law as white Jews do> They 
■re most numorons at Cochin. Many of the 
\)Uek Jews, however, assert that their ancestors 
beeame Jews when Uama^ felt, and affirm 
(though the white Jews deny it) that they were 
there when the white Jews came to Hindustan. 
They consider themseilves as slaves to the 
white Jews, pay their yearly tribute and a small 
sum for the circumcision of their children, and 
for permtssioQ to wear frontlets in pr^iyrr 
time. They do not sit down with tlie wliite 
Jews, nor eat with them. In this they' resem- 
ble the Americans in the Uriiied States, who 
do sot eat with the negro population. The 
inuaorality of the white Jews of this place was 

The Jews of Yemen adhere simply to the 
nneienl interpretation of Scripture, in the pas- 
•age of Isaiah vii. a virgin shall eonceife,' ' 
they give to the word the same interpre- 
tation, virgin, that the Ghriitiau do without 

knowing the history of Jesus. Babbi Aftane 
■aaerted that in Isaiah liii. the suffering of the 
Messiah is deseribed as anterior to his teig* in 
gloiy. He informed Dr. Wolff that the Jem of 
Yemeit never returaed to Jerusalem after tbe 
Babylonish eapUvity; «nd that when Ezra 
wrote a letter to (be prinaes of the captivity at 
Taoaan, « day's jourairf ' frinn Bnnaa, invttnig 
them to letam, tbey replied, '* Daniel predieta 
tbe murder of the Messiah aAd anether <ie- - 
atruetion of Jerusalem and the temple.*' Sanaa 
contains fifteen thcnisand Jewe: In Yemen tbey 
amount to twenty thoasasd and Wolff estimated 
the total population ef the Jews tfareughoet 
the world, to amount to tea millions. He 
biptized the«p aiitcen Jewa, and' kCt Unern all 
New Teetauenta. 

The Jews in China call themselves Haa- 

kin Kian, or tbe sect which plucks out the 
sinew. They aic suid to number onle million 
of souls. They have synaijogues, and keep 
themselves pertecily distinct from the Other 
inhabitants of the villages. The earliest 
record of the Chinese Jews which can be 
relied upon, is that of an Arabian mer- 
chant, who, in 877, mentious the Jews 
that traded itilh him Iu Chiua. In the 
twelfth ceutaryi the rabbi Benjamin of Toleda 
visited the East, to ' discover some of 
the scattered children of Israel ; and he 
states, that he found Jews in Ch.iiia, Thibet, 
and Persia. The Jesuit Eicci, whilst residMt 
at Pekin in 161U, staiea that there were ten 
families of Jews rtrsidiu); in Keaug-foo, and they 
had in their possession a copy.of the Peats* 
teuch, which had been handed down from gene- 
ratioQ to generation for six centuries ; there* 
fore, from the whole of these statemecti, 
it may fairly be concluded, tlial for msqy 
ages Jews have been iuhabitauts of Cbina. 
It is the custom in Jerusalem, every Friday, 
Tor the Jews, with veils over their beads, in 
mouraing and lamentation, to proceed to the 
ruins of the walls of Jerusalem : for this they 
pay tribute to the Turks, tha hymn they stog 
is as follows. 

«< ' Tbe Ahnigh^ skaU bidU Bis Teafh 

speedily I 

Lord, buUd, Lord, biiild, bnild ITby. Tuafis 

S|/eadil7 : 
Id hosts, in baste, even in ourda^ 

Build Thy Temiile speedily. 
Ha is balored. Ue is gteak. Be b glerioas 

He is sweet f 
Lord build, build Thy Temple iptedily : 
Id baste, id baste, even m our <Uy8, 
.Lord, build Thy Temple speedily !' " 

Jews practise as doctors at Herat, and some- 
times also aa sorcerers. Tbe Israelites are n- 
t her nuneroaa there, more especially since Ihnr 



at Me»hed.-> Tl 

Digitized by VjOO 



imhm ikai city i& ferUddM. aad thay ■» 
added in wf heavy fine» if they an caught 
ihwonding, they aeveitlieleaa eontinoally inakfl 
da aitcBpt, and arrive at Herat, when thay 
•n paniittad to trade, and oommarce through 
thiir mam flonriabet mora than it otherwise 
vfiold. Tbqr aie aUvaltowcd the £rae cxenue 
•( iheir reli^oi, wad wn thonughly protected 
by the mien. 

Joaapku, who ia considered to have 
vritteo hie work on the andeat bittoiy of the 
Jon iboKt the year 9S of the Christian era, 
■fi^ itt hia Seventh book, with rcfennoe to the 
Rtam tnm eapUrity of those who oame back 
*Uh fi»a, ** the entire body of the fieople of 
JnsI reasieed ia that ootuitry, wherefore there 
mbst tvo tribes iu Asia and Europe sabjeet 
lo the ioBiaes, while the ten tribea are beyoad 
Iks Sephratea UU now, and are an imnense 
■illilad^ Dot lo be eatimated by nnmbcn.*' 
Tetibe taoM effect, St. Jerome, in the fifA 
xetar;, in hia notes npon Hoeea says, *' unto 
tin diy Ua ten tribes are subjeet to the king 
•fttenrthiaaa, nor hu their cnptinly ever 
ben h»osed." 

Before the introdaction of mahonedaDisin, 
Ikrewere whole nations of Jews In Arebia. The 
ki^ of the HomerUea was a Jew. Uader the 
■penr Heiacliua, usny of them were driven 
km the Beaami dominions into Persia, where 
HiBe of their oonntrymen had nmained ever 
BMe the fir&t captivity ; and history informs 
M, tkat thi^ often exoted the heathen prince* 
t^uui the Ghxietiana. SeTeuty years after 
Iks dMth of Uahoned, the jEthiopiana aent 
anr aa army to aaaitt the ChriaUana of Yemen 
iRsinst Bt)U Nwras their kit^, ftnd a bigoted 
Jev. ya«y of the Arabian tribea had been 
Mvartad by the Jews who fled liom t^ des- 
taieUeB. of Jerusalem by Titus. Chaibar was 
tWr prindpal city in Anhia ; it waa taken by 
HaboMd A. D. 623-7. Chaibar was ia the 
M^hoarhood of Medina ; ihey were removed 
iaio Syria by Omar — Hira was alao the resi- 
deaee of a Chriatian prince, who had reigned 
^eia 6C0 ycaia heme he waa eonquered by 
the aahoaKdaiu. 

"The JewB of Sarope have aesimilated in'phyai* 
Ml as well an Boral ^ualtUea to the nations 
awBgst wUeh they dwell. , Tboae who have 
neaatly settled iu Bombay and Calcutta aie 
the BMt atiikiiigfy btDdsome of all the races 
Mv in ladia. Their skins hav^ a faint xan- 
Ihaaa tint, but their complexions ace bright aad 
taa^iareat looking. Their featoraa are large and 
pnmiBMlk their forms tail and goodly. 

Jews w^iaally ware paatorai shepberda aad 
haibandMin, but they b^n to follow awroban- 
diiaiaSetoiMa'a time and, ia Sove^ prtthibitcd 
fnm, kUiag land thqr beoBme ncrehaBtt aad 

tiadera* To the Jew, every peraon not cireiuB- 
eiied waa a Oentile and this term waa used 
by the Jews to designate all races not Jewt or 
not dreumcised. it answered to the Barbaros 
of the Greeks and Homans. The tern 
Qentile ,is employed by the Eurapeana ia 
India, to deiignute the Tiling people, the race 
occupying the country from Madras to Gaujam. 
It ia pronounced Gcaio<i, which ia a oorraption of 
the Pbrtugnese " Oeotn" a Gentile," and tha 
people thamaelTea accept that deaignation. The 
Gentile of the Jewa ia the aquivalmt of the 
M'hletcha of the Aryan hindo» the " of 
the Chtaese, and the Kafir of the jnahomedan. 
With tho Arabs, they themselves ere the Arab 
ul Arab, all the rest of the world are " i^aau** 
or foreign. Or. Fryer (Travels, to 1681), 
says, '* the Geniues, the Portugal idiom for 
Gentiles, are the aborigines.** Ha appeara ta 
be the first English writer by whom the term 
is used, but before hia time Pietro del la Valle 
speaks of the hindoua as Gentile, foUowing 
the example of the Portugqeac—jBttron 
Olment* A. de JBorfe'a Sotiara and Amitf p, 
88-89. MiU'*, Brim Jtm, pp. 4, 5. 9, 5 i , 
107. FtrrUT*» Hit. of ike J/gktutt, p. 4P6. 
Jeipish Intdligmcer, VU, XXlf, p. 
Crater' t Jourhejf iaio Khoratav^ p- io 
183. Playjatr's Yemen- Eath,IIL 8-9 2, 16!. 
Jaaeph Antiq, lib.JCIV. c. 7. JadL 4»nai. 
lib, li. c 85. J. U> A, 8oc. 17S and PI, 
p. 6. PaoUni 8_. Bartolomeo^ Yiaffffi, 
p. 1 09 i Briffg'$ FirUht^j iv^ 532, cpioied by 
SiUer.-r^Tule Catiqy, I. p. 76. 
JSthnologicol Ettayt, p, 8. SaU't Kcf^ YqL 

M, 4fiW$ NiiblwhP' UQ, £Ui9t, fmiing 
Mncjf. dieW9p. Vac O^tUoq, Jfrygrff ZHmU. 
JDr. Woift SoUara, Vol I. pp, 9, 1*, H7t 
-^Fattinger MiU*t BrUitk JtM, p, 2& 
Waaderingpqf a Pilgrim, 6irr*4 0ma and 
ihCMnae, Vol. J J, p. 11%. Ftrriar'a Jown^, 
p, 42 3. Kennedj^* SUrnhgioal £ttai/$^ p, &. 
See Abishegam } Aden ( Afghan; B^le- 
Hindoo i India ; Iran j Kermansbah ; Khybcr; 
Kiblith I . Kidder ; Kitabi i Meaopotaaiia ; 
Mosnl ; Semitic Uaoei^- - 

JBWAKRE, a paaa in Afghanistan oe- 
copied by the Affeedee. Their mountains 
are very Strang. In the settlement <if 
the N. W. Himalaya diatriets, the British 
Qoremment was oondemed chiefly with' the 
Afredee (rf the two passes t. e., the Kehat 
Faas or Gullee and the Jewekee Fhss. 
Ker the guardianship of these passes the 
Afredee nceived some kind of oouaideration 
from auoceasive dyaastlea, Ghianivide, Mt^bnl, 
Dooranee, Barvktye, Sikh and Brkfah ; and 
broka faith, with each and all. Theae moan- 
Uiaeenut g«M tr^^^dQ^I^They 




tonvey salt firom mines in llie Kobat diBtrict 
to the Pmhawar market. Tbey also eut and 
sell the fireirood of their hill«. By these 
means they procure a oomfortHble substitenoe, 
which cu\tivation of their mggefl hill-sides 
wouli) not aloue aufilee to ftfford. The Sritiih 
authorities can, by blockading the months of 
tke passes, stop tbe trade and reduce the 
Afreedee to sore straits. The Giillee or Kohat 
Pass is tbe direct and best route from Kohat 
tO'Peshairar. The govrrnnient posi between 
these two important stations runs usually by 
this route. 

JBWALA. MUKt. The flames^ mouth, or 
spirits' mouth, a celebrated hill, in a s;indatone 
nnffi opposite Nsdauii on tbe Amritsir road. 
A stream of hydrojton ^es. vhicli oozes through 
the sandstone, issues front ten or a dozen 
fissures in the rock. On n tight being ipptied, 
the flame plays wround the fissures which the de- 
votees suppMO to proeeed from tbe Muk'bi or 
mouth of the Jawaia or apirit< 

JEWAN-PUTH. Mak. PutnnjifB Hox- 

JJIWAR. Hind. Huryale ferox. 

XEWAR. HiDD. Ploughmen's perquisites, 
also called in Hindi Aicwir and Thapa.— ^(2. 

JEWaR. AcUn of Rnjpoots of this name 
in Saugor and fiundleeund. 

JBWASSA. HiMD. Alhnji raaurornm, the 
Camera thorn, the chief food of tlie camel, in 
Upper Sind snd the Puiijiib. 

J BWELLKRY. Workers in iron and steel 
eould nererhnve found difficulty in managing 
gold and ailvw, for which indeed the £ast 
hu always been ^mous. Working in gold was 
lamiltar to the Kgypttane before the exodus of 
the braelites. That the hindooa have long been 
familiar with its applications we find proof in the 
hymns of Rig Vedn, where golden armour 
and golden chariots, and deoomtions of gold 
and jewels, are frequently mentioned. The 
rose diain from Trtehinopoljr, and the anake 
chains of the northern Circars all display 
great skill in the workmen, as aliio the 
ailrer filigree work of Hyderabad, for 
which Guttack and Dacca are most famous, 
and display greater deliaa<^' and btsauty than 
either Qeiioa or Malta. Mttcb of the Indian 
jewellery being peculiar in. iorm, and in this 
wan in which it is wom^ is not muoh admired 
in firitain ; the artides usually made in filigree 
work an bracelets, earrings, brooches, and 
chains, groups oi flowers, nttardaus, and 
small boxes for native uses. Mr. Taylor says, 
'* the design best adapted for diapIaylRg the 
delicate work of filigree is that of a leaf ; it 
should be drawn on stout paper, and of the 
exact sisa of the article intended to be made. 
Tbe appantui used in the vt ia exoeedingly 

simple, oonaiating merely of n few small croci- 
bles, a piece of bamboo for a blow-pipe, small 
hammers for flattening the wire, and seta of for- 
ceps for intertwisting it." The art of makiag 
goi<l wire, that is, silver covered with f;old,b 
practised in various partsof India, in Dacca and 
Hyderabad, as well as Delhi and Benares. Se- 
veral varietim of (told and ailvar thread (dotOs) 
are made at Dacca, as poolabcUoon for the embroi- 
dery of muslina and ailks ; goihoo for caps anil 
covering the handles of obouries ; aidmak tot 
turbans, slippers, and hookah-snakes; and 
booinn for gold lace and broeadea* Uadi 
fringe of variona patterns is made, and thm 
tinsel stamped iato various forms of flowers, or 
impressed with exerilent imitiatiooa of jenJs, 
suchas flatdiamonds, emeraldsand rabies. Many 
of the ornaments are made only for the poorer 
classes, for ioBtance, imiiaiions of pimous 
stones, ornaments in pewter, in shell, and lac, 
and aull simpler, a bracelet with atraw to re- 
present the gold, and the red seeds of Abns 
preetUorita iu the place of garnets. Vta 
following am the names snd uses of a few of the 
jewels of Southern India. 

V^nnkee, or Arqil«i. 
Jam]«loo, or Ear Jewel. 
Kutrea Paval, Ear onia- 

Vallel, or BanfttM. 
N-^thoot NofM JflvreL 
Hoothou Coopvo, or Ear 

Patteel, or Cangtes. 
Ctaopy, Head ornament. 
Mayar Mootha, £ar 


JadabiUsy, Head crsa. 


Mem, Naok ornament. 
Cnraapoo, Head on»- 

Tballyasmaa, Hand on»> 

Gaya or Oeddy Goolov- 

aoo, or L<s oinameot. 
Jaga Undoo, Head er- 

Cummol and femea k a. 

Braorletf, anklets, and armlets of gold, silver, 
bmss, copper, deer horn, the metals being 
solidly massive and as obains. am fa use tn all 
eastern countries^ and amongst bindna and 
mafaomedans. Hindu taen may be seen with 
gold or silvei; rings, earrings, and neck laces, 
but in general these are restricted to women and 
children. The custom of wearing jewellery has 
doubtless been through nil axes, and is alluded 
to in Joeh. xiii, ft: Is. iiL 16 ami 18. Sobm 
of those of the hindus are inconvenieBily 
massive, and heavy rings, usually of silver set 
with a fringe of small bdla, are often worn by 
hindn kdiaa. Hindoo women wear looae orna- 
ments one above another on their ankles, which 
at every motion of the feet, prodaoe atinkliog 
noise. Armlets are worn alike by hindns and 
mahomedans, and by men nnd wosaeo. They 
are of gold or silver, some in the fonn « 
massive oarved rings, some aa lockets ; the mora 
expensive, worn by royally an the . basa-band* 
literally arm-lets. These are genersHy worn 
aa ornaments, and since the moat a»rient times 
like earrings, (Oeii. xxxv. 4 t £x. xxxii. 3, 4 : 
Hosea u. 13 : JudcefTViiW^mtbe wuna iu 




; (iini,9ft«o(gold,UkflUioeeoftheIshnMe)!fes. 

^ thnitifait. duinn>, tbeir ta*vi£, or u with 
* * i«^Hi Met of hindiH, tho phalUo liiiiEam. 
tfsnwnu are oft«o worn tonnd tlie nedc 
tbegoUen bulla aud leather torum of tbe 
iBjoaUi, or as in Frov. vL 21. aud most 
faaTe froBtlet orniDientB luch at are 
to in. Deut vi. 8. Bracelets are also 
worn by all classes, of both atcea 
MUM, of creiy material, but tbose 
the knmUer women are principally of 
glm and oroamrated with lac and 
The manufacUire of sliell bracelets 
oM of Ibe indigenous arts of Bengal, 
vhidi the raite of SaDk'hari at Dacca 
The dutKit of which tb^ are made 
uniralve ahdla of aereral apedes of 
iadli, from six to seven iocbes bng, 
sf a pttfo white color. They are im- 
iato Calcutta from Itamnad in 
India, and from the Haldive 
At Dacca they are also used 
Ivbeetbg fine muslins. In makin}; the large 
■Man bncdeta which are worn by Hindoo 
wtMt, Uiey are «awo into semi-circular 
■■nil sad tuae are rtvetted and oeiDented to 
some of which are elabo- 
Mtk tttttd and inlaid with a composition of 
ht ad I nd pigment. A pair of brauelets of 
Urn dMi^tion freqaenily coata aa fai](b as 80 
or tlu Uiick pieoeaof the abelb, 
m Bade to form tin ueekUcea, wbidi 
Utapi sepoys wear. Soaoe Karwari 
ud tbe Kajara women bare the en- 
fammfnHB the wriat to tbe elbow covend 
kary maenve brackets and tbe lower pan 
tbe kfis equally cowed with anklets. The 
ef the fiiujara women are of dear horn. 
lhaSa)puta,tbe womea adopta brother 
Ike giftof a braeelet. The intriasio value of 
pUgeis aever kwked to,noriait requisite 
Id be eoatly, tfaougfa it varies with tbe 
and laak of the doawk aad be of 
dk and spanglea, or goM ehaius and 
The aeBeptaaea of the pledge and its 
ItaiB B by the kati^Ii, or corset, of simple 
A «r sstin, or gold brocade ud pearb. 
OM Tod was tbe " £akhi buud Bliai" of 
is thrn qaeeas of Oodipoor, Boondi, asd 
Ktak, Inidcs Okund-Bae, tbe maiden sister 
tftte Baas, aa weU aa muly ladies of the 
•""•iu of nnk. Though the bracelet may 
■ nt by mideot, it ia only on occasions of 
necessity or danger. Tbe fesliTal of 
■*bnRlet(Bakhi). is in spriog. The adopted 
■Mte Bay hazard fau life in bta adopted 
**i^s eana^ and yet never noBive a mite in 
■nri, lor be eannofc even «ea tba fair object 
"•.■sbniberorbFrad(^Uoa,baB eoastituted 
urdrfeader, Xniait xlr 3. notices * Tna- 

sures of darkness/ Itia still common in India 
for persoua to buty their jewels and money un- 
der tbe house iloor, or in tba oompoond. £na- 
melliflg, as applied in India to jewellery, con- 
aists an extremely fine pencilling of flowers 
and fancy designs in a variety of cotoure, the 
pnvuiing oaes being white, red, .and bhic,. and 
u invariably applied to tho inoer. sides ot 
bracelets, annlets, anklets, necklaces, earringa^ 
siipooch, tiara, ai|d all that description of 
native jewellery, the value depending upon tW 
finenesB of the woric, and often exceeding that 
of the precious stones tliemsetves. In general 
the cost is moderate, as the finest specimens 
are only made to nrder. Tbe best come from 
Benares, Delhi, and the Bigpoatana Slates. Iir 
the south of India, the manufacture of enanda 
on artldes of domestic use like tbe above ia 
almost entirely restricted to Hyderabad. It 
presents no vaHeties, but in general consists of 
a blue coating interlined with white on a sur- 
face of silver, and is applied to rose-water 
sprinklers, spiee boxes, basins, and such like 
articles.' The merit of tbe manuraclure lies in 
the simplicity of the enamel itself, and in tlie 
lightness of the silver article to which it is 
applied. Though pleasing, it ia the coarsest 
enamel produced in India. AC Indore, ia 
Central liidia, thn manufacture does not cunsti* 
tiite a regular trade. It is invariably applietT 
to articles of personal decoration such aa ne(*k- 
laces, armlets, brooches, earrings. &c , which 
are set by netm ^ellerai according to tiie 
taste of the puidiaser. The subjects gene> 
rally consist in a representation of the avatan, 
nr pictures of the metamorphoses of Indian 
deities ; and the work is so perfect that it will 
stand, not only the infiuence of climate, but 
even rough handling. Specimens of this 
kind of work have no fixed market value, 
the price being entirely dependent upon the ' 
number of competitors that may be in the 
field wliKU any of them are offered for sale. 
A* set of the ornaments, consisting of a 
necklace, earrings, two armlets, and a brooch, 
in ptahi frold, mfitribated to the exbibition of 
1851, was valued at 1,700 Xupeea or 170£. 
A duplicate forwarded to the Paris Bihibitioii 
in 1855, was purchast-d for 600 Bupets or 
60^. The Indinn export trade of jewelleiy is 
itnitnportant being only to the value of about 
jB9,9(iO ayear.— Tot/ Cart. Tod's Travels, Tod's 
RoJasthoM. Jur{r$' BeportB Ex, 1851, Madrcu 
SxkibiHon of 1865. Aepori of Sxhii. of 
1863. BoyWt ArU of India, m, 476-6. 
609-510. . 


toiius.— ii*nn. 

Solannm mdongena. 
Eng. €orohoru8 oli* 



, JEWni^ also JiDftam. Beng. A f;ui»- 
leun libal exudes from the bark of Odins 
wodier.'— iSNHtMOKcT* Diet. 

runs near Shoree Pull* 

JEWUtCH river 
in Uuzzaffeiuuggur. 

JSYPALA; After Ua Saal defeat by lamae}, 
•on of Sabaktagib, M Peshavar, reargued 
bis ttirone to bis son Aouogpal, aud put 
an end to hia own life, by aacendiag a ftmeral 

JEVPORE, a kingdom in Rtg'putanah, 
/{t^tfed by JJbola Wi in. A. D. 9t)7. The 
Ainily Woug to the Kacbmba tritw of Baj- 
poota aad,'4«i.xv deitoent from KaaiSt king of 
ikf oodbjit iHitwew whaiQ aotl Dholallai thirty- 
fwT geaeratiDua are said to have tutervened. 
At the tune of Cbe foundation of the Jeypore 
State, the count ly of Unjpootana was divided 
acuocig petty Kujpoot and Ueeaa chiefsj all 
Qving alle^'iuni^e to the biudoo kings who 
tbeu mhii m Otltii. Jeypore early succumbed 
to tbe mskoiueiliiUB. imeb Bbujgwaa Uoss was 
the first R^pogb chief who allied himself by 
marriage wiih the mahoioedaa emperors of 
i^e^i. The /eypore family furniahed the 
^peron with tome of their most distinguisbed 
military leaders. One of th? ohiefa of Jeypore, 
Jey Sing IL, who b^aa to rule iu A. X). 
Ifi&l^, vas disLiDguished by hia iutelteotual ca- 
{ttbily and hia tibei^ patronage of science and 
fti^fttld hifi iLUdhtmeati lit mathematics and 
astronomy in<Lik hia oai^e. known to. £u* 
topeao sciioliirs. The Mahracta supremacy 
over LliB ilri;[joot States succeeded that of 
tie malia-D{>ilHii3 And the political relations of 
the Briiish trDvenimeBt with Jeypore com- 
meaced in 130& %hen Ju^at Sing was tbeu 
maharojntk of J^uoret and in l&iS he ended 
a life Tvhich hatft^ea apent in the grossest dp- 
haachery, and regretted by no one. But on the 
SSth April LSL9, a poathumoua son was bom by 
Qjiiaof ilie ranees, and be was rec6gnizedaaheir 
both by tbe Jeypore nobles and tb^ British 
GovenunenU Till the ranee's death in 1833^ 
Jeypore was a soene of cwruptiou aud mls- 

Sovernment. The young mabarsjab Jey Siog 
ied in L8S5, leaving a >ouAg soiit Kum Slug, 
then under two yeurs of age and the Agent to 
the Opvemor, Gsqeral then proceeded to Jey- 
pore, refotmed the admiDiatration, aud assumed 
the gaard|«nship of the infant .heir. The 
Agent's life was attempted and his Assistant 
WW murdered. 

The area of Je;pore is about 15,000 aqnaie 
miles and tha population 1,900,500. The 
available revenue is 36 lakbg. The larger 
portion of the 8ambur lake belongs to Jeypore 
and the salt manufactured from it vlelds to 
this stale 4 lakhs. The military cousiat of 45S 

artilEsry ; 4,600 infantiy, 6,142 ouialn aad 
4.096 Nagha. 

aaaoioK a&ieAt aim 


z « 


2 S M ^2 



<0 n ^ M 


So do 

a o • 

_ « <=> o o o 


Babra, three marches from Jeypore, on lb* 
road to Delhi has one of the edieta of Asoka 
engraved on a block of atone or rook, on a hilly 
ift old Pali and of date B. a 809. It ia in tha 
oldest Lat chaitcter. . It differa somewhat ia 
style and langnaire from the i^r and mk. 
edicts. The anhject is the budhist command- 
ment, forbidding the saerifioe of four-footed 
animals. The Vedas are alluded- to, but not 
named, and are oandemned as mean, and falao 
iu their dootriue, and not to be obeyed. The 
serip^rea of tho Huni (which must be the 
Veifos)afe spoken of as dtreotinK btaod*oSeriiRS 
and the aacnfiee of aaimala. Priest and prieit- 
esses, religimie men and religiom woman, 
amoegst the budhist*, are eonmanded to oh^ 
the edlet, and bbav it in their hearta.— ffVe«<a«f» 
BngttfffvumU unA Swiwud*^ Vol. IF. pi 89. 
Bmg. A$.8oe.Jo. Ko(./X.p.((11. Seeftqpnt. 

JBYPORE, a native sUtc' west of Ganjam, 
westward of the state of Jeypore, and hairing 
the Godavery for its ■otttbern' kmnndary, Km 
the district .of Bustar, in length about 17(1. 
miles, and in breadth about ISO, it ooeupieai 
an area of ISjOOO square mile* in extent. 
With iis plflitis aRd plntean;, lofty iboor- 
tains aud fertile valleys, rivers and fo- 
rests, it appears like n oontinent in "patro. 
The total population nnmbera about SOO,(M}0^ 
culliration ia carried on to a considerable 
OKtent, and rioe ia produced in great abun- 
dance, The Dat.^^^^^t|g^^Alp^ country 
176 ^ ' 6 


are bonqr, wax, galli, liorns, jaggery, thaua silk, 
drufti, oycBt gums, resioi, and fibres are in 

profusion. All ilieae Hre carried out of tbe oouu- 
tr; by the briujarri race vfho give salt, cloth, 
bnzeu utensils, pepper, spices, . rocoanutSi to- 
bsooo, opium, wbest, paper and cotton in ei- 
ebuge. Teak is ubuiidant ; the Mowa tree 
BHves at once for liquor, food, and oil. Iron 
ore is found in the eastern part of the depen- 
dency, aad is of excellent quality ; gold also is 
wuked from the sands of one or two ri?ers. 
Tbe country ia unhealthy. Fever is exceed- 
ingly preraient throughout the district, and i« 
very sattK in the months of Septemhwt Oc- 
lober and November. Dysentery and dianhcea 
genually accompany it at those limes, great 
■mouDt of moisture ia contained iu the soil 
which is principally clay ; there is no drainage. 
Cises of cholera are very rare, but small-pox 
fully makes up for it. 

Politicdllj, the country ia divided into ten 
tiloolu, each being governed of course by its 
ftn temindar or dewan. and the whole by a 
»jah. Jugdulpore, is the capital of fiuatar, 
sail the reaidcnoe of its rajah. Uany of the 
nUises throughout the' dependenay oosaist 
oalj of fifty huts and under, and in the wild 
juigly tracts two or three hovels standing 
near each other are dignified with the name. 

The people rauge in importanee from the 
fah-<atiDg brahmiu, to the buoting and 
Uung Tugara or Furja, who will eat any 
thing, from beef aud mutton, down to 
all and snakes. The Gudwa who subsist 
by coltivation chiefly, seem much given 
to dauciug and amuaement. Oa holidaya, 
Biea and womeu join in dancing to the music 
of a fife and drnm, , A ring ia formed by all 
jpiaing hands ; the company cirolea round and 
nnuid like the preparatory movement to a 
quadiiUa galopade, relieved now and then b^ 
■^ty hops to the centre and back. Thia 
fiuthed, a man ateps forward, singles out one 
of the other sex, and banters her about her 
nxKaess and so forth and the woman retorts. 
TheSoondee deal extensively io evil spirits, that 
ii 10 say, they know tbe weakueas of their fel- 
hw% for the fermented juice of the Howa, and 
do not fail to derive a large profit from it. The 
Maria are the most nomerous class in the depen- 
deucy. They inhabit the detiseat jungles, avoid 
^ coDtact with strangers, aud are so timid that 
they flee to tbs hills on the least alarm. They 
■R itrong and agile, very expert in tbe use 
ti tbe bow, but the most cheerful, light-heart- 
ed race alive. A Maria wears a cloth round hia 
loiet, a necklace or collar of beada, earrings and 
tncelets of brass, and a girdle of cowries. 
BugtDg to the girdle ia a bamboo tobacco-box, 
sad a smalliron knife is stuck iu behind. A 
how aad arrows, or a iipear, complete his 
cgitume. The ffomeu irear rather moie bcada^ 


aad if powible rather less calico, but they 
tatoo themselves from head to fooU The dress 
of the Maria decreases in quantity in direct pro- 
portion to the increase of (he distance of their 
abodes from civiUiation. They are very in- 
quisitive, sharp observers, apt to learn, and 
remarkable for their truthfulneaa and hones* 
ty. Beyond this oouutry, higher still up 
the mountains are other " geutle savages," 
destitute of buffaloes, bullocks, cows, or 
ploughs, and knowiug little besides their 
rude mode of cultivation and the everlasting 
Howa berry. Like the Matin these sloo are 
very suseeptible of improvement and dvilixa- 
tion if they meet with kindness and ^ 

JET SINGH, the royal historian and 
astronomer of Amber, connects the line wilh 
8oomitra the fifty-sixth descendant from the 
deified Bama, who appears to have been the 
contemporary of Vioramaditya, A. C. 56^ 

JEZAL. FfiBs. or Shamkhal is a rifle of 
great length and weight, which is fired from a 
rest like a fork, attaohed to it near tbe muzzle. 
This weapon, is much used by the mountaiiicars 
of Persia and ASghanistao- By the Bogliab, 
it is oallcd Oiojal, and is a wall pieoe^ or lai|ga 
gun ; properiy laul» 

J£ZAN. a sea-port of YeneO) in the dis' 
triet of Aboo Areeah, its popidation, about 
four hundred, are cogaKed iu the pearl fishery, 
whieh both here and at the island of Faraao* 
about three miles distant, if dacried on exten- 
sively. See Tehama. 

JEZAYIB, the name of an extensive district 
comprising many stationt of importance. The 
firat ia the village of the Beni-Mansnr, Bir 
Homaid, aad Nahr Antar, which are the prin- 
cipal positions, it is aaid to be pierced bj 
three hundred oaDsls> among which are Nahr 
Saleh, Deyar Beoi Asad, Deyar Beni Uuham- 
medt Fat'hiyah, Kalaa, Nahr Sebaa. BatiDab» 
Maaauriyah, Iskanderiah, Igarah, and others* 
The northern bounda^ of this dbtrict 
is Knt-e-Mua. This extensive district ia 
inhabited by various tribes, who have 
auccessfully assisted the impeiial arma^ and 
having revolted from the government of Bas- 
rah, bad succseded iu establishing au independ- 
ent power against the united forces of Bas- 
rah aud Uawaizah. Thia indepeudeaoe was 
preserved not less from the bravery of the 
inhabitants, than from the great difficulty of 
approaching their insular positions, in the 
broad expanse of the Euphrates, over the dit- * 
trict iu which they are situated, until the age 
of AU Pasha who reduced the eountry, and 
so broke tbe spirit of its population, that, from 
that hour, the lameness of the people of Jezayec 
became a trite proverb. — ilignan*» TravsUt 
p. 288. 

JEZiiR. Ab. Carrqt,i„I)^!i*^^W9^e, 


TEZIA. Arab. Hiko. Fens. Poll-Ux. This 
was imposed, daring the «aTl; mahomcdaa eon- 
'qunts, on bU other reNgiotiistB wlio submitted 
to the mahomednt rule, and was the teat by 
whteh they were distinguished frbrn those who 
remained in a state of hostility. Its abolitioa 
int oin of the bencfieent sets of Akbar. but 
Aurangzebe icimpesed Caffutyf Vol. 

n.p. 411. MphlutoM, 467. 

JHABOOA. AJi Rajpore, Jobut, Mntwarrh, 
Indoio, aiul Gwaliqr district, with the British 
pergonnah of Mundpore aud State of Buiwani 
have beaa formed into a Bheel Agency, 

JHAKL HuDi Buckwheat, Tagopyrwn 

JIIAL, Ovz. and Hikv; Net. 

JHALA, a race who owa the raj of Halwnd 
Brangdra as their chief, and are auppoaed to 
have sprung from an offshoot of Aohilwarra, on 
the extinction of which dynasty (bey oh- 
taiued lai|;e tcrritenal aggrwisemetil. The 
part of the Jhala. Hakwabana tribe who also 
inhabit the .SanrasblzB peninsula ia at3pled 
Bqpoot, tbou^ naitber claaied with the SoUr, 
Lunar, nor Agni-oab racea ; but tkoagh we 
cuinot dinetly prove it, th^ seem to be of 
northern origin. It is a tribe little known in 
Hiuduittn or neu Kajaathaii, into whidi latter 
eonntry it «aa introdwied entirely through the 
medium of the ancient lords of ^uraahtra, the 
present family of Uewar : a splendid act of 
aelf-defotioa of the Jhala ohief, when rana 
Pertap was oppresied with the whole weight 
of Akbu'a power, obtained, with the gratitude 
of this prince, the higheit honour he could 
«onfier, — his daughter in marriage, and a seat 
on fais right hand* It was deemed a mark of 
great condeMension of a receol rana unction- 
Mg a nmote branch of his own family, bestow* 
ing a daughter in marriage on the Jhala ruler of 
Kotalk This tribe baa given its name to one 
of the lai^st diTisioui of Saurashtra, Jhalawar, 
which possesses several towns of importance- 
Of t^ese Bankaner, Uulwud, and Brangdra, are 
the principal. Kegarding the period of the 
aeitlemcnt of the Jhala, tradition is ailent, as 
abo on their early history : but the aid of its 
^uota waa given to the rana agaiust the fint 
•attuAs (rf (be mahomedaas. 

Tha TosdHi, Miaa or Oimari, is an 
Bbdeht tribe, and by all uuthoritiea styted 
Rsjpoot, though, Bke the Jhala, little known 
out of Ssuraahtra, to one of the divisions of 
which it has gtven its name^ Jaitwa, its pre- 
sent possessions t(re on the western coast of 
the penliisaU : tb6 residence of its priaoe, who 
Is styltid rann, ia Poorbnnder. In remote 
timbs thcfir cupital was Goomtee whose ruins 
attest cohsiJeraljIc po\Vi:r, mil flfr»r(l singular 
scope for analogy, in architectural cJcvicr, 
iriln Ae style teriL«:t Saion of Europe. The 


bards of the Jattwa run through a long liat of 
one hundred and tfaiity crowned heads, and in ; 
the eighth ceotuiy have chronicled the marriage i 
of their prince with the Tuar re-founder oC 
Delhi. — r«f a Rc^aahm, Ful. /. p. 1 1 S. See 
Kattyawar ; Jhareja ; Bajpoota ; Kuteh « 

JHALAWAV, flaharawan uuA Las are ott « 
great mountain range or table hnd that ram 
N. and 8. Jhalawan with leas devation than 
Saharawan, ia held by BrahuS tribes, amongat 
whom are the Minghnl, Bizunju and Samalari, 
in the hills. The fixed populadon in their 
little towns, does not exceed 10,000 and are 
greatly exceeded by the pastoral tribes, — the 
great tribes ofMinghal and Bisnajl, giving 
them the preponderance. Jhalawan and ^3aha- 
rawan are the two great central districts of Belu- 
ehistan, and these diatriota surround the dis* 
triets of Kelat whidi depend on the capital. The 
plain of Dasht-i-Oursn south of Chappar, ia ui- 
hflbited by the Sunari, a branch of ^ Jeliri 
tribe of Jhalawan. Many nf the Jhalawan tribea 
kre undoubtedly of Hajpoot origin, fend until 
lately, the praetioe of infanticide mm prenHenk 
amongst thein. Near Bagwaoa ia a one in « 
rock filled with the dried mummy-Uke bodies 
of infants, some of which have a eompantivel} 
recent appearance. See Kelat ; India. 

JHALLAWAR, in Kattyawar, has been a 
separate dependent^ only from the 8th 
April 1838, when the Kotah principality warn 
dismembered and maharsj rana Mudun Sing 
was established in Jhallawar under a treaty Iqf 
whioh he acknowledged British supremacy, and 
engaged not to negotiate wl^ any other powtt 
without the aaoetion and knowledge of thiit 
Qovernmenf , on wfanch he waa Teated with the 
titles of MaharaJ Sana. During the mutldiea I 
of 1857-58, PIrtbee Siag, hii aueoessor, ren- 
dered good aervica by oonveying to placea of 
safety several Shiropeans who had taken refuge 
in hit districts. The estimated average amount 
of revenue of this State is between fourteen and 
fifteen lakhs of Bupees. It pays Rupeea 8,000 
a year to the British Government as tribute ; 
no local corps or contingents are paid front 
the resources of Jhallawar ; the area of the 
State is 2,500 inuare miles ; and the popula- 
tion 220,000. The entire militaiy force of 
the State ia about COO Horse and 8,S00 
fantiy. In the Jhalawar diatnet. In Kattyawat. 
property stolen or the thief must be prodaeed, 
and the Paggi race who trace the pag or foot- 
prints are there the most famons. Lions are 
still found in the Oeer jangles and there are no 
tigers and Oaptain Postans observes that whDe 
Kattiwar abounds with the tiger and lion spe- 
cies, Cutch, the neighbouring province, is 
free from this terrible infliction. The rao 
of Cutch, at one period, had several dens filled 
with wild beut»<«^'^V«a«ifi,'4b^^|lnAenr« aM 



AmwA, Vol. IF. p. 87. FmieaCt Wetimi 
kidia, 7tl. II. f. U8. 

JHALOflS, OM oS themwt important divi- 
of lUnnr. It u tepsrated from 
SMrfeda by tin Sookri and Khiri. whiob, with 
■an MBatter atnMM, ftur Ihrough them froai 
beinvalli ami AbM^ aidiag to fertiUaa iti 
ttm kaadnd and ^(y towna and vilUge«i 
imiag a part of tbe fiaeal donaiu of 
Xtfwsr. Jb^on fortnu ataoda on the 
ntiaaity of the Wffi oMndiMig north to 
SMTuoh and goardi the aOHthem frontiu of 
Hirwar. Sewaneki U the tract between the 
iiDMi aftd Sooko. Hisholab and Uorwen are 
the tvo prkoipal dependancaea of Jbaloic. 
Beeaiial ud Simehwra am the two principal 
jifirion to the aouth, eaoh cootaining SO ril- 
kRM. Bhadcajoon, a Sal of Jhaloxo, baa a 
JididurfaulMcennpmmlation. TbeThulor 
Qop ia my thiolr inhahitwl with many 
m^m, fldlad t'kul kft-tiba. The t'hul of 
Aim liaa batman Goga d«a and Jeaaubner. 
Tk tW of Kbamar ii batneui Jeainlmer 
■1 Bannair in the moat remote angle of 
Vmr. Bannair t'kid, abo called the 
JUIUBatVka-i'fanl ia ooeupied by oaUle br^ed- 
«. Thfi ^crdttT or tend oi Kher, and Nuggar 
Aooirii on tlM Loom an the ^ef t'hul. 

Ihe Chohan nqpufc of (be detert hat, on the 
V. aad B., the above traota of Manrar, to the 
Mth KsoUwnrah and the Rnnn. totbeweat the 
faartafDhat. The atante ridg* whieh paasaa 
Iknagh (^on to Jaaaulmer paaiea west of 
BnbMraBtoHiigK«'PArk«r. The walla ar^ 
UlolSetetdBBp. TheSohiBi.Khoaia,KeU 
ladBUIinbaUtaalsftiapmdfttoiyxaoaB. Tbn 
CMn ngpat doea not wear the unar and 
doM not mwh napect tha bramani. The 
Ib'Ul and Bania are iannn and tradan. 

The Bonn or Biiw, ia a xemarkable feature 
•flbedeaart. It baaatt marsh, 150 miles 
bnad, int* which the Lani or Uioni «r sail 
rim enters ami then mna on to tha sea. 
He Looni rises in the Aravalli. In Uarwai 
it iiparatca the fertile land froa the desert, 
rfhsvards nins thronffh the Chohao territory, 
finding it into the eaatarn part oalled Bq-Bab 
ar Seoi-Bah, nod the weatera part caUod Par- 
ku «r « b^ond tho Khar or iMOi.'^ The 
Kifipr riaea in the Sitfatih Hilte, flova imdaK 
Bkitanir vaUaand onoa Nnplisd itself betwsen 
Iwilaiar and Rori B«kkur.— 2W« ^'m- 
tten, Vol. p. 19 ; Vol. ii. pp, S«9 <• 
S30. MUMe, ii* £rim Wwld i» ikt 
MuU Ya i, p. 7. 

JHAS PAN. BsK«^ A litter or ledtti ohaif 
wed in the nMaataiu. 

JHAKD. Huuk. Praaopw spidgsra, also P. 
■tuphnaiana ; ite hark ia nsed in tanning. Tha 
AMid, ealtedkwdiin SJndh.iathn frotopis 
ipialgBttiaild fuKniahan the feeak fnal mod, 
kMghaMy uA oonpulv and buna ilo*V i 

wben stacked it ia liable to be attached I>y 
white ants. 

. JUANDA. UiNn. A banner. Msdar-kn 
jii&ada, Dutsgir-ka*Jhanda» baiineiB of Madar 
and DasLsjur. 
JUANQH. Pam. HydxiUn vertioiUati.— 

J5AKJEAN— ?.£8ohynoiBens eannabina. 

JHANJi. Hud. of Kuln, Corylus eolurna. 

JHANSI, Uea south of Gwslioi. Ia HSS it 
was plundered by Bsji Bao, aud was capimed 
by Sir Hugh Bose on tbe SInd Aprii i8K& 

JHAO. Hi}(d. Tamarix iadica. 

JUAPI, umbrella shaped hats vom by tha 
lower olsBs of Assamese made from the eoarsa- 
leaveaof the Toko-pat palu^. tho liinstontn 
Jenkiiwiana Griffith. The leaf of the talipot 
palni Gorypha talien ia similarly need. tf M H - 

JUAB. H;kd. a tree. 

JHABA oi Jhada. Guz. Hihd. A pnturtm* 

JHABAL ase Capreis ; Jqrai. 

JUAB BEBL HiKD. Ziayphf^ nuanwilBBay 
aisp Zisyfdias jujulia. 

JHAUEJA,a mjput race in Gn2erai„ and 
Cu>ch with a branch ia Kattyawar. duMid- 
ants of the Ysdu aod claiming .from Krishna. 
In early ages they inhabited the tnets on iho 
Indus and in Sewisthsa. Bat at-nolher 
plsoe Col. Tod relates that Saoaba obtained 
poasesaion of the tracts ou both aides thelndos,. 
aad fouuded the Bind Sara ma dynarti* fiHW 
which the Jhareja are descended, ^an la 
ercqr pTohebility, he atatM, that Samkua, of 
Samba Nagari (UinaganH the oppanenft of 
AU«and« wat a deaeendant of Samba, aon of 
Krishna. The Jbareja ohrooifflaa,, in i^no ranee 
of the origin of this titnlsr app^Ualion, aay 
that their ancestors onme from Sham or Syria. 

The Jhsreja dominions extend owr a traet 
of about one hundred and e^bty mil«|.io length, 
and sixty in breadth i the teiid ia geiuridlj. 
poor, indifferently enltivated- and thinly.* peo- 
pled, so much so, that alibough it coataias an 
area of upwards of ten thousand square milea. 
tlie number of iohabitants is only half a miUioni 
ene-twantiath part of which ia oonfined witbift- 
the oainthl, ^ooj, ud aoother tveatietli 
within tho aaa port of Mandavi Bkoapt tbeae 
two plaoes, thsra ia^ none whiah merita tha 
name of oity,. though there are a few towps, 
aa Aniar* liukput, Moondia, fcc. <hi the ooast) 
which deriTB iropcHtanas fton thw poailioih' 
Of this popuUtjon, the nynberof tho dcpii- 
aanit raee, the Jhareja, fit 4o bear arm*, wasesti. 
sated at only twelve thousand ; tha lemaiader 
are mahonedaaa- -aad hindaa «f all aaata a«& 

7he tribea of Bsjpntana ban a politiqal ays^' 
I tan ainilar to the feudal pNotiiOB «fBiu«pe. 
0»:the denisa of a chi^f tbapembtta of hi»- 
fraiiljr iwuld be vmt&mMiSk'maM^' 


ol his demesnes, and every district so scqnired 
would conititute a distinet principBlitj subject 
to a similar sabdivision at the deoease of each 
aabsequent holder. Each nioor tiibataiy thai 
possesses a body of kinsmea who are eollectire- 
iy twoud the bhaiad or bnthnrhood. Hie 
Jharfja of QoEfinit, wen, till late in the nine- 
teenth centary, addicted to female Infanticide. 
In 18IS, Captain MeMurdo estimated the 
members cf Jharqa in Catch at aboat 12,000 
penons of whom only about SO were women. 
The Jharq'a killed their daughters to avoid pay- 
ing for them heavy marriaf^e portions. The 
Jharqa of Catch are, howerer, stated by Mrs. 
Elwood to be a branch of the Sindh Summa 
stock, of Arabian extraction, descended from 
a child of a mihomedan zamindar by a daagh- 
tar ttf a pett^ rtief in Catch, whose deseend- 
anta settled u Fowar and Patobam. Hey 
narry daughters of the Jhalla, Wagel, Sodha, 
and Oohil nijpnta> 

The Tbaknr of Hnrvi ia ■ Jhanga and was 
the lint in Colonel Walker's time to abandon 
infanliwde. He hu posseasions in Cuteh. 
Several tribes of fiajpoots and iCathi are found 
in the peninsula of Onserat or Kattyawar, within 
the 66th and 72nd degrees of east longitude, 
and 20th and 2Srd of north latitude. I'he in- 
habitants of the Kattyawar province nay be 
classed nnder the following heads : 

a. Bsjpoot, amongst whom there are several 
tribes, standing in power aud wesUbtbus: 1, 
Jharcjja ; 2. Jhallah ; 8- Ooil, and 4 Jetwah. 

6. Kat'fai. of whom Uiere are three families, 
WaAa, Khadieis and Khooman. They am 
originaUy of tbe same stock, but have now 
their raspeetive distrioto. 

e. Kuli, Kant, and Stndi, called Bnwar. 

d. Kunbi, Bfar, Ahar, Abebarri, and the 
other indnstrioos classes. 

The Jharfja are the most powerful and 
numerons of the rajpoot tribes of Gosenit 
and possess all the western psrt of the penin- 
sula, they are a branch of tbe fsmily of the rao 
of Kutcli, who in eonseqi'tence of iDtestioe 
lends, left their country about A. D. 800 ; 
and having crossed the Hunn, at the head of 
the gulf of Kateh, established theraKlrea upon 
the Tuina of tbe Jetwah rajpoots and a ftiw petty 
nahomedan authorities which at Ant time 
existed in Hslar. Tbe Jhanja an also uld to 
traoe their origin from Jhara, e- chief of the 
nahomedan tribe of Ae Snmma of Sindh. 

The lands appear to have been divided in 
common among the whole tribe, the tnslat, or 
eldest branch of the family, reserving to its^ 
the largest portion, whilst the bhaiad or 
brotherhood held their reipective villages by a 
pure fendii tenure. The outlaws, amohgst 
them,tfaeBaharwnttia,acted with great violenos. 
If he failed in getting flocks, he seined the per- 
ftOQt of auth f illagera m ke conld find, and 

canied them off. These were styled bhan, or 
oaptives, for whose release sums of money 
were demanded. The life of a Baharwuttia 
was one of blood and rapine, until be was killed, 
or by the fnry of his fend he compelled bis 
chief to grant him redress ; and the ■acnrity 
of Charan (religions peramia) and Bhat (Bards) 
raeea having been given on both sides, tiw 
outlaw uid his family retnmed to thdr htmm 
and oeenpations in perfect scourity. 

The Bhomea of Katiyawar still preserve « 
great portion of that spirit of hospitality for 
which their ancestors were eelebraled. 

All the inhabitants of Ouzerat are mndi 
addicted to opium and spirituous liquors. 
A custom prevails throughout the connury, of 
erecting a stone to the m«mory of those who 
have died a violent death ; but it appears now 
to be common, also,' to those who have depart* 
ed in the course of nature. Thia stone M 
called a pallia : it resembles a Boropeatt grave- 
stone, has tbe name, dai^ end aaode of death 
engraven, and if snrmounted by a roughly exe* 
cuted figure, representing the Banner In whfeh 
tbe deceased fell. Thus yon see them on hone- 
back with swords and spears ; as also on foot, 
or on carts, with tbe same weapons ; or on 
vessels, and this of coarse is applit^e to 
tishermen. In the npper parts of the pallia 
are the sun and moon rudely represmtrd. The 
practice of " tn^B," or inflicting aelf-wonnds, 
suicide, or the murder of relations, fanned ■ 
strong feature of the manners of the .people. 
This praetiee,vbiAin Kattyawar was eomoen 
to this bhat and chatan of both sexes, and to 
bnhmaus and gossein, has its rise in tel^iona 
snperatttion, and nlthoagh trsgas seldom won a 
very f<Hinidable aspect, still they were some- 
times more criminal, by the sae^flee of a great* 
er number of victims. The trags ceremony bor- 
ders much upon the brahman practice of dbar- 
na, bat is more detestable. The Cbaran, be- 
sides becoming seonrity for money on -sll oeea* 
sions, and to the amount of many Uos of rupoee 
slso became what is called fa'il zamin, or secu- 
rity For good behaviour, and hasir eomin, or 
security for re-appearance. The Bhat are mora 
immediately ooonceted with the Kajput clans, 
and the Charan with the Kat'liL Tho two 
eastes wiliest of eseh other's food, bntiriH 
not intermany. The wnmen of the Chatan and 
Bhat are clothed in long flowing black garments, 
and have a sombre, if not actnally horrid ap- 
pearance. They do not wear many ornaments, 
and are not restricted from appearing in the 
presenoe of strangers, aeoordingly, in passing a 
Charan village, the traveller is sometimes sur- 
rounded by women who invoke Uesaings on his 
head by joining the backs of their hands, and 
(kicking tbe knuckles of their fingers in that 
position over their heads. Tbe Kat'hi women 
are laigft and iulatKi#iii^Uitt-^H;tta«s, oftsa 



jfCfsed in long dark garnieiitt lilce ihe CliRran 
voMD, but kBwt the ebarader of being always 
veil lookiag, and oflcn ranarkably baDdsonie. 
They are more donMatieated than the Rigpoot, 
aad eonfioe tbenuelves aoldy to the duties of 
their foailicB. They are often brides at sefsn- 
teea aad aixleen years of age, which may pro- 
bibly aeeomu for the strei^th and vigour of 
tin nee. A Kat'hi will do nothing of any 
cmiequenee without cooaaking his wife and a 
Clwran, and be in general guided by their ad- 
liee. In the marriage ceremony of the Kat'hi 
tribe there is n trace of the custom found 
UKtiigst the Gond and Kolarian rnoes, and in 
■imoft sH Indiiin castes. The Kat'hi, to become 
I kuband, mutt be a rarisher, he must attack 
■ith hisfrienda and followers Ihe village vhne 
liii betrothed resides, and cany her off by foree. 
la aadent times this was no less m trial of 
coBnge ; sfoDM and dub* wen need widiont 
tmm both to asaanlt and repeU and tbo dis- 
appoinled lover was not vnfreqneotly compelled 
toRlire, covered wiUi bruises, and wait for a 
MR fsTonrable occasion- Tbe bride had the 
liberty irf assisting her lover by all the means ' 
is tier power, and the opposition ceased when 
in dwelling was once gained by tbe asuilants, 
ud ths lady, then bravely won, submitted 
willingly to be carried off by her champion. 
Tbe Kst'hi do not intermarry with any other 
arte. Tbe Kat'hi follows the hindu religion, 
attoagh no hindu will eat with them. A 
lijpeat wiU, hosrever, eat food dressed by a 
Ka^hi He worsUpa the cow, leaves a lode 
of hair on his head ; and adorn Mahadeo and 
other hinda deitiM, although he is more sttach- 
et to the worship of tlw Sooroj (Snrya or the 
iiD),and toAmbha and other terrible goddesses. 
The Kant, the Mar, the Ahir ami the 
Uebarri of Ouzcrat are coltivatorp, but until 
niently some of them plnndtrers when oppor. 
taaity ofrered.~a>2«. Miftk. Bind. p. SM. 
te Imtia ; Kat'hi or Katti ; KaUyawar ; Kala- 
|iatla ; Rajpoot ; InfanUeide ; Badhail- 

JHAHIA, a name applied in the Central 
ProTinces to the older settlers, supposed to 
be from " Jhar'* underwood, forest ; they 
are mueb looser in their observances than 
liter comers of the same caste, eating forbid- 
dca food, and worshipping strange gods. 

JHAB-KA NAMAK. Dck. PoUslt. 

JHABKHAH. Hind. A bill in Guigaon 
dirtriet, producing iron. 

JHAR-KI-HUI.DI. SuK. Cosoiiiiun fe- 
antiatam. — Coleb, 

JHAB-SHAH. HiVD. Amahoramfaqoeer. 

JHARUL. Hnv. Capta jcmlaiea. — Ham. 

JHAV. Hjkd. Tansrix dioiea, also T. 
onsBlaKt and TamariK pdliet. aya. Indica, 
ibil Arteniiu «kgau ? Xaimdz dioioa grows 

as a brash wood on lowlanda near riven. Sec 
J baa 

JHAWAN. HiHD. BoBgh pomia bricks 
osed as flesh rubbers. 

JHEKL. UiKO. A nanh or lake. The 
Jbeels of eastern Bengal owe their origin cliiefly 
to the exocerive raiafaU of the Khasia aiid 
Silhct hills and to iIm overflow of the Burma, 
They occupy an immense ares, fully 200 
miles in diameter, from north-east to south* 
west, whioh is almost entirely under water 
throughout the rainy reason, and only partially 
dry in the winter montlis. Tliey extend Irom the 
very bsse of tbe Khasia hills and eastern extre- 
mity of the Caehar district, southward to the 
Tippers hills and Suiiderbune, aud westward to 
the Uegna river and considerably beyond it,thua 
forming a fresh water oontitioation of the Son* 
dorbona, and aflording a free water communi'- 
cption in every direcUon. The villagea, and 
ooeaaiowotly large tpwns, wbj«h are soattered 
over the aarfaee of the jbeels, genersUy occupy 
tbe banks of the principal rivers : these have 
defined courses in the dry season, their banks 
always being seversl feet higher than the mean 
level of tbe inundated . coantty. Extensive 
sand -banks, covered in i^nter with a short 
award of creeping grasses and annual weeds,, 
run along the banks of the largest streams, and 
shift their position with -every flood. Thfr 
runainder of the surfaoe is occupied by grassy 
marshes covered in winter with rice crt^ and 
in sununer with water, upon which immease 
floating islands of matted, gnaaqa and hedges 
are aeen in every direction, .gradually carried 
toward* the aea by an almost impcreeptibLe 
current. Kear Chorrs, tbe common water 
plants of these jheels arp Yallisueris, serrata, 
Dsmasonium,two< Myriophylla, two. Viilarsim, 
Trapa, blue, white, purple and scarlet wnter^ 
lilies ; Uydrilla, Utrieularis, LimnophiU, . 
Asolla, Saivinia, Ceifttopteris, ami floating 
grasies. — IlooJter and fAomsen, J7«ra Indica. 
Booker. Bin- Jour. Vol.11, p. 309. 

JHEEND. One of the cis*Sutl^ states : it 
has an area of 1,236 sq. m.aod a population of 
31 1,000, souls, with a Fevenue of -four laos oC 
rupees. Tbe nahan^ is a Jat, of tbe Sikh 
faith, and of tha same deaoentas themahanga 
ofPatiela. In 1857, thia chier waa the 6rst 
person who marohed aguait tbe mntijieers 
at Delhi. 

JUELUM. One of tlte rivers of the Paiunb, 
a tributary to the Chenab river, the ancient 
Behnt. It rises in the Ysllnr lake, in Kashmir, 
end after a short courie to the west receives 
the Ki^n-gangB river. The lidur rises in N. 
E. mountains of Kashmir, near Shethn Kag. 
It runs through the VQlley of Kashmir, and 
into tU Fnnjab by the Bsar^n^nla gorge ; then 
runs 8. to Chenab and the..cQnflaence is in lat. 
30' lO'Ipn. ?»« 9'D'laW*'*^^WWgi^*09 




nWta. Tbe Jhelatn reeeivM the LM«r, 50 • 
ViKhaao, 44 ; Sind. 73 ; Lolab. 44 ; Kiahen- 
gnn^, 14U; Kumbar, 100; Pir Paiij«l, 115 
miles and about 280,000 iq. m. are drained. It 
h navigable for 70 milea through KaBbmir, from 
the Indus to the town of Ohind. Tiie Vi«biiau 
liver ia oonaidered tlie Kaehmiri «a tire parent 
of tbe Jhelnm, it mea in Uko Koaa Nag or 
Shesha Nag faka, wldoh ia fed by tbe melting 
. sBoir and glader in a koltotr on an uidand 
Talley of the aoothera rangea. Tbe irrer run* 
ihroogb a narrow rooky glen, remarkible for 
piotaresqae grandeur. Tbe falls of Arabul are 
well worth a risit, as few looalities in the 
Oaahniere mountaina poaaeBS each attractive 
■eenerjr. A pathway leads from the Tillage 
of Utu to within a abort diatanoe of tbe oataraet. 
A large portion of the coarae of this river is 
through the forelga tenitory of Kaahmir, flow- 
ing out from tba valley tbrongb the Fir Panjal 
vulg^ at the Buamula pais; and first tonohing 
Britith terffitory at Pattao. Tbe anow on tbe 
Kif ban beighta netti in Uerdk, fend tba river 
acquires volume ia AprU : tbe foU ilood laate 
ilroa May till July. — Adam't Mo^l Oamm. 
5a». Bep- FowsU Eandhook Batm, Prod, 
^tmjab, p. 539; See Jekm ; Inaoriptima ; 
FhBjab ; Sikhs. 

JHELUM town it built on the banks of the 
river of that name. It i« supposed to be erected 
on tbe aite of the Buoephalta of Aleiander. The 
Jhelum vall^ praduees all sovte of ftnin exoept 
riee. The marts for exfyorl are Jheluaa and 
Pind Dadan Khan in tbe Jhelum diaUrict, and 
Khaoihab in Shahpore. Oil ia largely pro- 
dttoed in the Salt Bange from anrsoon, twa 
nera, and nlii. Soap ia nannfaoturad ham. the 
refuse. Blanketa from wool, and paekUig baga 
frtfm goata' hair an naoufaotared and sold at 
!l>ooi^lee. There is a thriving trade in borse» 
and mules. The first thing a eemiodar does 
with any small aum of money he has saved, is 
to buy a good mar^ from which he breeds ; 
and if any Birifle individual ia too poor to buy 
a whole mare bimaelff he and two or three 
otbera in the same eondition aa himself will 
elnb and purchaae an animal amongst them. 
The oolta or fitliee produced there are largely 
bought np by offiem of tbe cavalry service in 
aearoh of remounts ; high prices are frequently 
given for tbem, leaietfanee aa high aa Bs. 300 
and 860 for 8 year cdd oolta and fillies. Brass 
vessels and leather and pan^ment jm are 
largely made at Plod Dadun Khan. Jhelnm 
ton is in Lat SS^ 6S' ; 74* SV in the 
Bindh Sagor doab on tbe right bank of the 
Jhelum and tbe mean height of the atatien, is 
about 1,820 feet The dtatriot of Jbdnm, 
as at present ooinstituted, exteada from tbe 
Jhelum rivu oft the E. to the Atteek on 
ibe W. On the north it is bounded by tbe 
wioua kalnks tif Sttalpitufi as the pabUc 

eoantry, Potwar, Syud Knaran and Nurali the 
river^Suan and Pii^di Gleb ; on the aoutb its 
limit ia tbe Jhelum river as far aa Shak, 
whence it stretohes due west being bouadsd 
to the south by the distrioU of Knsbab, Mitta. 
Tuwuiah and Koahi. Is this extant of ISO 
miles, with a range of bills traversing the 
eenbre, it ia natural that the eharaoter of tiw 
ooiuitry aboutd vary much, tbe ravine eonntiy 
to the nortii, tba hilto of the emtra, 
and the fine fartite plaina to tbe aoutb, ire 
well marked distinctions.-*.Jonr. B«n. At. 
Xo. I of 1850. 644. ThomhUi ; SeAki$tiU' 
umi. OleffHttm Panjid &&porL 

JHBNDA. Hind. Banners. . 

JUIJAN. Hind, ^sohynomene oiina- 
bina ; also a coarse fibre fion Sesbaaia 

JHIL. UiHD. A swamp, a marsb, a natao 
ral lake. Tbe Jbila of lower Bengal in L. 84" 
L. 87" 50' E. ara about 60 feet above tbe 
sea. at high water. Bee Jhoal. 

JHINA or Jhiaga. Bsn». Lofia faatida, also 
Lnffa aeaisngula-*-£o«i* 

JHINGaOBA. HiMD. Bauhinia parviloia. 
JHIAAK of Uurriana. Hymna. 
JUOJHA. Hind. Tbe stomach. 
JEOJU^ an inferior <4aaa of mahoaiedaiu 
who pre scattered over different parta of 
the Doab and Bohilound and are reported 
to be good ouitivatora. In pergunnab Bwrua 
of Boolondabubur, they cepresent them- 
aelvea aa eoiiverted Bathora, C^ahau and 
Toar ; bat by otbera th^ are considered 
to be converted riaves of theae tribes. In like 
manner,-tbe Jhojaof Auoopababnr are said ta be 
alavea of the Mooghnl oonverted to mnhomedan- 
iam. Bang mdiomedans, they are not retf rain- 
ed by bindoo obeervaaoea of eertain iitstivali 
end tbtu, while Undooa are waiting for tht 
Dit'bwun before they cut tbsir sugar case, 
tbe Jhojhs hove already begun to press Uieit 
oane, and manafaotare their sugar. — ML Supp, 

JlSHIfOO. Bans. From jee» to conquer. 

JlT. Hind. Salvadora Indiea- 

JHOJRU. Hind- Tephroaia. purpurea. 

JHOLA.. Hind. A swiug, Jfaolphoraaa, 
aad Jhot>p*horana kay ghniray matrimonial 
oeremoniea of the mabomedana. See Guhwan. 

JHOLAWAK. SeeBrahui; Jbalairap. 

JHOOL. Hns. Horse doth. 

JHOOHKA-lUTA. Bknb. (Bttan-laifad 
passion flower. Fassiflora oitrifoiia. 

JHOONJURI— P Trifolium indicum. 

JHOONTiAH. Ubia? A tolerably eoes- 
mon tree of Gaiijam and Gamsur, its extEeme 
height ia 45 feet and oireumferaace 4^ feet and 
height from ground to the interaeetion of tba 
first branch, 16 feet Ithaa a hard, white 
wood, used obiefly for xaafciag hair-eaiaba aaA 
amaU boxefc--<^g«i^>ifiMi^ 



}HO0T*HA. HiKD. LearinfTs of foo<1, thnt 
wkieh kaa toudied food and i« thereby defiled. 

JHOT&. UiMD. Hordeam Vexaatiefaam, 

JHOW, fa) Beludiiatui, hut bat one Tillage, 
Handtru, ita tribea are the Mirvari and Halada, 
M» latter Brabui and paitoral. Numeroua 
nonuds here called " daim" exist, vbere coins 
and trinkets are found, retfinanta of some for- 
mer race. See Kelat. 

JHUQUN. Hind. Oum of Odina wodier. 

JHULA. HiHD. A auapenaion bridge. In 
the auopleat form, a jhuta baa a single- aet 
i^ropea, from which a wooden seat ia sntpend- 
ed, which is pulled from aide to side by means 
ofa rope, worked from the roeka on either aide 
of tlie rirer. The rndest of the twig Jhula are 
Bsnal oommnnicattona across the Havi, but 
|Dod wooden biiilges (aangia) are kept np-for the 
iriaofsheep at Oli, Ulaaa, and elaevhere,— 
CUfkm, PKtijab Bep. Dr,Thoiium'8 
Aweb in Wetiem Bimalaya and TibO. 

JHULA. HiND< Antennaria contorta. 
Hind. Snccbarum sara. 

JHUNG. The chief products of this dis- 
trict are cotton, wool, ghee, wheat and grain. 
The chief staptea in the Baanoo district are 
em^ aalfe^ alaoD, and iron.— C^Aom. 

mm JHUNBB - AU - KUBEE. also 
Jjoajbuiuan-kari. HiND. Bbno. Common retob, 
ftsia sattfa alto Grrum hirautam.— WiUds. 
■ iHUB-BEREE. From jbar, a bramble, and 
W,tbe naae «f a tree, which appears to be the 
MM as the Oder of Africa and Arabia, the 
Ki^hta oapcca of modem botaoiata, and tho 
ftumos ipina tibriiii of LioDieut, and pro- 
WUj idenlieBl witb the tree which yielded the 
hmm frvit oE the Iiotopha-gi. The Jhur- 
boree addom exeaeda t«o feet in height but 
theBeror Z. ^ajuba is a Urge tree which 
msetiaiea grow to the height of twenty 
and thirty feet. The Jhurberee is often called 
tke Pals ahrob, and is used for many aseful 
inrposea. During a year of famnie, (for it 
seeot to grow equally luxuriant in a drooght] 
the people to the west of the Jumna fed their 
cattle Md paid a iai^e proportion of their 
lanma Iran ita sale.— £H»o« Svfj^, Qlm, 

iBIHAN. HiHD. Seebanfa aculeeta, fonnerly 
AebynooKne eanoabtna.-- FlorJ-nditM^ 
UI. 339. Pmotl. Hand hoek, Vbl. I. p. 308. 

JI. UiMD. from Jiva, Siita. Life, pronoaneed 
is the tarioua tongues of India, Jie, Jib, and 
Jiv, means the rital principle, the -mind or 
hiMleetaal actfoo, and entm into maay COBQ- 
iwiife wards as an affix* Jivagar ia a bnddhist 
tea^r and ascetic. Jiva-hothi or Jeokothi, a 
Ikww for the reception of Uving enimala 
net) as at Bombay and sapported by the Jaim 
at Butat^J^'aiOa. See Jew. 

JItfOTA. Hnm. Pvtnuiva.— 

JIBBAH. See Xenpotuui. 

JIBBAL AKDTHUa. Bee Mnskat. 

JIBBAL JUDI, Brzmm, eomiptcd from 
Arsan-i'Hnm or Roman ArMo, waa tt^ev with 
pillage end haroe fay the Tartan in 1341. Even 
fh Tonmefort'a tima the Sraska commonly pro- 
nounced the name Erzufon. Thongh not the 
highest city even of the old woiM it stands at 
a heii{bt of some 7,000 feet above the see, and 
ia noted for the sevrrity of ita winters, inso- 
much that a late Italian traveller calte it the 
Siberia of the Ottoman Umpire. The usual 
mnhoraedao tradition places the grounding of 
the Ark not on Armenian Ararat, but on the 
Jibbal Jiidiin Kurdistan, whence Bei>}amio of 
Tudela saya (p. 93.) Omar Beo Khatab re- 
moved the Ark from the aammit and made a 
moaque of it. Sir H- Rawlineon oonaidera Jndi 
,to be much higher than Deipawead, and as 
Demawend is beliered to be folly 4,000 feet 
higher than Ararat, the claims of Judi to be 
the monntafn of the Ark are vny intdl%ible. 
—TvU Cathay, Vol. I. p. 467. 

JIBL MIA ALLT or QaoinHill, 886 feet 
high, is near Babel man deb. 

JIBBAL MU&A. The mount of Moaea^ 
ia the name given by the Arabs to ail that 
range of mountairia wbieh rises at the }nte« 
rior extremity of the valley of Faran ; and to 
that part of the range on which the Convent 
of St Catharine stands, they give the name of 
Tur Sine. This similaritf of name, owing, 
most probably, to tradition, affonle grvmnd 
for preaumption, that the bill on whieh ataads 
the convent of St. Catharine was the Sinai ^ 
the Jews, on which Meaes reoaived the law.— 
Kiebithr't Tmnla, Fol. /.p. 191, 9S. Htndt 

IV. p. 177. 

JIBBUEEL. The angel Gabriel. 

JIBILIKA CHUTTU. TlL. Grewia Bothn. 
W, and A. G. aitfrifoUa.— AojsA. also Uraria 
Isgopodioides, D. (7., the Doodia lag. B. its, 

JIDDA, the seaport of Blecca isbuUt aloi^ 
the shore in the form of a long paralldogram, 
extending almost due north and sontb. From 
the sea it haa a poor appearance ; only a few 
minarets rke above the hontek, wbiofa present 
a long line of mean bnildingt. Almost every 
variety of the. sons of ^em and Ham has sent 
its contingent to form the motley popnlatkm. 
A most unpleasing sight to the Bnglith eye 
are the crowd of poor Indians, who litter in 
the Mreets like dogs ; a dirty mat, a cooking- 
veaaet, a wate^}ar, and heaps of filthy rags 
form their honsi^d fttmitarb <; sometimea a 
low hovel not mnch lerger than a kmnd, is 
conetracted of a roatleanii^ on stiefcs against 
a wall, under wbidi the pukprielor raaeps at 
night, or daring the h^ of midd^. Tliestt 
Indians are pilgrims' who faaM returned hero 

oontiirae theii jouin^, £^ bn lUuiQlue of 




squalid idleness. Tbe number of houses, large 
and imsll, may bit about 4,000, and the 
population perhaps reaches 20,000. The 
revenue arising from the cuatomt is shared 
between lite Siiltau and Sheriff ; upoo which 
aocouut the iHwju. and the Vizier always attend 
tOKeiher, when goods are examined. The trade 
of Jidda is eoiiaiderable.— il^<«&M&-*« TramU, 
Fol. I. p. 334-5. UwmUm's Siidi, Htdjaz, 
Soudan, J). 67* 

JIDDOO-KA-DANG, the Joutiea of Ben- 
nell's map ; the Yadu hilla high up iu tbe 
Punjab, wtiere a colony of the Tadu race dwelt 
when expelled Saarashira. — Tod^a Rma^han, 
VU. I.p. 61. 

JIDDU USTE. Tel. Solanum diffusum, R. 
i. 518 from Jidda, visooud, uate a Solanum. 

JIDf CHKTl'U. TuL. Semecarpus ana-, 
eardium. — Linn, 

J[DI-GH1NJALU. Tel. Semeoarpui ana- 

JiOi MAMIDL Tbl. Aaaoardium oeci- 
dentate.— 'Xt'im. 

JIDKaR. Hind, of Salt Ruga, Flaoourtia 
•^iaria. See Dajkar. 

JIDOO-FALUNG. Bbno. Salieornia Iu- 

JIQATA. Tel. Gum. 

JIGATZI. See Indus. 

JIGDES. SeeJugdalilc. 

JIGUA. Fsaa. Ad aigreUe of jewela 
on the turbans of aobles of ludia. It is v<»k- 
«d on all the Kaslunic abairls> 

- JIGHOTKA. A bnnoh of tlu Ganoujea 
■Imfaains, wbuh ranki low in public estima- 
tion. Their more correct name ia Ysjur-hota 

derived originally, it is said, from their having 
made burnt offerings according to the forma 
of the YajurvedB.— £/2t0<. 8. &. 

JiGUKU-. ^EL. GluyUa patula.— Jeozft. 
J1UUN| alio AjDoo, names of the river 

JIJAN. HiNi>< Cassia obovata. 

JIKJIIC Hind. Kosb maerophylla. 

JILADU NARA. Tel. Caloiropis gi- 
gautea- — Brawn, Tbe Fibre. 

JILA-KABiBA. Tst. Gitminnm ojai- 
HUB.— Znm. - - 
JIJLAM. See Jet. 

JILD UL VAftAS or Kamar-itd-din. a 
oompositioa of apricot paste, dried, spread out, 
and folded into sheets, exactly resembling the 
article after which it is named. Turks and 
Arabs use it when travelling ; they dissolve it 
in water, and eat it as a relish with bread or 
biscuit. — Burton's FUgrimage to Meecah, Fol, 
I. p. 389. 

JfLI. See India ; Singhpo. 

JILLAKA. Sams. Ajaanuttii TriBtis.— 

JILLBDU. Tel. Calotropis gigantea. 
Brown. C. procera, — B. £roufi$, the C. 
Hamiltonii. — fFtg/ii, 

JILLEDU NABA. Tel. Fibre of Calotro- 
pis iiigantea. 

JILUKA. Saks. See MauUke bigi. 

JILO DAK- The ordinary ranleteers of 
Persia are great liars and annoy in every pos- 
sible way. The Jilodar, or chief multteer, ha 
who has or btdds the bridle, is a very difierait 
charaeter.— j'errur*' Jouru, p. 47. 

jaaU OHKITIT. Tel. Calotzopb gi-